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The Transatlantic Gmo Dispute Against The European Communities: Some Preliminary Thoughts, David A. Wirth 2011 Boston College Law School

The Transatlantic Gmo Dispute Against The European Communities: Some Preliminary Thoughts, David A. Wirth

David A. Wirth

Any day now, a World Trade Organization panel is expected to rule in a dispute between the U.S. and the EU concerning market access for genetically-engineered foods and crops. This piece, written before the release of the WTO panel's report, analyzes novel systemic issues concerning the impact of WTO law on regulatory design, at both the national and international levels, that are raised by this dispute. These include (1) the application of WTO disciplines to regulatory schemes that require prior governmental approval to protect the environment and public health from newly-introduced products and substances; (2) the role of ...


Restitution For Wrongs And The Restatement (Third) Of The Law Of Restitution, James S. Rogers 2011 Boston College Law School

Restitution For Wrongs And The Restatement (Third) Of The Law Of Restitution, James S. Rogers

James S. Rogers

The law of restitution has been the forgotten step-child of American private law for many decades. The American Law Institute’s current project to produce a new restatement of the law of restitution holds the promise of bringing the subject to the foreground and removing some of the confusion that many lawyers and judges feel in approaching the topic. One of the important issues that must be addressed in any comprehensive treatment of the law of restitution is how to treat those areas where the possibility of recovery based on the unjust enrichment principle overlaps with recovery based on the ...


Unanswered Questions Of A Minority People In International Law: A Comparative Study Between Southern Cameroons & South Sudan, Bernard Sama Mr 2011 Auckland University

Unanswered Questions Of A Minority People In International Law: A Comparative Study Between Southern Cameroons & South Sudan, Bernard Sama Mr

Bernard Sama

The month July of 2011 marked the birth of another nation in the World. The distressful journey of a minority people under the watchful eyes of the international community finally paid off with a new nation called the South Sudan . As I watched the South Sudanese celebrate independence on 9 July 2011, I was filled with joy as though they have finally landed. On a promising note, I read the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon saying “[t]ogether, we welcome the Republic of South Sudan to the community of nations. Together, we affirm our commitment to helping it meet its ...


Food Justice As Interracial Justice: Urban Farmers, Community Organizations And The Role Of Government In Oakland, California, Christopher J. Curran, Marc-Tizoc González 2011 University of Miami Law School

Food Justice As Interracial Justice: Urban Farmers, Community Organizations And The Role Of Government In Oakland, California, Christopher J. Curran, Marc-Tizoc González

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

No abstract provided.


Pliva V. Mensing And Its Implications, Brian Wolfman, Dena Feldman 2011 Georgetown University Law Center

Pliva V. Mensing And Its Implications, Brian Wolfman, Dena Feldman

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The U.S. Supreme Court ruling in PLIVA Inc. v. Mensing will immunize generic drug manufacturers facing failure-to-warn claims from state-law liability, and may also have implications for preemption jurisprudence more generally, says attorney Brian Wolfman and co-author Dena Feldman in this BNA Insight. The authors analyze the ruling, and offer their views on the questions that PLIVA raises about the ongoing vitality of the presumption against preemption, the standard for determining ‘‘impossibility’’ preemption, and the propriety of deference to an agency’s views on preemption.


Are Food Subsidies Making Our Kids Fat? Tensions Between The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act And The Farm Bill, Melissa D. Mortazavi 2011 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Are Food Subsidies Making Our Kids Fat? Tensions Between The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act And The Farm Bill, Melissa D. Mortazavi

Washington and Lee Law Review

On December 15, 2010, President Obama signed the Healthy Hunger- Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA)1 into law. It was hailed as a bipartisan success and a significant reform of childhood nutrition policy. Indeed, on its surface the law appears to make a significant shift away from the food paradigm of the past. However, upon closer examination, it fails to unwind the tangled connections between domestic eating habits and longstanding farm subsidies. This Article breaks new ground in several ways: First, it is one of the first essays in the emerging and underexplored field of food law, a crosssection ...


Off-Label Promotion Reform: A Legislative Proposal Addressing Vulnerable Patient Drug Access And Limiting Inappropriate Pharmaceutical Marketing, Tim Mackey, Bryan A. Liang 2011 Institute of Health Law Studies, California Western School of Law

Off-Label Promotion Reform: A Legislative Proposal Addressing Vulnerable Patient Drug Access And Limiting Inappropriate Pharmaceutical Marketing, Tim Mackey, Bryan A. Liang

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Off-label promotion occurs when pharmaceutical manufacturers engage in promotion of unapproved or "off-label" uses of their drugs. These off label uses may lack adequate clinical data to substantiate marketing claims, have led to corporate investigations and penalties, and can endanger public health. However there is adequate evidence to suggest that off-label uses are entirely appropriate for some vulnerable patient populations, and that physicians have accepted such uses as standard. Historically, U.S. law has prohibited direct off-label promotion to physicians and patients. However, failed government guidance, industry-based litigation, and the diminished capacity of regulators to police illegal practices have had ...


Assessment Of Organic And Inorganic Phosphorus In Soils Derived From Cretaceous Sediments And Basement Complex Soils Of Guinea Savannah Of Kogi State, North Central Nigeria, Sunday I. Amhakhian, H H. Isitekhale, Charles I. Oyewole 2011 Kogi State University

Assessment Of Organic And Inorganic Phosphorus In Soils Derived From Cretaceous Sediments And Basement Complex Soils Of Guinea Savannah Of Kogi State, North Central Nigeria, Sunday I. Amhakhian, H H. Isitekhale, Charles I. Oyewole

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

A pot experiment was carried out using 20 surface soils (0-15cm depth) in 2008 to assess soil organic phosphorus and some fraction of inorganic phosphorus in other to know their availability in the soils of the studied area and also work have not been done in this areas in respect to organic and in-organic phosphorus. The experiment was conducted using 20 soils 10 from each geological formation (Cretaceous sediments and Basement complex soils), respectively. The mean organic phosphorus of 63.51 mgkg 1 soil was obtained for Cretaceous sediment soils and 158.54 mgkg 1 soil for the basement complex ...


Development Of Functional Indices Of Facility Occurrence Towards The Distribution Of Social Services In Lagos Island Nigeria., Augustus O. Atubi 2011 SelectedWorks

Development Of Functional Indices Of Facility Occurrence Towards The Distribution Of Social Services In Lagos Island Nigeria., Augustus O. Atubi

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

Proper coordination of transport and public facilities provision is vital to any balanced regional development strategy. The central aim of this study, therefore, is to find out what the relationship is between access to the transport network and the provision of functional indices of facility occurrence towards the distribution of social services in Lagos Island, Nigeria. In particular it seeks to find out areas that have below or above average level of facility occurrences relative to the level of accessibility. However, a pair wise correlation matrix of the eleven (11) variables employed in the index construction was carried out. The ...


Urban Climate And Challenges Of Tropical Cities, B E. Omogbai 2011 SelectedWorks

Urban Climate And Challenges Of Tropical Cities, B E. Omogbai

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

This study examines the nature of urban climate, features and the challenges on the developing tropical cities in the 21st century. It argues that the use of principles of urban climate would help in providing comfortable living conditions and problem immune working environments for the inhabitants of tropical cities. The findings reveal that owing to poor environmental planning, inadequate geotechnical landscape surveys prior to the development of urban infrastructures, and non-adherence to the principles of urban climate, challenges of landscape degradation, excessive flooding of the built infrastructures, heat-island effects, and collapse of buildings have emerged. Suggested measures to avert these ...


Drugs In Sport: A Study Of The Origins, Rights And Outcomes, Annette Greenhow 2011 Bond University

Drugs In Sport: A Study Of The Origins, Rights And Outcomes, Annette Greenhow

Annette Greenhow

Extract: This paper will examine the origins of the use of drugs in sport, dating back to ancient times through to modern evidence in the broader context of recreational and performance enhancing drug use. It will also consider the rights of the athlete involved in an anti-doping offence and examine whether the protection of the legitimate interests of the sport is still sufficient to justify the imposition of the strict liability principles applicable today. One perspective that requires further examination is whether the ‘one rule fits all’ approach to the application of the sanctions under the WADA Code is reasonable ...


Detecting Changes In Landuse/Cover Of Umuahia, South-Eastern Nigeria Using Remote Sensing And Gis Techniques, Fanan Ujoh, Olarewaju Oluseyi Ifatimehin, Adams Ndalai Baba 2011 University of Abuja, Nigeria

Detecting Changes In Landuse/Cover Of Umuahia, South-Eastern Nigeria Using Remote Sensing And Gis Techniques, Fanan Ujoh, Olarewaju Oluseyi Ifatimehin, Adams Ndalai Baba

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

Since 1991 when it became the capital city of Abia State, Umuahia has undergone tremendous transformation in its land use and land cover due to rapid urbanization. The main materials employed for this study are a land use map (1991) and Landsat ETM+satellite image (2007) of the study area. These, combined with field survey/checks, were brought into a GIS environment using ILWIS 3.2 Academic image classification software to map the land use/land cover and to estimate the rate of urban expansion and loss of rural land at the peri-urban fringes of Umuahia between 1991 and 2007 ...


International Drug Trafficking: A Global Problem With A Domestic Solution, Matthew S. Jenner 2011 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

International Drug Trafficking: A Global Problem With A Domestic Solution, Matthew S. Jenner

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

Forty years ago, the world declared war on drugs. Today, after decades of failing to adequately control drug consumption, an even graver problem has emerged: violent drug traffickers have taken the industry hostage and will stop at nothing to preserve their power. Governments have instituted dozens of programs to dismantle the illicit drug industry, but they have seen only marginal success. One strategy, however, has yet to be fully tested: universal legalization. Universal legalization of all drugs would attack the illicit drug market head-on, destroying the profit incentive for drug traffickers and placing control of the industry in the hands ...


Food And Drug Administration Regulation Of Food Safety, Lawrence O. Gostin, Katie F. Stewart 2011 Georgetown University Law Center

Food And Drug Administration Regulation Of Food Safety, Lawrence O. Gostin, Katie F. Stewart

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Food-borne illness remains a major public health challenge in the United States, causing an estimated 48 million illness episodes and 3000 deaths annually. The FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), enacted in 2011, gives the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) new tools to regulate food safety. The act emphasizes prevention, enhanced recall authority, and oversight of imported food.

The FSMA brings the FDA’s food safety regulation in line with core tenets of public health by focusing on preventing outbreaks, rather than reacting to them, and differentiating between foods and food producers based on the degree of risk they pose ...


Gender Participation In The Management Of Tricycle Transport For Youth Empowerment And Sustainable Development In Kano State, Nigeria, Nuratu Muhammed 2011 SelectedWorks

Gender Participation In The Management Of Tricycle Transport For Youth Empowerment And Sustainable Development In Kano State, Nigeria, Nuratu Muhammed

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

The research examined gender participation in the management of tricycle for youth empowerment and sustainable development in Kano state, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select samples of drivers(150), passengers (150) and owners/managers the female tricycle owners fell under this category and they numbered(65).All together a total of 365 samples were selected for the study. Data obtained from the primary data was analyzed using simple statistical techniques and chi square test to ascertain whether there was any significant differences in some of the variables tested. The results of the analysis revealed that the main ...


Drinking Motives Of College Students At A Hbcu In Oklahoma, Yasmeen Shumate 2011 Langston University

Drinking Motives Of College Students At A Hbcu In Oklahoma, Yasmeen Shumate

McCabe Thesis Collection

The use of alcohol can be found throughout colleges across the nation (O'Malley and Johnston, 2002). Whether the college is a 2 year institution or a 4 year institution, private of public, there have been multiple studies conducted over alcohol use in various settings. College students consistently report higher levels of alcohol use than their non-college counterparts (O'Malley and Johnston, 2002). In addition, specific demographic characteristics, such as gender, ethnicity, and age, have been studied in relation to college drinking. It's been proven that college men are found to drink more than college females (Humara and Sherman ...


Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Testing To Protect Future Generations, Alana Van der Mude 2011 Boston College Law School

Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Testing To Protect Future Generations, Alana Van Der Mude

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a class of chemicals that interferes with human hormone processes. EDCs are omnipresent: pesticides, plastics, and drugs, among other common chemicals, all demonstrate endocrine-disrupting properties. Scientific studies have demonstrated the frightening effect EDCs have on human health, for adults but also particularly for fetuses while they develop in utero. Given these health concerns, Congress passed the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996, which requires the EPA to test pesticides for their endocrine-disrupting properties. Unfortunately this testing, fifteen years later, has still not begun. Additionally, pesticides are only one subcategory of EDCs. Therefore this Note argues that ...


Transplant Candidates And Substance Use: Adopting Rational Health Policy For Resource Allocation, Erin Minelli, Bryan A. Liang 2011 California Western School of Law

Transplant Candidates And Substance Use: Adopting Rational Health Policy For Resource Allocation, Erin Minelli, Bryan A. Liang

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Organ transplant candidates are often denied life saving organs on account of their medical marijuana drug use. Individuals who smoke medicinal marijuana are typically classified as substance abusers, and ultimately deemed ineligible for transplantation, despite their receipt of the drug under a physician's supervision and prescription. However, patients who smoke cigarettes or engage in excessive alcohol consumption are routinely considered for placement on the national organ transplant waiting list. Transplant facilities have the freedom to regulate patient selection criteria with minimal oversight. As a result, the current organ allocation system in the United States is rife with inconsistencies and ...


The Analyses Of State And Federal Medical Marijuana Laws And How They Apply To Employment, Lizaveta Sergeev 2011 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Analyses Of State And Federal Medical Marijuana Laws And How They Apply To Employment, Lizaveta Sergeev

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study is to analyze and discuss the current discrepancies in the legal system as it applies to medical marijuana in the employment sector. The laws regarding the legalization of medical marijuana are relatively new and have many constraints when applied to employment. On the federal level, medical marijuana remains illegal. Many states have passed some form of legislation legalizing medical marijuana. Unfortunately, only two states have laws that protect users from being discriminated in employment. This leaves employers and employees uncertain about what actions to take when dealing with medical marijuana in the employment sector.


Breaking Patents, Daniel R. Cahoy 2011 Pennsylvania State University

Breaking Patents, Daniel R. Cahoy

Michigan Journal of International Law

In the 1970s and 1980s, the Boeing aircraft company worked to address the rising cost of jet fuel by inventing lighter metal alloys for use in aerospace materials. Among its discoveries was a method of producing aluminum-lithium alloys with high "fracture toughness," and in 1989, Boeing received a patent for the process. Five years later, another aerospace company working as a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contractor, Lockheed Martin, was attempting to solve a similar problem related to materials used in the space shuttle. Lighter materials were necessary for future shuttle missions to transport components of the International Space ...


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