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The Tax Treatment Of Tokens: What Does It Betoken?, David J. Shakow 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Tax Treatment Of Tokens: What Does It Betoken?, David J. Shakow

Faculty Scholarship

Digital tokens have been used to raise substantial amounts of money. But little attention has been paid to the tax consequences surrounding their issuance and sale. There are significant potential tax liabilities lurking in the use of digital tokens. But, because of the anonymity inherent in the blockchain structures used for the issuance of tokens and payments for them, there is a significant question as to whether those tax liabilities will ever be collected.


Data For The Algorithm As A Human Artifact: Implications For Legal [Re]Search, Susan Nevelow Mart 2017 University of Colorado Law School

Data For The Algorithm As A Human Artifact: Implications For Legal [Re]Search, Susan Nevelow Mart

Research Data

These documents underlie and are cited in this empirical study: Susan Nevelow Mart, The Algorithm as a Human Artifact: Implications for Legal [Re]Search, 109 Law Libr. J. 387, 409 n.123 (2017), available at http://scholar.law.colorado.edu/articles/755/.

The ZIP file contains three files: one PDF document ("Tables for Charts 1-3"), and two SPSS files ("Data Archive" and "Syntax Archive" (SPSS version 24)). The "Syntax Archive" file may be viewed in a text editor (e.g., Notepad) as well as in SPSS.


The Algorithm As A Human Artifact: Implications For Legal [Re]Search [Appendix B], Susan Nevelow Mart 2017 University of Colorado Law School

The Algorithm As A Human Artifact: Implications For Legal [Re]Search [Appendix B], Susan Nevelow Mart

Research Data

This document, "Search Instructions for Algorithm Study," is an electronic Appendix B to, and is cited in, the empirical study: Susan Nevelow Mart, The Algorithm as a Human Artifact: Implications for Legal [Re]Search, 109 Law Libr. J. 387, 400 n.78 (2017), available at http://scholar.law.colorado.edu/articles/755/.


Reviving The Public Trustee Concept And Applying It To Information Privacy Policy, Priscilla M. Regan 2017 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Reviving The Public Trustee Concept And Applying It To Information Privacy Policy, Priscilla M. Regan

Maryland Law Review

No abstract provided.


Averting Robot Eyes, Margot E. Kaminski, Matthew Rueben, William D. Smart, Cindy M. Grimm 2017 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Averting Robot Eyes, Margot E. Kaminski, Matthew Rueben, William D. Smart, Cindy M. Grimm

Maryland Law Review

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents, 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Table Of Contents

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

No abstract provided.


Front Matter, 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Front Matter

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

No abstract provided.


Masthead, 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Masthead

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

No abstract provided.


File Type Identification - Computational Intelligence For Digital Forensics, Konstantinos Karampidis, Giorgos Papadourakis 2017 Technological Educational Institute of Crete

File Type Identification - Computational Intelligence For Digital Forensics, Konstantinos Karampidis, Giorgos Papadourakis

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

In modern world, the use of digital devices for leisure or professional reasons is growing quickly; nevertheless, criminals try to fool authorities and hide evidence in a computer by changing the file type. File type detection is a very demanding task for a digital forensic examiner. In this paper, a new methodology is proposed – in a digital forensics perspective- to identify altered file types with high accuracy by employing computational intelligence techniques. The proposed methodology is applied to the three most common image file types (jpg, png and gif) as well as to uncompressed tiff images. A three-stage process involving ...


Forensic Cell Site Analysis: A Validation & Error Mitigation Methodology, John B. Minor 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Forensic Cell Site Analysis: A Validation & Error Mitigation Methodology, John B. Minor

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

The E911 Initiative in the mid-1990s established an opportunity to obtain location specific digital evidence of subscriber activity from cellular carriers. Call Detail Records (CDR) containing Cell Site Location Information (CSLI) evidence production was made available from cellular carriers in response to the CALEA, 911 and ECPA acts. In the late 1990s, cellular carriers began to produce evidence for investigative and litigation purposes. CDR/CSLI evidence has become an important evidentiary focus in the courtroom. This research project resulted in the creation of a method of validating cellular carrier records accuracy and mitigating errors in forensic cell site analyst conclusions ...


Towards A More Representative Definition Of Cyber Security, Daniel Schatz, Rabih Bashroush, Julie Wall 2017 University of East London

Towards A More Representative Definition Of Cyber Security, Daniel Schatz, Rabih Bashroush, Julie Wall

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

In recent years, ‘Cyber Security’ has emerged as a widely-used term with increased adoption by practitioners and politicians alike. However, as with many fashionable jargon, there seems to be very little understanding of what the term really entails. Although this is may not be an issue when the term is used in an informal context, it can potentially cause considerable problems in context of organizational strategy, business objectives, or international agreements. In this work, we study the existing literature to identify the main definitions provided for the term ‘Cyber Security’ by authoritative sources. We then conduct various lexical and semantic ...


Sql Injection: The Longest Running Sequel In Programming History, Matthew Horner, Thomas Hyslip 2017 Norwich University

Sql Injection: The Longest Running Sequel In Programming History, Matthew Horner, Thomas Hyslip

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

One of the risks to a company operating a public-facing website with a Structure Query Language (SQL) database is an attacker exploiting the SQL injection vulnerability. An attacker can cause an SQL database to perform actions that the developer did not intend like revealing, modifying, or deleting sensitive data. This can cause a loss of confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information in a company’s database, and it can lead to severe costs of up to $196,000 per successful injection attack (NTT Group, 2014). This paper discusses the history of the SQL injection vulnerability, focusing on:

  • How an attacker ...


Signatures Of Viber Security Traffic, M.A.K. Sudozai, N. Habib, S. Saleem, A.A. Khan 2017 National University of Sciences and Technology

Signatures Of Viber Security Traffic, M.A.K. Sudozai, N. Habib, S. Saleem, A.A. Khan

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Viber is one of the widely used mobile chat application which has over 606 million users on its platform. Since the recent release of Viber 6.0 in March/April 2016 and its further updates, Viber provides end-to-end encryption based on Open Whisper Signal security architecture. With proprietary communication protocol scattered on distributed cluster of servers in different countries and secure cryptographic primitives, Viber offers a difficult paradigm of traffic analysis. In this paper, we present a novel methodology of identification of Viber traffic over the network and established a model which can classify its services of audio and audio ...


Back Matter, 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Back Matter

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

No abstract provided.


Protecting Digital Evidence Integrity And Preserving Chain Of Custody, Makhdoom Syed Muhammad Baqir Shah, Shahzad Saleem, Roha Zulqarnain 2017 National University of Sciences and Technology

Protecting Digital Evidence Integrity And Preserving Chain Of Custody, Makhdoom Syed Muhammad Baqir Shah, Shahzad Saleem, Roha Zulqarnain

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Evidence is the key to solve any crime. Evidence integrity needs to be protected in order to make it admissible in the court of law. Digital evidence is more revealing, but it is fragile; it can easily be tampered with or modified. There are different techniques available to protect the integrity of digital evidence. Different automated digital evidence acquisition tools are available in the market. In this paper, we have analyzed two automated tools (EnCase and FTK Imager) that are used for disk imaging. These tools claim to protect the integrity of digital evidence. The techniques used by these tools ...


Applying A Contingency Framework To Digital Forensic Processes In Cloud Based Acquisitions, Diane Barrett 2017 Bloomsburg University

Applying A Contingency Framework To Digital Forensic Processes In Cloud Based Acquisitions, Diane Barrett

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

The change in business models to incorporate a wide variety of cloud computing environments has resulted in the escalation of computer crimes in the areas of security breaches and hacking. Methods to acquire evidence in a cloud computing environment are limited due to the complexity of the cloud environment. Since digital acquisition processes in cloud computing environments are still in the infancy stages, there have been no studies in the application of existing frameworks to this type environment based on traditional forensic processes.

This paper describes a qualitative study conducted to develop a robust contingency framework for deciding when to ...


A Power Grid Incident Identification Based On Physically Derived Cyber-Event Detection, Travis Atkison, Nathan Wallace 2017 University of Alabama

A Power Grid Incident Identification Based On Physically Derived Cyber-Event Detection, Travis Atkison, Nathan Wallace

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

This article proposes a cyber-event detection framework to aid in incident Identification and digital forensics cases aimed at investigating cyber crime committed against the critical infrastructure power grid. However, unlike other similar investigative techniques, the proposed approach examines only the physical information to derive a cyber conclusion. The developed framework extracts information from the physical parameters stored in historical databases of SCADA systems. The framework uses a pseudo-trusted model derived from randomly selected power system observations found in the historical databases. Afterwards, a technique known as Bayesian Model Averaging is used to average the models and create a more trusted ...


Send Us The Bitcoin Or Patients Will Die: Addressing The Risks Of Ransomware Attacks On Hospitals, Deborah R. Farringer 2017 Seattle University School of Law

Send Us The Bitcoin Or Patients Will Die: Addressing The Risks Of Ransomware Attacks On Hospitals, Deborah R. Farringer

Seattle University Law Review

Part I of this Article describes how the healthcare industry has arrived in this place of vulnerability, including (1) the history of the movement toward EHRs through HIPAA, (2) HIPAA’s meaningful use regulations and the background of current ransomware attacks, and (3) the distinctions between these attacks and other security breaches that have plagued large insurers and health systems within the last five years. Next, Part II will examine current industry culture when it comes to cybersecurity and review current legal and business approaches to address this growing threat. Then, Part III will argue that, while the current laws ...


Sony, Cyber Security, And Free Speech: Preserving The First Amendment In The Modern World, Conrad Wilton 2017 Fox Rothschild LLP

Sony, Cyber Security, And Free Speech: Preserving The First Amendment In The Modern World, Conrad Wilton

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

Reprinted from 16 U.C. Davis Bus. L.J. 309 (2016). This paper explores the Sony hack in 2014 allegedly launched by the North Korean government in retaliation over Sony’s production of The Interview and considers the hack’s chilling impact on speech in technology. One of the most devastating cyber attacks in history, the hack exposed approximately thirty- eight million files of sensitive data, including over 170,000 employee emails, thousands of employee social security numbers and unreleased footage of upcoming movies. The hack caused Sony to censor the film and prompted members of the entertainment industry at ...


Regulating By Robot: Administrative Decision Making In The Machine-Learning Era, Cary Coglianese, David Lehr 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Regulating By Robot: Administrative Decision Making In The Machine-Learning Era, Cary Coglianese, David Lehr

Faculty Scholarship

Machine-learning algorithms are transforming large segments of the economy, underlying everything from product marketing by online retailers to personalized search engines, and from advanced medical imaging to the software in self-driving cars. As machine learning’s use has expanded across all facets of society, anxiety has emerged about the intrusion of algorithmic machines into facets of life previously dependent on human judgment. Alarm bells sounding over the diffusion of artificial intelligence throughout the private sector only portend greater anxiety about digital robots replacing humans in the governmental sphere. A few administrative agencies have already begun to adopt this technology, while ...


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