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Full-Text Articles in Comparative and Foreign Law

Taxonomy Of Minority Governments, Lisa La Fornara Oct 2018

Taxonomy Of Minority Governments, Lisa La Fornara

Indiana Journal of Constitutional Design

A minority government in its most basic form is a government in which the party holding the most parliamentary seats still has fewer than half the seats in parliament and therefore cannot pass legislation or advance policy without support from unaffiliated parties. Because seats in minority parliaments are more evenly distributed amongst multiple parties, opposition parties have greater opportunity to block legislation. A minority government must therefore negotiate with external parties and adjust its policies to garner the majority of votes required to advance its initiatives.

This paper serves as a taxonomy of minority governments in recent history and proceeds ...


We Are All Farkhunda: An Examination Of The Treatment Of Women Within Afghanistan's Formal Legal System, Ashley Lenderman Oct 2018

We Are All Farkhunda: An Examination Of The Treatment Of Women Within Afghanistan's Formal Legal System, Ashley Lenderman

Indiana Journal of Constitutional Design

In this paper, I will examine three cases of violence against women that went through the Afghan formal legal system: the case of Farkhunda, the Paghman district gang rape case, and the case of Sahar Gul. In the first Part, I will discuss the formal legal system framework on which the cases are based. In the second Part, I will discuss the cases in detail. In the third Part, I will describe neo-liberal, reformist, and neo-fundamentalist approaches to interpretation of Islamic law, and I will then draw out pieces of the decisions from the three cases that closely match these ...


Legislative Committee Systems: A Design Perspective, Chase Stoddard Oct 2018

Legislative Committee Systems: A Design Perspective, Chase Stoddard

Indiana Journal of Constitutional Design

Committees are the defining characteristic of the modern legislature. While the centrality and study of party politics goes back further than committee politics, the focus on committee systems emerged over the course of the twentieth century, and legislatures could not function as we understand them without this mechanism. The United States Congressional committee system is the most studied system, yet virtually every country utilizes a committee system of some sort within its legislature. Despite their ubiquity in and centrality to the operations of legislatures, committees remain insufficiently studied, especially outside of the United States. The existing body of work tends ...


Forum Selling Abroad, Stefan Bechtold, Jens Frankenreiter, Daniel M. Klerman Sep 2018

Forum Selling Abroad, Stefan Bechtold, Jens Frankenreiter, Daniel M. Klerman

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

Judges decide cases. Do they also try to influence which cases they decide? Clearly plaintiffs “shop” for the most attractive forum, but do judges try to attract cases by “selling” their courts? Some American judges actively try to enlarge their influence by making their courts attractive to plaintiffs, a phenomenon known as “forum sell-ing.” This article shows that forum selling occurs outside the U.S. as well, focusing on Germany, a country that is often held up as the paragon of the civil law approach to adjudication. As in the U.S., German courts attract cases primarily through the pro-plaintiff ...


Moving Beyond The Wto: A Proposal To Adjudicate Gmo Disputes In An International Environmental Court, Marguerite A. Hutchinson Sep 2018

Moving Beyond The Wto: A Proposal To Adjudicate Gmo Disputes In An International Environmental Court, Marguerite A. Hutchinson

San Diego International Law Journal

This Article begins with a brief summary of the scientific basis of creating GMOs and its historic precursors. The second section provides an overview of risks to humans and the environment. The third part of this Article analyzes the arguments put forward by both the United States and the E.U., which have defined the conflict between blocs of countries pushing GMOs abroad and those who persistently reject them. The fourth section evaluates the respective regulatory schemes imposed on GMOs by the United States and Europe, domestically and by international treaty. The success of these systems is evaluated in the ...


Policing Against The State: United Nations Policing As Violative Of Sovereignty, Alexandra R. Harrington Sep 2018

Policing Against The State: United Nations Policing As Violative Of Sovereignty, Alexandra R. Harrington

San Diego International Law Journal

It is the author's contention that both parties to the policing arrangement-be they individuals, states, or organizations-give up portions of their sovereignty in the creation and maintenance of the police and policed relationship where the police are not serving the state which theoretically guards the policed. Part II of this Article provides a discussion of legal concepts of state sovereignty in international law. Part III examines the role of police in U.N. peacekeeping missions from the first peacekeeping mission entailing policing operations in the 1960s through present day operations. This examination reveals a pattern in the growth and ...


Tort Reform With Chinese Characteristics: Towards A Harmonious Society In The People's Republic Of China, Andrew J. Green Sep 2018

Tort Reform With Chinese Characteristics: Towards A Harmonious Society In The People's Republic Of China, Andrew J. Green

San Diego International Law Journal

This Article presents an analysis of tort law in China specifically focusing on personal injury tort law. It provides a general background on the role of tort law in society, and then it analyzes the specific laws, regulations, and cases that form the personal injury tort regime, covering both historical and recent laws. The article then explores the forces in society and politics that seem to be behind the new legal rules. It concludes by drawing attention to several steps that may be taken as part of further reform.


Equality In Germany And The United States, Edward J. Eberle Sep 2018

Equality In Germany And The United States, Edward J. Eberle

San Diego International Law Journal

This Article will proceed as follows. Part I will describe the methodology and approach of American and German equality law. The constitutional Courts of both countries value equality highly, resulting in strong and well developed jurisprudence. Each of the Courts employ a sliding scale of judicial scrutiny with the degree of scrutiny varying with the trait or personal interest affected by the governmental measure. Strict or extremely intensive scrutiny applies to measures targeting personal traits that especially affect a person's identity, like race, national heritage, or alienage under United States law, and race, sex, gender, language, national origin, disability ...


The Meaning Of Wrongdoing - A Crime Of Disrespecting The Flag: Grounds For Preserving National Unity, Mohammed Saif-Alden Wattad Sep 2018

The Meaning Of Wrongdoing - A Crime Of Disrespecting The Flag: Grounds For Preserving National Unity, Mohammed Saif-Alden Wattad

San Diego International Law Journal

To conclude on this issue, the rights of others, as individuals and as a whole, are formulated as the social protected interest that criminal law seeks to protect through criminal means, and it is with these rights that criminal law theory should be concerned in the first level of scrutiny. However, in the second level of scrutiny, an additional set of rights are brought into play; these are the rights of the individual, namely the actor, to exercise their constitutional rights e.g., free speech, liberty, free exercise of religion. The second level of scrutiny requires balancing those rights with ...


Modularity In Cross-Border Insolvency, Andrew B. Dawson Sep 2018

Modularity In Cross-Border Insolvency, Andrew B. Dawson

Chicago-Kent Law Review

This Article proposes a framework for thinking about the design structure of the Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency. The Model Law has been successful by many metrics; however, it has faced various implementation challenges. As leading scholar Professor Jay Westbrook has noted, thinking about these problems requires thinking about the Model Law as a system. To understand the system, it is necessary to understand its architecture, and I argue that this architecture is best understood as reflecting a modular design structure, i.e., one that divides complex systems into a hierarchical system of self-contained components. Modularity has provided insights into ...


Infinite Jest: The Otiose Quest For Completeness In Validating Insolvency Judgments, Bruce A. Markell Sep 2018

Infinite Jest: The Otiose Quest For Completeness In Validating Insolvency Judgments, Bruce A. Markell

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Universalism in cross-border bankruptcies strives to reduce waste, and harmonize restructuring and recoveries. Universalism’s avatar is UNCITRAL’s 1997 Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvencies (Model Law). Underlying the Model Law, however, is an implicit assumption that court orders entered in the proceeding where the debtor’s center of main interests is located will be respected in all other states in which the debtor has assets or operations. That assumption may have been incorrect, as shown by cases such as the United Kingdom’s Rubin v. Eurofinance, S.A.

This Article looks at UNCITRAL’s reaction to Rubin: its new ...


The Ammanati Affair: Seven Centuries Old, And Not Feeling The Age, Eugenio Vaccari Sep 2018

The Ammanati Affair: Seven Centuries Old, And Not Feeling The Age, Eugenio Vaccari

Chicago-Kent Law Review

The enactments of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency and the European Regulations on insolvency proceedings have promoted an incremental approach towards substantive harmonization. This strategy has not remained unquestioned. One of the major criticisms is that such a course of actions overlooks the nature of the issues currently raised in multi-national and cross-disciplinary bankruptcy procedures.

This Article focuses on the Anglo/American bankruptcy tradition. It adopts a doctrinal methodology to question the conclusion that “collectivity” is and should be a procedural, objective, and secondary notion in light of two case studies. It suggests that in the context of ...


The Avoidance Of Pre-Bankruptcy Transactions: An Economic And Comparative Approach, Aurelio Gurrea-Martínez Sep 2018

The Avoidance Of Pre-Bankruptcy Transactions: An Economic And Comparative Approach, Aurelio Gurrea-Martínez

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Most insolvency jurisdictions provide several mechanisms to reverse transactions entered into by a debtor prior to the commencement of the bankruptcy procedure. These mechanisms, generally known as claw-back actions or avoidance provisions, may fulfil several economic goals. First, they act as an ex post alignment of incentives between factually insolvent debtors and their creditors, since the latter become the residual claimants of an insolvent firm, but they do not have any control over the debtor’s assets while the company is not yet subject to a bankruptcy procedure. Thus, avoidance powers may prevent or, at least, reverse opportunistic behaviors faced ...


Layering, Conversion, And Drifting: A Comparative Analysis Of Path Dependent Change In Consumer Insolvency Systems, Megan Mcdermott Sep 2018

Layering, Conversion, And Drifting: A Comparative Analysis Of Path Dependent Change In Consumer Insolvency Systems, Megan Mcdermott

Chicago-Kent Law Review

The past twenty-five years have been marked by major developments in consumer insolvency systems around the world. The threshold challenge for comparative scholars is to keep up with the changes occurring in individual countries, as a necessary—but preliminary—step toward broader comparisons of the historical, social, and institutional forces in consumer bankruptcy. In order for deeper work to take place, though, the field needs consensus on what factors are most useful to analyze. Moreover, the dynamic environment of consumer insolvency requires a framework for analysis that is flexible and adaptable enough to provide insights notwithstanding the rapid changes in ...


A Canadian Lens On Third Party Litigation Funding In The American Bankruptcy Context, Stephanie Ben-Ishai, Emily Uza Sep 2018

A Canadian Lens On Third Party Litigation Funding In The American Bankruptcy Context, Stephanie Ben-Ishai, Emily Uza

Chicago-Kent Law Review

This Article offers two major recommendations to expand the use of third party litigation funding (“TPLF”) into the U.S. insolvency context. As seen in the Canadian context, courts have accepted the use of litigation funding agreements fitting within certain parameters. If U.S. courts follow suit, friction against the implementation of TPLF can be mitigated. Alternatively, regulation may occur through legislative and regulatory models to govern and set out precisely what types of arrangements are permitted. Involving entities such as the SEC may expedite the acceptance of TPLF, but special attention is necessary not to intermingle notions of fiduciaries ...


Market Organisations And Institutions In America And England: Valuation In Corporate Bankruptcy, Sarah Paterson Sep 2018

Market Organisations And Institutions In America And England: Valuation In Corporate Bankruptcy, Sarah Paterson

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Courts in England and the United States have traditionally adopted different approaches to the question of valuation in debt restructuring cases. In England, courts have tended to determine whether to approve the allocation of equity in a debt restructuring by reference to the amounts creditors would have received if no debt restructuring had been agreed. The company has typically argued that if no debt restructuring had been agreed either the business or the assets would have been sold. Typically, some evidence of exposure of the business and assets to the market will be submitted to identify the value which would ...


Fiduciary Duties Of Directors Of Insolvent Corporations: A Comparative Perspective, Alessandra Zanardo Sep 2018

Fiduciary Duties Of Directors Of Insolvent Corporations: A Comparative Perspective, Alessandra Zanardo

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Over the last two decades, in many jurisdictions great emphasis has been placed on directors’ fiduciary duties when a corporation is insolvent or in the amorphous “zone of insolvency”; notably, to investigate whether the directors should continue to promote the best interests of the corporation for the benefits of its shareholders, or whether their duties shift to creditors.

The resolution of this ubiquitous issue will help to answer the following questions: Do creditors have standing to pursue claims for breach of fiduciary duties in the insolvency scenario? And, if they do, is it direct or derivative standing?

This Article will ...


The Death Of Judicial Independence In Turkey: A Lesson For Others, Edwin L. Felter Jr., Oyku Didem Aydin Sep 2018

The Death Of Judicial Independence In Turkey: A Lesson For Others, Edwin L. Felter Jr., Oyku Didem Aydin

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Re-Sentencing Reform: A Comparative Analysis Of The Juvenile Justice System In The United States, United Kingdom, Colombia And Australia, Vianca I. Picart Sep 2018

Re-Sentencing Reform: A Comparative Analysis Of The Juvenile Justice System In The United States, United Kingdom, Colombia And Australia, Vianca I. Picart

ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


If Anti-Discrimination Laws Are On The Books, Then Why Do Women Not Sue? A Look Into The Almost Absent Gender Discrimination Litigation In Brazil, Cesar Zucatti Pritsch Sep 2018

If Anti-Discrimination Laws Are On The Books, Then Why Do Women Not Sue? A Look Into The Almost Absent Gender Discrimination Litigation In Brazil, Cesar Zucatti Pritsch

ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Periodic Review Boards For Law-Of-War Detention In Guantanamo: What Next?, Andrea Harrison Sep 2018

Periodic Review Boards For Law-Of-War Detention In Guantanamo: What Next?, Andrea Harrison

ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Reforma De La Revisiòn De Sentencia: Un Análisis Comparativo Del Sistema De Justicia Juvenil En Los Estados Unidos, El Reino Unido, Colombia Y Australia, Vianca I. Picart Sep 2018

Reforma De La Revisiòn De Sentencia: Un Análisis Comparativo Del Sistema De Justicia Juvenil En Los Estados Unidos, El Reino Unido, Colombia Y Australia, Vianca I. Picart

ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Si Hay Leyes De Antidiscriminiciòn ¿Por Qué Las Mujeres No Demandan Justicia? Una Mirada Al Litigo De Discriminaciòn De Género Casi Ausente En Brasil, Cesar Zucatti Pritsch Sep 2018

Si Hay Leyes De Antidiscriminiciòn ¿Por Qué Las Mujeres No Demandan Justicia? Una Mirada Al Litigo De Discriminaciòn De Género Casi Ausente En Brasil, Cesar Zucatti Pritsch

ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Juntas De Revisión Periódica Para La Detención De La Ley De Guerra En Guantánamo: ¿Qué Será Lo Siguiente?, Andrea Harrison Sep 2018

Juntas De Revisión Periódica Para La Detención De La Ley De Guerra En Guantánamo: ¿Qué Será Lo Siguiente?, Andrea Harrison

ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Between Power Politics And International Economic Law: Asian Regionalism, The Trans-Pacific Partnership And U.S.-China Trade Relations, Jiangyu Wang Aug 2018

Between Power Politics And International Economic Law: Asian Regionalism, The Trans-Pacific Partnership And U.S.-China Trade Relations, Jiangyu Wang

Pace International Law Review

This Article examines the interactions of power politics and international economic law in the development of regionalism in Asia, particularly in the context of United States-China trade relations. It argues that the process of regional economic integration in Asia has been slow-moving because of the politicization of regionalism by power rivalries. China’s initial regional integration initiatives apparently ignored the United States, a superpower which has always been a major player in Asia and an indispensable part of the region’s economic process. The United States-led Trans-Pacific Partnership was allegedly designed to exclude China, Asia’s largest economy. On the ...


“I Made A Huge Mistake With My Life” – The Harms Of Prostitution As Mis-Reflected In Israeli Law, Gal Amir, Shulamit Almog Aug 2018

“I Made A Huge Mistake With My Life” – The Harms Of Prostitution As Mis-Reflected In Israeli Law, Gal Amir, Shulamit Almog

DePaul Journal for Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Safety From Flawed Forensic Sciences Evidence, Boaz Sangero Aug 2018

Safety From Flawed Forensic Sciences Evidence, Boaz Sangero

Georgia State University Law Review

This article addresses the way to safety in the context of forensic sciences evidence. After presenting the current lack of safety, which I term “unsafety,” I raise some possible safety measures to contend with this. My suggestions are grounded on two bases: first, the specific analysis of each type of evidence in line with the most recent research on the subject; and second, modern safety theory and its application to the criminal justice system. It is important to stress that my proposals represent only some of the conceivable safety measures. Developing a comprehensive safety theory for the criminal justice system ...


The Uk Forensic Science Regulator: A Model For Forensic Science Regulation?, Carole Mccartney, Emmanuel N. Amoako Aug 2018

The Uk Forensic Science Regulator: A Model For Forensic Science Regulation?, Carole Mccartney, Emmanuel N. Amoako

Georgia State University Law Review

The use of an array of scientific techniques and technologies is now considered customary within criminal justice, with technological developments and scientific advancements regularly added to the crime investigator’s arsenal. However, the scientific basis, reliability, and fallibility of the application of such “forensic science” (and the resulting scientific evidence) continues to come under intense scrutiny. In response to apparently irremediable problems with the quality of scientific evidence in the United Kingdom (UK), the government created the role of “Forensic Science Regulator” in 2007.

The introduction of a regulator was intended to establish quality standards for all forensic science providers ...


A Room With A Brew: A Comparative Look At Homebrewing Laws In Japan & The United States, Christopher J. Fraga Jul 2018

A Room With A Brew: A Comparative Look At Homebrewing Laws In Japan & The United States, Christopher J. Fraga

University of Miami Law Review

Following the enactment of Prohibition, it took the United States almost four decades to legalize homebrewing. Subsequently, the nation experienced a booming interest in beer. And not just beer, but good beer. Drinkers found themselves invested in both quality and variety. This interest has matured into the craft beer industry. Even in holdover states, where state laws prohibited homebrewing far past 1979, the craft beer industry has experienced near exponential growth following the legalization of homebrewing. This has resulted in significant economic implications. Given these considerations, nations with restrictive homebrewing laws, like Japan, should consider easing them. When specifically applied ...


Protecting Defamatory Fiction And Reader-Response Theory With Emphasis On The German Experience, Henry Ordower Jun 2018

Protecting Defamatory Fiction And Reader-Response Theory With Emphasis On The German Experience, Henry Ordower

Henry M. Ordower

No abstract provided.