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Forensic Cell Site Analysis: A Validation & Error Mitigation Methodology, John B. Minor 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Forensic Cell Site Analysis: A Validation & Error Mitigation Methodology, John B. Minor

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

The E911 Initiative in the mid-1990s established an opportunity to obtain location specific digital evidence of subscriber activity from cellular carriers. Call Detail Records (CDR) containing Cell Site Location Information (CSLI) evidence production was made available from cellular carriers in response to the CALEA, 911 and ECPA acts. In the late 1990s, cellular carriers began to produce evidence for investigative and litigation purposes. CDR/CSLI evidence has become an important evidentiary focus in the courtroom. This research project resulted in the creation of a method of validating cellular carrier records accuracy and mitigating errors in forensic cell site analyst conclusions ...


Applying A Contingency Framework To Digital Forensic Processes In Cloud Based Acquisitions, Diane Barrett 2017 Bloomsburg University

Applying A Contingency Framework To Digital Forensic Processes In Cloud Based Acquisitions, Diane Barrett

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

The change in business models to incorporate a wide variety of cloud computing environments has resulted in the escalation of computer crimes in the areas of security breaches and hacking. Methods to acquire evidence in a cloud computing environment are limited due to the complexity of the cloud environment. Since digital acquisition processes in cloud computing environments are still in the infancy stages, there have been no studies in the application of existing frameworks to this type environment based on traditional forensic processes.

This paper describes a qualitative study conducted to develop a robust contingency framework for deciding when to ...


Sql Injection: The Longest Running Sequel In Programming History, Matthew Horner, Thomas Hyslip 2017 Norwich University

Sql Injection: The Longest Running Sequel In Programming History, Matthew Horner, Thomas Hyslip

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

One of the risks to a company operating a public-facing website with a Structure Query Language (SQL) database is an attacker exploiting the SQL injection vulnerability. An attacker can cause an SQL database to perform actions that the developer did not intend like revealing, modifying, or deleting sensitive data. This can cause a loss of confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information in a company’s database, and it can lead to severe costs of up to $196,000 per successful injection attack (NTT Group, 2014). This paper discusses the history of the SQL injection vulnerability, focusing on:

  • How an attacker ...


Signatures Of Viber Security Traffic, M.A.K. Sudozai, N. Habib, S. Saleem, A.A. Khan 2017 National University of Sciences and Technology

Signatures Of Viber Security Traffic, M.A.K. Sudozai, N. Habib, S. Saleem, A.A. Khan

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Viber is one of the widely used mobile chat application which has over 606 million users on its platform. Since the recent release of Viber 6.0 in March/April 2016 and its further updates, Viber provides end-to-end encryption based on Open Whisper Signal security architecture. With proprietary communication protocol scattered on distributed cluster of servers in different countries and secure cryptographic primitives, Viber offers a difficult paradigm of traffic analysis. In this paper, we present a novel methodology of identification of Viber traffic over the network and established a model which can classify its services of audio and audio ...


Front Matter, 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Front Matter

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

No abstract provided.


Back Matter, 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Back Matter

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

No abstract provided.


File Type Identification - Computational Intelligence For Digital Forensics, Konstantinos Karampidis, Giorgos Papadourakis 2017 Technological Educational Institute of Crete

File Type Identification - Computational Intelligence For Digital Forensics, Konstantinos Karampidis, Giorgos Papadourakis

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

In modern world, the use of digital devices for leisure or professional reasons is growing quickly; nevertheless, criminals try to fool authorities and hide evidence in a computer by changing the file type. File type detection is a very demanding task for a digital forensic examiner. In this paper, a new methodology is proposed – in a digital forensics perspective- to identify altered file types with high accuracy by employing computational intelligence techniques. The proposed methodology is applied to the three most common image file types (jpg, png and gif) as well as to uncompressed tiff images. A three-stage process involving ...


Towards A More Representative Definition Of Cyber Security, Daniel Schatz, Rabih Bashroush, Julie Wall 2017 University of East London

Towards A More Representative Definition Of Cyber Security, Daniel Schatz, Rabih Bashroush, Julie Wall

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

In recent years, ‘Cyber Security’ has emerged as a widely-used term with increased adoption by practitioners and politicians alike. However, as with many fashionable jargon, there seems to be very little understanding of what the term really entails. Although this is may not be an issue when the term is used in an informal context, it can potentially cause considerable problems in context of organizational strategy, business objectives, or international agreements. In this work, we study the existing literature to identify the main definitions provided for the term ‘Cyber Security’ by authoritative sources. We then conduct various lexical and semantic ...


Protecting Digital Evidence Integrity And Preserving Chain Of Custody, Makhdoom Syed Muhammad Baqir Shah, Shahzad Saleem, Roha Zulqarnain 2017 National University of Sciences and Technology

Protecting Digital Evidence Integrity And Preserving Chain Of Custody, Makhdoom Syed Muhammad Baqir Shah, Shahzad Saleem, Roha Zulqarnain

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Evidence is the key to solve any crime. Evidence integrity needs to be protected in order to make it admissible in the court of law. Digital evidence is more revealing, but it is fragile; it can easily be tampered with or modified. There are different techniques available to protect the integrity of digital evidence. Different automated digital evidence acquisition tools are available in the market. In this paper, we have analyzed two automated tools (EnCase and FTK Imager) that are used for disk imaging. These tools claim to protect the integrity of digital evidence. The techniques used by these tools ...


Table Of Contents, 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Table Of Contents

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

No abstract provided.


Send Us The Bitcoin Or Patients Will Die: Addressing The Risks Of Ransomware Attacks On Hospitals, Deborah R. Farringer 2017 Seattle University School of Law

Send Us The Bitcoin Or Patients Will Die: Addressing The Risks Of Ransomware Attacks On Hospitals, Deborah R. Farringer

Seattle University Law Review

Part I of this Article describes how the healthcare industry has arrived in this place of vulnerability, including (1) the history of the movement toward EHRs through HIPAA, (2) HIPAA’s meaningful use regulations and the background of current ransomware attacks, and (3) the distinctions between these attacks and other security breaches that have plagued large insurers and health systems within the last five years. Next, Part II will examine current industry culture when it comes to cybersecurity and review current legal and business approaches to address this growing threat. Then, Part III will argue that, while the current laws ...


Sony, Cyber Security, And Free Speech: Preserving The First Amendment In The Modern World, Conrad Wilton 2017 Fox Rothschild LLP

Sony, Cyber Security, And Free Speech: Preserving The First Amendment In The Modern World, Conrad Wilton

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

Reprinted from 16 U.C. Davis Bus. L.J. 309 (2016). This paper explores the Sony hack in 2014 allegedly launched by the North Korean government in retaliation over Sony’s production of The Interview and considers the hack’s chilling impact on speech in technology. One of the most devastating cyber attacks in history, the hack exposed approximately thirty- eight million files of sensitive data, including over 170,000 employee emails, thousands of employee social security numbers and unreleased footage of upcoming movies. The hack caused Sony to censor the film and prompted members of the entertainment industry at ...


Regulating By Robot: Administrative Decision Making In The Machine-Learning Era, Cary Coglianese, David Lehr 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Regulating By Robot: Administrative Decision Making In The Machine-Learning Era, Cary Coglianese, David Lehr

Faculty Scholarship

Machine-learning algorithms are transforming large segments of the economy, underlying everything from product marketing by online retailers to personalized search engines, and from advanced medical imaging to the software in self-driving cars. As machine learning’s use has expanded across all facets of society, anxiety has emerged about the intrusion of algorithmic machines into facets of life previously dependent on human judgment. Alarm bells sounding over the diffusion of artificial intelligence throughout the private sector only portend greater anxiety about digital robots replacing humans in the governmental sphere. A few administrative agencies have already begun to adopt this technology, while ...


Did Russian Cyber Interference In The 2016 Election Violate International Law?, Jens David Ohlin 2017 Cornell Law School

Did Russian Cyber Interference In The 2016 Election Violate International Law?, Jens David Ohlin

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

When it was revealed that the Russian government interfered in the 2016 U.S. presidential election by hacking into the email system of the Democratic National Committee and releasing its emails, international lawyers were divided over whether the cyber-attack violated international law. President Obama seemingly went out of his way to describe the attack as a mere violation of “established international norms of behavior,” though some international lawyers were more willing to describe the cyber-attack as a violation of international law. However, identifying the exact legal norm that was contravened turns out to be harder than it might otherwise appear ...


The Inadequate, Invaluable Fair Information Practices, Woodrow Hartzog 2017 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

The Inadequate, Invaluable Fair Information Practices, Woodrow Hartzog

Maryland Law Review

No abstract provided.


Exploring Digital Evidence With Graph Theory, Imani Palmer, Boris Gelfand, Roy Campbell 2017 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Exploring Digital Evidence With Graph Theory, Imani Palmer, Boris Gelfand, Roy Campbell

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

The analysis phase of the digital forensic process is the most complex. The analysis phase remains very subjective to the views of the forensic practitioner. There are many tools dedicated to assisting the investigator during the analysis process. However, they do not address the challenges. Digital forensics is in need of a consistent approach to procure the most judicious conclusions from the digital evidence. The objective of this paper is to discuss the ability of graph theory, a study of related mathematical structures, to aid in the analysis phase of the digital forensic process. We develop a graph-based representation of ...


Case Study: A New Method For Investigating Crimes Against Children, Hallstein Asheim Hansen, Stig Andersen, Stefan Axelsson, Svein Hopland 2017 Norwegian Police

Case Study: A New Method For Investigating Crimes Against Children, Hallstein Asheim Hansen, Stig Andersen, Stefan Axelsson, Svein Hopland

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Investigations of crimes against children are often complex, both in terms of the varied and large amount of digital technology encountered and the offensive nature of the crimes. Such cases are numerous, large, and prioritised, requiring digital forensics competence. Earlier digital forensics was considered and treated as a typical forensic science like fingerprint analysis, performed in a laboratory isolated from the investigative team. This decoupled way of working has proved to be both inefficient and error prone.

At the Digital Forensic Unit of Oslo Police District we have developed a new way of working that addresses many of the problems ...


Downstream Competence Challenges And Legal/Ethical Risks In Digital Forensics, Michael M. Losavio, Antonio Losavio 2017 University of Louisville

Downstream Competence Challenges And Legal/Ethical Risks In Digital Forensics, Michael M. Losavio, Antonio Losavio

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Forensic practice is an inherently human-mediated system, from processing and collection of evidence to presentation and judgment. This requires attention to human factors and risks which can lead to incorrect judgments and unjust punishments.

For digital forensics, such challenges are magnified by the relative newness of the discipline and the use of electronic evidence in forensic proceedings. Traditional legal protections, rules of procedure and ethics rules mitigate these challenges. Application of those traditions better ensures forensic findings are reliable. This has significant consequences where findings may impact a person's liberty or property, a person's life or even the ...


Understanding Deleted File Decay On Removable Media Using Differential Analysis, James H. Jones Jr, Anurag Srivastava, Josh Mosier, Connor Anderson, Seth Buenafe 2017 George Mason University

Understanding Deleted File Decay On Removable Media Using Differential Analysis, James H. Jones Jr, Anurag Srivastava, Josh Mosier, Connor Anderson, Seth Buenafe

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Digital content created by picture recording devices is often stored internally on the source device, on either embedded or removable media. Such storage media is typically limited in capacity and meant primarily for interim storage of the most recent image files, and these devices are frequently configured to delete older files as necessary to make room for new files. When investigations involve such devices and media, it is sometimes these older deleted files that would be of interest. It is an established fact that deleted file content may persist in part or in its entirety after deletion, and identifying the ...


Defining A Cyber Jurisprudence, Peter R. Stephenson PhD 2017 independent researcher in cyber jurisprudence

Defining A Cyber Jurisprudence, Peter R. Stephenson Phd

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Jurisprudence is the science and philosophy or theory of the law. Cyber law is a very new concept and has had, compared with other, older, branches of the law, little structured study. However, we have entered the cyber age and the law - on all fronts - is struggling to keep pace with technological advances in cyberspace. This research explores a possible theory and philosophy of cyber law, and, indeed, whether it is feasible to develop and interpret a body of law that addresses current and emerging challenges in cyber space.

While there is an expanding discussion of the nature of cyber ...


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