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Full-Text Articles in Food and Drug Law

"Show-Me" No Rice Pharming: An Overview Of The Introduction Of And Opposition To Genetically Engineered Pharmaceutical Crops In The United States, Jillian S. Hishaw Jan 2023

"Show-Me" No Rice Pharming: An Overview Of The Introduction Of And Opposition To Genetically Engineered Pharmaceutical Crops In The United States, Jillian S. Hishaw

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Farmers in California and Missouri have one thing in common- opposition to the production of genetically modified (GM) "pharma" crops.' A pharmaceutical crop, or "pharma" crop, is a plant that has been genetically altered so that it produces proteins which are used as drugs. Pharmaceutical companies can then harvest the crop and isolate the proteins, which may be used to make human or veterinary drugs. Farmers' fears include a variety of health and environmental hazards; in particular, they fear contamination of their regular crops and the associated market loss. These concerns surfaced in both states where Ventria Bioscience announced plans …


European Union Food Law Update, Nicole Coutrelis Jan 2023

European Union Food Law Update, Nicole Coutrelis

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Update on new developments in European food law.


United States Food Law Update, Michael Tingey Roberts Jan 2023

United States Food Law Update, Michael Tingey Roberts

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Update on new developments in United States food law.


Caveat Venditor: Products Liability And Genetically Modified Foods, Kristopher A. Isham Jan 2023

Caveat Venditor: Products Liability And Genetically Modified Foods, Kristopher A. Isham

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have become a lightning rod for conflict between farmers, corporations, shareholders, government agencies, and other concerned groups. Supporters tout GMOs as a solution to the problems of diminishing returns from traditional crop plants and the rising demand for greater quantities of food. Opponents critcize GMOs for potential toxic and allergic reactions in humans, loss of biodiversity, and pesticide and antibiotic resistance in other plants and insects. As the understanding of potential applications of biotechnology broadens, the risks and benefits of such products are being scrutinized more closely.


Protecting Islam's Garden From The Wilderness: Halal Fraud Statutes And The First Amendment, Elijah L. Milne Jan 2023

Protecting Islam's Garden From The Wilderness: Halal Fraud Statutes And The First Amendment, Elijah L. Milne

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Like all religions, Islam needs protection from governmental encroachment. As early as 1644, Roger Williams, the founder of Rhode Island, recognized that state involvement in religious matters defiles religion. "When they have opened a gap in the hedge or wall of separation between the garden of [religion] and the wilderness of the world," wrote Williams, "God hath ever broke down the wall itself, removed the candlestick, and made His garden a wilderness ... ." Although Williams was mostly concerned about the government's impact on Christianity, his oft-quoted metaphor applies equally to the government's influence on Islam. This Article will discuss …


Chew On This: Learning From Colorado's Edible Marijuana Market, Christina Cole Jan 2023

Chew On This: Learning From Colorado's Edible Marijuana Market, Christina Cole

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Arguably, not since the repeal of Prohibition has there been a scenario in which a change in public opinion resulted in the legalization of a previously unlawful product, in this instance majijuana, resulting in a significant positive economic impact, as well as a financial windfall for governmental entities. On the surface, it may seem like a win-win situation, but, in reality, for an unsuspecting, uninformed consumer, like the nineteen-year-old student from Wyoming and the New York Times columnist, it could become a no-win situation.


Man's Best Friend? Fda Adopts New Rule In Wake Of Pet Deaths, But Will It Have A Significant Impact On The Pet Food Industry?, Amanda Paige Marcum Jan 2023

Man's Best Friend? Fda Adopts New Rule In Wake Of Pet Deaths, But Will It Have A Significant Impact On The Pet Food Industry?, Amanda Paige Marcum

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Eight years after the largest pet food recall in U.S. history,' pet owners are still grappling with mysterious pet illnesses and deaths associated with commercial pet food. This comment discusses a number of issues related to the Food Safety Modernization Act ("FSMA") . First, it looks at a brief history of pet food industry regulation. Second, it examines the mystery of pet deaths related to jerky treats made in China. Third, it discusses recent developments in the law in response to those pet deaths. Fourth, it considers the implications of the rule and how it will affect the standards applicable …


Sickeningly Sweet: Analysis And Solutions For The Adverse Dietary Consequences Of European Agricultural Law, Emile K. Aguirre Jan 2023

Sickeningly Sweet: Analysis And Solutions For The Adverse Dietary Consequences Of European Agricultural Law, Emile K. Aguirre

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Sixty-nine percent of adults in the United States, sixty-four percent in the United Kingdom, and over one-third worldwide are overweight or obese. These staggering figures continue to grow, with accompanying emotional, physical, and economic consequences, both for individuals and society as a whole. The role law plays in facilitating this global trend is significant, and yet puzzlingly, little recognized or understood The current food system is profoundly structurally flawed: it establishes unhealthy dietary behaviors as the default option for consumers. This Article is the first to examine how agricultural law has facilitated these unhealthier diets for the past fifty years, …


Re-Examining The Landscape Of Employee Drug-Testing In Missouri Post-Amendment 3, Paige Hume Jan 2023

Re-Examining The Landscape Of Employee Drug-Testing In Missouri Post-Amendment 3, Paige Hume

SLU Law Journal Online

In November 2022, Missouri residents voted to ratify Amendment 3 to the state constitution and make the recreational use of marijuana legal. Yet, Missouri is one of only a few states that does not have protections for private employment drug testing. In this article, Paige Hume discusses the landscape of employment drug testing in Missouri, as well as the impact of the new amendment on workers.


Trust The Science But Do Your Research: A Comment On The Unfortunate Revival Of The Progressive Case For The Administrative State, Mark Tushnet Jan 2023

Trust The Science But Do Your Research: A Comment On The Unfortunate Revival Of The Progressive Case For The Administrative State, Mark Tushnet

Indiana Law Journal

This Article offers a critique of one Progressive argument for the administrative state, that it would base policies on what disinterested scientific inquiries showed would best advance the public good and flexibly respond to rapidly changing technological, economic, and social conditions. The critique draws on recent scholarship in the field of Science and Technology Studies, which argues that what counts as a scientific fact is the product of complex social, political, and other processes. The critique is deployed in an analysis of the responses of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Food and Drug Administration to some important aspects …


Trading Pain For Gain: Addressing Misaligned Interests In Prescription Drug Benefit Administration, Sheva J. Sanders, Jessica C. Wheeler Dec 2022

Trading Pain For Gain: Addressing Misaligned Interests In Prescription Drug Benefit Administration, Sheva J. Sanders, Jessica C. Wheeler

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Over the last two decades, Pharmacy Benefit Managers (PBMs), organizations that act as middlemen between health plans and drug manufacturers, have become increasingly powerful players in the healthcare industry. PBMs promise to leverage their expertise and ability to aggregate buying power to negotiate lower drug prices and administer prescription drug benefit plans. In practice, however, PBMs are widely criticized for benefitting from, and contributing to, inefficiencies in the prescription drug market, particularly by imposing restrictions on beneficiary access to drugs in exchange for rebates paid to PBMs by manufacturers. To the extent that the rebates are retained by PBMs, or …


The Helicopter State: Misuse Of Parens Patriae Unconstitutionally Precludes Individual And Class Claims, Gabrielle J. Hanna Dec 2022

The Helicopter State: Misuse Of Parens Patriae Unconstitutionally Precludes Individual And Class Claims, Gabrielle J. Hanna

Washington Law Review

The doctrine of parens patriae allows state attorneys general to represent state citizens in aggregate litigation suits that are, in many ways, similar to class actions and mass-tort actions. Its origins, however, reflect a more modest scope. Parens patriae began as a doctrine allowing the British king to protect those without the ability to protect themselves, including wards and mentally disabled individuals. The rapid expansion of parens patriae standing in the United States may be partly to blame for the relative absence of limiting requirements or even well-developed case law governing parens patriae suits. On the one hand, class actions …


Examining Comity And The Exhaustion Doctrine In Tribal Court Civil Jurisdiction: The Cherokee Nation’S Opioid Litigation, Joëlle Klein Dec 2022

Examining Comity And The Exhaustion Doctrine In Tribal Court Civil Jurisdiction: The Cherokee Nation’S Opioid Litigation, Joëlle Klein

Washington Law Review

The opioid epidemic has devastated communities throughout the United States over the last two decades. Native American and Alaska Native tribes faced disproportionate impacts and suffered the long-lasting consequences that opioid addiction causes families and communities. In response, states and municipalities across the United States sued the distributors and pharmacies responsible for illegally diverting opioids. In April of 2017, the Attorney General for the Cherokee Nation, Todd Hembree, initiated a civil suit against opioid pharmaceutical distributors and retailers: CVS, Walgreens, Wal-Mart (pharmacies), and McKesson, Cardinal Health, and AmerisourceBergen (distributors). Although other tribes in the United States also brought claims against …


Cannabis Law, Lisa Moran Mcmurdo, Steven D. Forbes, Stewart R. Pollock, Christian F. Tucker Nov 2022

Cannabis Law, Lisa Moran Mcmurdo, Steven D. Forbes, Stewart R. Pollock, Christian F. Tucker

University of Richmond Law Review

On July 1, 2021, Virginia became the sixteenth state to permit recreational use of cannabis. As of 2022, thirty-nine states have legalized the medical use of cannabis, and nineteen states and the District of Columbia have legalized the adult use of cannabis for recreational purposes. “A CBS News/YouGov poll released in April 2022 found that two-thirds of Americans want recreational [cannabis] use to be legalized under federal law and in their own state.” This Article summarizes the history of cannabis regulation and examines the current legal landscape in Virginia governing the possession, cultivation, manufacturing, and sale of cannabis.


High Time For Change: The Legalization Of Marijuana And Its Impact On Warrantless Roadside Motor Vehicle Searches, Molly E. O'Connell Oct 2022

High Time For Change: The Legalization Of Marijuana And Its Impact On Warrantless Roadside Motor Vehicle Searches, Molly E. O'Connell

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

The proliferation of marijuana legalization has changed the relationship between driving and marijuana use. While impaired driving remains illegal, marijuana use that does not result in impairment is not a bar to operating a motor vehicle. Scientists have yet to find a reliable way for law enforcement officers to make this distinction. In the marijuana impairment context, there is not a scientifically proven equivalent to the Blood Alcohol Content standard nor are there reliable roadside assessments. This scientific and technological void has problematic consequences for marijuana users that get behind the wheel and find themselves suspected of impaired driving. Without …


The Arkansas Ll.M. Program: Forty Years Of Leadership, Susan A. Schneider Sep 2022

The Arkansas Ll.M. Program: Forty Years Of Leadership, Susan A. Schneider

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The University of Arkansas School of Law has been a leader in agricultural law education for over forty years through its innovative LL.M. Program in Agricultural and Food Law. This essay memorializes the history of this signature Program and charts its progress through the decades as agricultural law issues evolved and the discipline expanded.


Novel Food Ingredients: Food Safety Law, Animal Testing, And Consumer Perspectives, Taimie Bryant Sep 2022

Novel Food Ingredients: Food Safety Law, Animal Testing, And Consumer Perspectives, Taimie Bryant

Marquette Law Review

In recent years, some major food companies have publicly stated that they will no longer test their product ingredients on animals. Yet despite the availability of more reliably predictive non-animal toxicity tests, some companies continue testing novel food ingredients on animals. This Article uses the lens of a particular innovative plant-based food company’s decision to test a novel food ingredient on animals as a means of considering more generally whether any food producer has rational legal reasons for testing on animals. The Article explores FDA requirements, consumer food safety litigation, and judicial evaluation of animal test data, all of which …


"Serving Time And It's No Longer A Crime: An Analysis Of The Proposed Cannabis Administration And Opportunity Act, Its Potential Effects At The Federal And State Level, And A Guide For Practical Application By Local Government", R. Allyce Bailey Jul 2022

"Serving Time And It's No Longer A Crime: An Analysis Of The Proposed Cannabis Administration And Opportunity Act, Its Potential Effects At The Federal And State Level, And A Guide For Practical Application By Local Government", R. Allyce Bailey

University of the District of Columbia Law Review

There has been much recent discussion surrounding cannabis use with some researchers supporting the use of medical marijuana, some investors relishing in the recently booming cannabis and CBD industry, and some states decriminalizing marijuana and even harsh controlled substances. As it appears, at least some public opinion is changing regarding marijuana, but the law has not effectively caught up to that change. Bias in the criminal justice system has led to the over-policing of, higher conviction rates, and harsher sentences for minorities. Thus, the decriminalization of marijuana alone does not remedy the grave disproportionate negative effects on populations of color …


Race And Regulation Podcast Episode 6 - Race, Social Inequalities, And Clinical Drug Trials, Jill A. Fisher Jul 2022

Race And Regulation Podcast Episode 6 - Race, Social Inequalities, And Clinical Drug Trials, Jill A. Fisher

Penn Program on Regulation Podcasts

As mandated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, clinical trials for new pharmaceuticals enroll healthy people as paid research participants to test for drug safety and tolerability. But the social injustices from these trials are too often overlooked. Drawing on her award-winning book, Adverse Events, Jill Fisher of UNC-Chapel Hill’s Center for Bioethics explains how clinical drug trials attract disproportionate participation by racial and ethnic minorities who then disproportionately assume risks of participating in these trials, often just to stay financially afloat.


Using Insurance To Regulate Food Safety: Field Notes From The Food Produce Sector, Timothy D. Lytton Jul 2022

Using Insurance To Regulate Food Safety: Field Notes From The Food Produce Sector, Timothy D. Lytton

New Mexico Law Review

Foodborne illness is a public health problem of pandemic proportions. In the United States alone, contaminated food sickens an estimated 48 million consumers annually, causing 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Nowhere is this crisis more acute than in the fresh produce sector, where microbial contamination in growing fields and packing houses has been responsible for many of the nation’s largest and deadliest outbreaks.

This Article examines emerging efforts by private insurance companies to regulate food safety on farms that grow fresh produce.

Previous studies of using insurance to regulate food safety rely on economic theories that yield competing conclusions. Optimists …


A Helper For Patenting The “Unpredictable”: Artificial Intelligence, Shuang Liu Jun 2022

A Helper For Patenting The “Unpredictable”: Artificial Intelligence, Shuang Liu

Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology

No abstract provided.


The President’S Remedy–What The Hydroxychloroquine Story Teaches Us About The Need To Limit Off-Lable Prescribing Powers, Jennifer Bard Jun 2022

The President’S Remedy–What The Hydroxychloroquine Story Teaches Us About The Need To Limit Off-Lable Prescribing Powers, Jennifer Bard

Catholic University Law Review

When the history of the first year of the United States Government’s response to the COVID-19 virus is written, there is likely to be mention of the still unexplained vehemence with which then president Donald J. Trump made use of his access to social media to promote seldom used anti-malaria drug, hydroxychloroquine, for both the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 despite the active growing opposition of most of the world’s scientists, including his own government scientists. While the use of drugs developed and approved by the FDA for different purposes to combat new diseases, off-label prescribing, is legal in the …


Legalization Without Disruption: Why Congress Should Let States Restrict Interstate Commerce In Marijuana, Scott Bloomberg, Robert A. Mikos Jun 2022

Legalization Without Disruption: Why Congress Should Let States Restrict Interstate Commerce In Marijuana, Scott Bloomberg, Robert A. Mikos

Pepperdine Law Review

Over the past twenty-five years, states have developed elaborate regulatory systems to govern lawful marijuana markets. In designing these systems, states have assumed that the Dormant Commerce Clause (“DCC”) does not apply; Congress, after all, has banned all commerce in marijuana. However, the states’ reprieve from the doctrine may soon come to an end. Congress is on the verge of legalizing marijuana federally, and once it does, it will unleash the DCC, with dire consequences for the states and the markets they now regulate. This Article serves as a wake-up call. It provides the most extensive analysis to date of …


Making Your Robotic Surgery Systems General Purpose: A Possible Preventive Measure For Induced And Contributory Infringement Liability Arising In Medical Procedures, Mengmeng Du May 2022

Making Your Robotic Surgery Systems General Purpose: A Possible Preventive Measure For Induced And Contributory Infringement Liability Arising In Medical Procedures, Mengmeng Du

Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology

No abstract provided.


Biotechnology Patent Law Top Ten Of 2020: Valeant Victorious, Falling Eagle, And Successful Slayback, Kevin E. Noonan, Andrew W. Torrance May 2022

Biotechnology Patent Law Top Ten Of 2020: Valeant Victorious, Falling Eagle, And Successful Slayback, Kevin E. Noonan, Andrew W. Torrance

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

This Article discusses the Top 10 BioTechnology Patent Cases of 2020. Suffice it to say that biotechnology patent law will continue to vigorously evolve, and we plan to continue our coverage of its evolution beyond the current trilogy of Biotechnology Patent Law Top Tens. As in previous years, we admit it was difficult to choose precisely ten top biotechnology patent law decisions. There are certainly others we did not include that warrant close attention for their reasonings, rules, and future implications. Nevertheless, both we and our readers can count, so we have done our best to select what we consider …


Beefing Up Skinny Labels: Induced Infringement As A Question Of Law, Garrett T. Potter May 2022

Beefing Up Skinny Labels: Induced Infringement As A Question Of Law, Garrett T. Potter

Notre Dame Law Review

This Note proposes a novel argument for improving the application of induced infringement by splitting its elements into separate questions of fact and law, incorporating the relevant perception and reasoning of both judge and jury. Part I provides a primer of the Hatch-Waxman Act and interactions (and lack thereof) between the USPTO and FDA in regulating pharmaceutical compositions. Part II assesses the historical landscape that led to the codification of induced infringement. Part III concludes by proposing an alternate approach by treating an element of induced infringement as a question of law, rather than a question of fact, and sets …


Patent Prophylaxis: Expanding Access To Prep Through 28 U.S.C. § 1498, Jonathan A. Bell May 2022

Patent Prophylaxis: Expanding Access To Prep Through 28 U.S.C. § 1498, Jonathan A. Bell

William & Mary Law Review

Part I of this Note details the discovery of Truvada for PrEP [pre-exposure prophylaxis] and the ongoing patent infringement litigation brought by HHS [United States Department of Health and Human Services], discusses the patents currently held by CDC and Gilead, and examines the shortcomings of infringement litigation as a means to expand access to the drug. Part II analyzes the mechanism of march-in rights under the Bayh-Dole Act and discusses two previously attempted applications for the HIV-management drug ritonavir to demonstrate why march-in rights will always fail to expand access to life-saving medications or reduce costs to consumers. Part III …


China's Food Pagodas: Looking Forward By Looking Back?, Yifei Li, Dale Jamieson Apr 2022

China's Food Pagodas: Looking Forward By Looking Back?, Yifei Li, Dale Jamieson

Journal of Food Law & Policy

In this Article we provide a close analysis of the Chinese Dietary Guidelines – the Food Pagoda. Our focus on the dietary guidelines is motivated by two main considerations. First, the guidelines represent the most comprehensive, nationwide, state sponsored effort to educate the people of China about food. Like citizens in most countries, Chinese people are presented with numerous, often competing, messages from scientists, food gurus and online influencers. The dietary guidelines are different in that they are backed by an entire suite of governmental resources for nationwide dissemination through hospitals, schools, public billboards, TV and radio ads, among others. …


I Want You To Panic: Leveraging The Rhetoric Of Fear And Rage For The Future Of Food, Iselin Gambert Apr 2022

I Want You To Panic: Leveraging The Rhetoric Of Fear And Rage For The Future Of Food, Iselin Gambert

Journal of Food Law & Policy

"Humanity Is About to Kill 1 Million Species in a Globe-Spanning Murder-Suicide. Only 11 Years Left to Prevent Irreversible Damage from Climate Change." Doomsday headlines like these are terrifying. But are they enough to make us act? The causes of the current climate crisis are many, but the science is clear that the meat and dairy industry shoulders much of the blame. Given the role the animal agriculture industry plays in perpetuating the climate crisis, combined with the harms the industry imposes on the animals and workers within it, politicians and governments—given their degree of power and influence—should ostensibly be …


The Right To Food Comes To America, Wendy Heipt Apr 2022

The Right To Food Comes To America, Wendy Heipt

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The people of Maine recently exercised an opportunity no citizen of this country has ever had before: the ability to vote on whether to enshrine a right to food in their state constitution. This Essay provides an overview of Maine’s experience with food rights in order to explain how the state came to occupy this unique position.