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Full-Text Articles in Food and Drug Law

Marijuana Agriculture Law: Regulation At The Root Of An Industry, Ryan Stoa Mar 2018

Marijuana Agriculture Law: Regulation At The Root Of An Industry, Ryan Stoa

Ryan B. Stoa

Marijuana legalization is sweeping the nation. Recreational marijuana use is legal in eight states. Medical marijuana use is legal in thirteen states. Only three states maintain an absolute criminal prohibition on marijuana use. Many of these legalization initiatives propose to regulate marijuana in a manner similar to alcohol, and many titles are variations of the "Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol Act." For political and public health reasons the analogy makes sense, but it also reveals a regulatory blind spot. States may be using alcohol as a model for regulating the distribution, retail, and consumption of marijuana, but marijuana is much more ...


Comparative Cannabis: Approaches To Marijuana Agriculture Regulation In The United States And Canada, Ryan Stoa Mar 2018

Comparative Cannabis: Approaches To Marijuana Agriculture Regulation In The United States And Canada, Ryan Stoa

Ryan B. Stoa

The United States and Canada may be friends and allies, but the two countries' approaches to the regulation of marijuana agriculture have not evolved in tandem. On the contrary, their respective paths toward legalization and regulation of marijuana agriculture are remarkably divergent. In the United States, where marijuana remains a federally prohibited and tightly-controlled substance, legalization and regulation have remained the province of state legislatures and their administrative agencies for decades. In Canada, a succession of court cases paving the way toward medicinal marijuana use has prompted the federal government to develop a national framework committed to "legalize, regulate, and ...


Marijuana Appellations: The Case For Cannabicultural Designations Of Origin, Ryan Stoa Mar 2018

Marijuana Appellations: The Case For Cannabicultural Designations Of Origin, Ryan Stoa

Ryan B. Stoa

An appellation is a certified designation of origin that may also require that certain quality or stylistic standards be met. Appellations are most commonly associated with the wine industry, but they can be applied to any agricultural product for which the geographic origin carries importance. The MMRSA [California Medical Marijuana Regulation and Safety Act] … may have far-ranging effects on the marijuana industry in the United States. [A provision of the act permits the state Bureau of Medical Marijuana Regulation to ‘establish appellations of origin for marijuana grown in California.’] As the most populous state in the Union and the most ...


Consumers In Shock: How Federal Government Overregulation Led Mylan To Acquire A Monopoly Over Epinephrine Autoinjectors, Nicole O'Toole Mar 2018

Consumers In Shock: How Federal Government Overregulation Led Mylan To Acquire A Monopoly Over Epinephrine Autoinjectors, Nicole O'Toole

DePaul Business and Commercial Law Journal

The philosophy that federal government intervention increases costs and decreases options and values available to consumers can be analyzed across a plethora of markets. This Note will focus on the epinephrine autoinjector market, specifically looking at Mylan's epinephrine autoinjector known as the EpiPen. Today, the EpiPen is considered the “Kleenex” of epinephrine autoinjectors as it is estimated to control over ninety percent of the market share. From a Darwinist perspective it would appear that because the EpiPen controls most of the market, it must be the most superior product available to consumers. However, as this note will cover, this ...


The Growing Consumer Exposure To Nanotechnology In Everyday Products: Regulating Innovative Technologies In Light Of Lessons From The Past, Katharine Van Tassel Mar 2018

The Growing Consumer Exposure To Nanotechnology In Everyday Products: Regulating Innovative Technologies In Light Of Lessons From The Past, Katharine Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

This Article discusses the public health, regulatory, legal, and ethical issues raised by the developing appreciation of the negative physical effects and potential health risks associated with nanotech products, and is arranged as follows. After this Introduction, this Article describes the present scientific understanding of the health risks associated with the consumption of nanoparticles. Next, a summary of the existing FDA regulatory structure that governs food, dietary supplements, cosmetics, and sunscreens is provided along with an explanation of why these regulations fail to protect public health when applied to regulate the nanotech versions of these products. The Article goes on ...


Genetically Modified Plants Used For Food, Risk Assessment And Uncertainty Principles: Does The Transition From Ignorance To Indeterminacy Trigger The Need For Post-Market Surveillance?, Katharine Van Tassel Mar 2018

Genetically Modified Plants Used For Food, Risk Assessment And Uncertainty Principles: Does The Transition From Ignorance To Indeterminacy Trigger The Need For Post-Market Surveillance?, Katharine Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

In the context of GM foods, a genetic modification changes the biochemical cross-talk between genes, creating genetic material that has never existed before in nature. This novel genetic material can create unintended health risks, as seen with the case of the GM peas that contained a novel and unexpected allergenic protein and primed test mice to react to other allergens.6 The bottom line is that the scientific acceptance of the existence of the networked gene establishes that the FDA’s presumption that GM plant food is bioequivalent to traditional plant food is no longer scientifically supportable and that a ...


Regulating In Uncertainty: Animating The Public Health Product Safety Net To Capture Consumer Products Regulated By The Fda That Use Innovative Technologies, Including Nanotechnologies, Genetic Modification, Cloning, And Lab Grown Meat, Katharine A. Van Tassel Mar 2018

Regulating In Uncertainty: Animating The Public Health Product Safety Net To Capture Consumer Products Regulated By The Fda That Use Innovative Technologies, Including Nanotechnologies, Genetic Modification, Cloning, And Lab Grown Meat, Katharine A. Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

This Article will use nanotechnology as an example that highlights how regulation based on novelty rather than hazard achieves the proper balance between protecting public health while encouraging innovation through the animation of the public health product safety net. In Part II, this Article starts by explaining what nanotechnology is and the remarkable growth of its use in everyday consumer products. It then summarizes the steadily increasing number of studies that suggest that there are likely to be serious health risks associated with the use of nanotech consumer products. Next, it explains how the FDA [Food and Drug Administration] is ...


The Introduction Of Biotech Foods To The Tort System: Creating A New Duty To Identify, Katharine Van Tassel Mar 2018

The Introduction Of Biotech Foods To The Tort System: Creating A New Duty To Identify, Katharine Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

This Article examines the question of whether an unsuspecting consumer who dies from an allergic or toxic reaction to an undisclosed biotech ingredient in food can recover damages through the tort system. The surprising answer is that recovery is very unlikely. This Article outlines why this is the case, then evaluates the merits of several potential solutions to this problem including the possible creation of a common law 'duty to identify' biotech ingredients in food.

This Article is arranged as follows. First, a brief primer on the nature of biotech foods is provided. For the reader unfamiliar with the regulatory ...


Sin Taxes: Have Governments Gone Too Far In Their Efforts To Monetize Morality?, Franklin Liu Feb 2018

Sin Taxes: Have Governments Gone Too Far In Their Efforts To Monetize Morality?, Franklin Liu

Boston College Law Review

In June 2016, Philadelphia became the largest city in the United States to pass a soda tax, which went into effect on January 1, 2017. Soda taxes, an umbrella term for taxes that are assessed on sugar-sweetened beverages, represent the latest incarnation in a recent wave of non-traditional “sin taxes.” Sin taxes target behaviors that the government considers to be socially undesirable, and traditionally have been levied to curb consumption of alcohol and tobacco products. As state and local governments continue to face burgeoning budget deficits, legislators have increased the amount of existing sin taxes and expanded the sin tax ...


How Commonsense Consumption Acts Are Preventing “Big Food” Litigation, Grace Thompson Feb 2018

How Commonsense Consumption Acts Are Preventing “Big Food” Litigation, Grace Thompson

Seattle University Law Review

This Note takes a critical look at Commonsense Consumption Acts and how they are detrimental to the possibility of “Big Food” litigation. The tobacco industry was held accountable through the effective use of tort litigation (commonly referred to as “Big Tobacco” litigation), and the food industry could theoretically be held similarly accountable, but CCAs are preventing the possibility of similar reform. Therefore, in order for health reform to be as effective as tobacco reform, CCAs must be repealed in the states where they exist. Part I of this Note discusses why the food industry needs tort reform. Specifically, it argues ...


Serving Pets In Poverty: A New Frontier For The Animal Welfare Movement, Amanda Arrington, Michael Markarian Feb 2018

Serving Pets In Poverty: A New Frontier For The Animal Welfare Movement, Amanda Arrington, Michael Markarian

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


How Fast Is Too Fast? Osha’S Regulation Of The Meat Industry’S Line Speed And The Price Paid By Humans And Animals, Israel Cook Feb 2018

How Fast Is Too Fast? Osha’S Regulation Of The Meat Industry’S Line Speed And The Price Paid By Humans And Animals, Israel Cook

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


The Farts Heard ‘Round The World: Where Cow-Tapping Falls On The International Agenda Of Sustainable Development, Alexandra C. Nolan Feb 2018

The Farts Heard ‘Round The World: Where Cow-Tapping Falls On The International Agenda Of Sustainable Development, Alexandra C. Nolan

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


This Is Not The Bee’S Knees: A Critical View Of The Government’S Lack Of Policy To Conserve The Pollinators, Savannah Pugh Feb 2018

This Is Not The Bee’S Knees: A Critical View Of The Government’S Lack Of Policy To Conserve The Pollinators, Savannah Pugh

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


Legislative Efforts To Increase State Management For Imperiled Species Should Be Rejected, Stephanie Kurose Feb 2018

Legislative Efforts To Increase State Management For Imperiled Species Should Be Rejected, Stephanie Kurose

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


Anthropogenic Noise And The Endangered Species Act, Carolyn Larcom Feb 2018

Anthropogenic Noise And The Endangered Species Act, Carolyn Larcom

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


Cruelty To Human And Nonhuman Animals In The Wild-Caught Fishing Industry, Kathy Hessler, Rebecca Jenkins, Kelly Levenda Feb 2018

Cruelty To Human And Nonhuman Animals In The Wild-Caught Fishing Industry, Kathy Hessler, Rebecca Jenkins, Kelly Levenda

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


The “Fowl” Practice Of Humane Labeling: Proposed Amendments To Federal Standards Governing Chicken Welfare And Poultry Labeling Practices, Latravia Smith Feb 2018

The “Fowl” Practice Of Humane Labeling: Proposed Amendments To Federal Standards Governing Chicken Welfare And Poultry Labeling Practices, Latravia Smith

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

Chickens raised specifically for meat production are the world’s most intensively farmed land animals. Yet, the existing legal frameworks that regulate the production and labeling of poultry products in the United States allow poultry producers to mistreat chickens, falsely distinguish poultry products, and defraud conscious consumers. This article proposes unique opportunities to improve poultry welfare in the United States’ agricultural industry and offers methods to ensure the accurate labeling of poultry products.


Cafos: Plaguing North Carolina Communities Of Color, Christine Ball-Blakely Feb 2018

Cafos: Plaguing North Carolina Communities Of Color, Christine Ball-Blakely

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


About Sdlp Feb 2018

About Sdlp

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


Editor's Note, Luke Trompeter, Ingrid Lesemann Feb 2018

Editor's Note, Luke Trompeter, Ingrid Lesemann

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


Microscopic Allies: Examining And Tackling Legal And Regulatory Barriers To The Development Of Phage Therapy, Jacob Zent Feb 2018

Microscopic Allies: Examining And Tackling Legal And Regulatory Barriers To The Development Of Phage Therapy, Jacob Zent

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


Gmos, International Law And Indigenous Peoples, Casandia Bellevue Feb 2018

Gmos, International Law And Indigenous Peoples, Casandia Bellevue

Pace International Law Review

This Article sprung from a desire to discover why—despite scientific uncertainty and the oft-cited precautionary principle in international law—genetically modified organisms are still allowed to spread via international trade and natural ecological cycles. While exploring this topic, it did not take long to come across the environmental justice impacts of genetically modified crops, and their particularly disparate impact upon indigenous peoples across the globe. Not only are GMOs threatening biodiversity and our planet, but also the very existence and cultural foundations of many indigenous groups.

This Article seeks to answer the following questions: What are the international agreements ...


Aldf V. Otter: What Does It Mean For Other State’S “Ag-Gag” Laws?, Jacob Coleman Jan 2018

Aldf V. Otter: What Does It Mean For Other State’S “Ag-Gag” Laws?, Jacob Coleman

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Across the nation, states have enacted “Ag-gag” laws that criminalize various types of investigations into animal cruelty and worker abuses in the chain of animal agriculture. This article divides the types of “ag-gag” statutes into four waves with varying degrees of protection for farmers and corporations engaged in animal agriculture. Next, this article analyzes Animal Legal Defense Fund v. Otter, in which an Idaho judge struck down an “ag-gag” statute, and applies its holding to the various waves of “ag-gag” statutes.


Farmers Market Rules And Policies: Content And Design Suggestions (From A Lawyer), Jay A. Mitchell Jan 2018

Farmers Market Rules And Policies: Content And Design Suggestions (From A Lawyer), Jay A. Mitchell

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Farmers market rules and policies can set out what products can be sold, how vendors are selected, what’s expected of vendors from growing practices to signage to paperwork, and how vendors are disciplined or removed from the market. Rules and policies can do even more, adding to their length and complexity. The landscape gets even more complex when the rules are accompanied by separate vendor applications, hold-harmless agreements, membership materials, and the market has a website providing additional information. All this can put a quite a reading burden on vendors and quite a management burden on the market. This ...


An Interview With Outgoing Secretary Of Agriculture Tom Vilsack: Reflections On His Legacy & Challenges Facing A New Era In American Agriculture Policy, Lauren Manning Jan 2018

An Interview With Outgoing Secretary Of Agriculture Tom Vilsack: Reflections On His Legacy & Challenges Facing A New Era In American Agriculture Policy, Lauren Manning

Journal of Food Law & Policy

In a special interview with Lauren Manning, former Secretary of Agricultural Tom Vilsack reflects on his eight-year tenure at the Department of Agriculture (USDA). Sec. Vilsack discusses such issues as the farm bill, opportunities for beginning and disadvantaged farmers, and trade. In addition to recounting the successes of the Obama administration’s USDA, Sec. Vilsack explains his hopes for the incoming Secretary of Agriculture and the Trump administration.


Food Labor And The Trump Administration: A Grim Prognosis, Erik Loomis Jan 2018

Food Labor And The Trump Administration: A Grim Prognosis, Erik Loomis

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Farm laborers made few gains under the Obama administration; however, food workers received some benefit under the Obama’s Secretary of Labor, Tom Perez. Unfortunately, any gains for food workers will likely be rolled back under the Trump administration through both his cabinet appointments and judicial appointments. This essay predicts a strengthening of “ag-gag” bills and a weakening of Occupational Safety and Health Agency (OSHA). President Trump’s attacks on immigration and regulations also signal fewer workers’ rights in the fields and less accountability of exploitative employers.


Trump’S New Trade Policy: Risks For North American Food And Farms, Karen Hansen Kuhn Jan 2018

Trump’S New Trade Policy: Risks For North American Food And Farms, Karen Hansen Kuhn

Journal of Food Law & Policy

In his presidential campaign, Trump promised to build a “great, great wall”, and he promised to renegotiate the terms of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), leaving open the possibility of pulling out entirely. There are many concerns with NAFTA as it currently exists and there are many areas in which renegotiation would be welcome. This essay argues, however, the Trump administration’s loyalties to big business could hinder positive change. If NAFTA is significantly renegotiated, it should be with farmer and consumer interests in mind, not those of multinational corporations.


Implementing The National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard, Lesley K. Mcallister Jan 2018

Implementing The National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard, Lesley K. Mcallister

Journal of Food Law & Policy

In July 2016, the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Law was passed to establish a mandatory national system for disclosing the presence of genetically-engineered material in food (GMOs). The federal law preempts state and local initiatives to create labeling systems. This essay first analyzes the benefits and drawbacks of having a national GMO law rather than a patchwork of state laws. Then it provides commentary on how the USDA can create an effective and accessible labeling system, using scannable Quick Response (QR) codes.. The essay envisions a retail food system in which all consumers can easily and usefully obtain reliable information ...


Organic Agriculture Under The Trump Administration, Marne Coit Jan 2018

Organic Agriculture Under The Trump Administration, Marne Coit

Journal of Food Law & Policy

This essay will examine the implications of the policies of the upcoming Trump administration on the integrity of the National Organic Program (NOP), the regulations promulgated under the Organic Foods Production Act (OFPA). Advocates fears of weakening organic standards are likely to become reality under the Trump administration. Support for organic may be dependent on high returns for large agricultural producers. However, there is a negative correlation between larger agri-businesses entering the organic market and the erosion of the organic standards. The Trump administration will likely continue down the path of supporting larger agribusinesses—to the detriment of not only ...