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Taxation, Pregnancy, And Privacy, Bridget J. Crawford 2010 College of William & Mary Law School

Taxation, Pregnancy, And Privacy, Bridget J. Crawford

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

This Article frames a discussion of surrogacy within the context of existing income tax laws. A surrogate receives money for carrying and bearing a child. This payment is income by any definition, even if the surrogacy contract recites that it is a “reimbursement.” Cases and rulings on the income tax consequences of the sale of blood and human breast milk, as well as analogies to situations in which people are paid to wear advertising on their bodies, support the conclusion that a surrogate recognizes taxable income, although the Internal Revenue Service has never stated so. For tax purposes, the reproductive ...


In Whom We Trust, Temple K. Fogg 2010 Villanova Law School

In Whom We Trust, Temple K. Fogg

T. Keith Fogg

The Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") collects the majority of taxes through business entities that are required to withhold taxes from wages or collect excise taxes at the time of providing services. These business entities hold the taxes they collect in trust for the IRS. The wast majority of business entities pay over the taxes held in trust in a timely and appropriate manner; however, a sizeable amount, in dollar terms, does not get paid. Aside from passing criminal laws at or near the passage of the 1954 code, Congress has done little to create a structure that provides incentives for ...


Dissecting O'Donnabhain, Anthony C. Infanti 2010 University of Pittsburgh School of Law

Dissecting O'Donnabhain, Anthony C. Infanti

Anthony C. Infanti

In O'Donnabhain v. Commissioner, a sharply divided Tax Court allowed a medical expense deduction for some costs related to sex reassignment surgery. This short commentary examines the opinions in the case and concludes that the taxpayer's victory rings hollow.


Excessive Executive Compensation: Prior Federal Attempts To Curb Perceived Abuses, 10 Hous. Bus. & Tax L.J. 196 (2010), Kathryn J. Kennedy 2010 John Marshall Law School

Excessive Executive Compensation: Prior Federal Attempts To Curb Perceived Abuses, 10 Hous. Bus. & Tax L.J. 196 (2010), Kathryn J. Kennedy

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Taxing Civil Rights Gains, Anthony C. Infanti 2010 University of Pittsburgh School of Law

Taxing Civil Rights Gains, Anthony C. Infanti

Michigan Journal of Gender and Law

This Article is divided into four parts. In Part I, the nature of the levy that the DOMAs impose on same-sex couples is explained. In Part II, how this levy can be classified as a "tax" is explained. In Part III, the federal- and state-level ramifications of classifying the levy that the DOMAs impose as a "tax" are discussed. Finally, brief concluding remarks are provided that discuss how this Article might pave the way for making similar arguments with respect to other nontraditional families and, concomitantly, how it demonstrates the transformative potential of same-sex marriage.


California Women: Trying To Use Federal Taxes To Put The 'Community' In Community Property, Stephanie H. McMahon 2010 University of Cincinnati College of Law

California Women: Trying To Use Federal Taxes To Put The 'Community' In Community Property, Stephanie H. Mcmahon

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

Community property is thought to be a more equitable marital property regime than the common law because we assume that providing each spouse with an interest in fifty percent of the family’s income also provides a substantial amount of equality between spouses. Historically, however, as the regime operated in the United States, it was not especially favorable to wives. Although the concept implied a partnership between spouses, in practice wives were denied rights a partner would expect to enjoy. This article examines how women lobbied to enlarge the protection California wives enjoyed under the state’s community property regime ...


The Untold Story Of Crane V. Commissioner Reveals An Inconvenient Tax Truth: Useless Depreciation Deductions Cause Global Basis Erosion To Bait A Hazardous Tax Trap For Unwitting Taxpayers, I Jay Katz 2010 SelectedWorks

The Untold Story Of Crane V. Commissioner Reveals An Inconvenient Tax Truth: Useless Depreciation Deductions Cause Global Basis Erosion To Bait A Hazardous Tax Trap For Unwitting Taxpayers, I Jay Katz

Irwin J Katz

Facts not discussed in the Supreme Court's decision in Crane v. Commissioner (much better known for Footnote 37) reveal an inconvenient tax truth of a hazardous tax trap for unwitting taxpayers (the "Basis Reduction Tax Trap"). For seven years, Beulah Crane operated an apartment building at a loss. For that reason, the substantial amount of allowable depreciation deductions on the building produced minimal tax benefits for her. Notwithstanding the lack of tax benefits, the basis of the apartment building was reduced by the depreciation deductions pursuant to section 1016(a) (2) of the Internal Revenue Code. Under threat of ...


Tax Shelters: Up Off The Canvas?, Steve R. Johnson 2010 Florida State University College of Law

Tax Shelters: Up Off The Canvas?, Steve R. Johnson

Scholarly Publications

Recently, taxpayers prevailed at trial in two federal tax shelter cases: TIFD III-E Inc. v. United States, 2009 WL 3208650 (D. Conn. Oct. 7, 2009) (“Castle Harbour III”) and Consolidated Edison Co. v. United States, 2009 WL 3418533 (Fed. Cl. Oct. 21, 2009) (“Con Ed”). Doing full justice to these cases would require detailed descriptions of their facts, the arguments presented and the rationales in the opinions. I leave this work to the inevitable parsing and spinning in briefs in tax shelter cases to come and to more length commentary. See, e.g., Lee A. Sheppard, Con Ed’s Night ...


One Case To Rule Them All: The Ninth Circuit In Bakersfield Applies Colony To Deny The Irs An Extended Statute Of Limitations In Overstatement Of Basis Cases, Bernard J. Audet Jr. 2010 Villanova University Charles Widger School of Law

One Case To Rule Them All: The Ninth Circuit In Bakersfield Applies Colony To Deny The Irs An Extended Statute Of Limitations In Overstatement Of Basis Cases, Bernard J. Audet Jr.

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


The "Interior" Revenue Service: The Tax Code As A Vehicle For Third-Party Enforcement Of Conservation Easements, Douglas M. Humphrey 2010 Boston College Law School

The "Interior" Revenue Service: The Tax Code As A Vehicle For Third-Party Enforcement Of Conservation Easements, Douglas M. Humphrey

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

Conservation easements are increasingly popular. They protect undeveloped land by removing the development right from the land-owner’s “bundle of sticks” and giving it to the party holding the easement. These easements confer a public benefit by protecting undeveloped land, dedicating it to use as a park, or preserving its ecosystem services. The Internal Revenue Code (the Tax Code) recognizes the public benefit, offering tax incentives for their donation to qualified organizations. However, the public does not have a vehicle to enforce the easements’ terms. Standing to enforce an easement is generally limited to the parties to the easement and ...


Question Of Purpose: Early Retirement Payments To Tenured Professors Constitute Wages Subject To Fica Taxation, Stephen Scott Wick 2010 Cleveland State University

Question Of Purpose: Early Retirement Payments To Tenured Professors Constitute Wages Subject To Fica Taxation, Stephen Scott Wick

Cleveland State Law Review

Currently, there is a circuit split on the issue of whether early retirement payments (ERPs) made to tenured faculty constitute wages subject to Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) taxation. In North Dakota State University v. United States, the Eighth Circuit held that ERPs made to tenured faculty do not constitute FICA wages because such payments are made to purchase the constitutionally protected property interest that tenured faculty hold in their tenure rights. However, the Sixth and Third Circuits, in Appoloni v. United States and University of Pittsburgh v. United States respectively, held that such payments do constitute FICA wages because ...


Running From The United States Treasury: The Need To Reform The Taxation Of Multinational Corporations, 43 J. Marshall L. Rev. 1041 (2010), Jennifer Barton 2010 John Marshall Law School

Running From The United States Treasury: The Need To Reform The Taxation Of Multinational Corporations, 43 J. Marshall L. Rev. 1041 (2010), Jennifer Barton

The John Marshall Law Review

No abstract provided.


For The Love Of The Game: The Justification For Tax Exemption In Intercollegiate Athletics, 44 J. Marshall L. Rev. 179 (2010), Andrew D. Appleby 2010 John Marshall Law School

For The Love Of The Game: The Justification For Tax Exemption In Intercollegiate Athletics, 44 J. Marshall L. Rev. 179 (2010), Andrew D. Appleby

The John Marshall Law Review

No abstract provided.


Rethinking Tax Priorities: Marriage Neutrality, Children, And Contemporary Families, James M. Puckett 2010 Penn State Law

Rethinking Tax Priorities: Marriage Neutrality, Children, And Contemporary Families, James M. Puckett

Journal Articles

Tax scholarship has long struggled with whether married taxpayers should be taxed differently from unmarried taxpayers. Currently, married taxpayers are subject to different tax rates than unmarried taxpayers, and may file a joint tax return. A married couple may pay a higher or lower amount of tax than an unmarried couple with the same total income, and a single person generally pays more tax on a given income than a married couple with a single earner with the same income. These outcomes are difficult to reconcile with a commitment to income tax progressivity, which in theory requires that higher incomes ...


Taxed Structured Settlements, Gregg D. Polsky, Brant J. Hellwig 2010 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Taxed Structured Settlements, Gregg D. Polsky, Brant J. Hellwig

Boston College Law Review

Congress has granted a tax subsidy to physically injured tort plaintiffs who enter into structured settlements. The subsidy allows these plaintiffs to exempt the investment yield imbedded within the structured settlement from federal income taxation. The apparent purpose of the subsidy is to encourage physically injured plaintiffs to invest, rather than presently consume, their litigation recoveries. Although the statutory subsidy by its terms is available only to physically injured tort plaintiffs, a growing structured settlement industry now contends that the same tax benefit of yield exemption is available to plaintiffs’ lawyers and nonphysically injured tort plaintiffs under general, common-law tax ...


An Arm's Length Solution To The Shareholder Loan Tax Puzzle, Wayne M. Gazur 2010 University of Colorado Law School

An Arm's Length Solution To The Shareholder Loan Tax Puzzle, Wayne M. Gazur

Articles

No abstract provided.


Human Capital And Transfer Taxation, Kerry A. Ryan 2010 Saint Louis University School of Law

Human Capital And Transfer Taxation, Kerry A. Ryan

Oklahoma Law Review

No abstract provided.


London Calling: Does The U.K.'S Experience With Individual Taxation Clash With The U.S.'S Expectations, Stephanie McMahon 2010 University of Cincinnati College of Law

London Calling: Does The U.K.'S Experience With Individual Taxation Clash With The U.S.'S Expectations, Stephanie Mcmahon

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

The United States is one of the last countries to tax married couples jointly; most other countries have adopted individual taxation. In 1990, the United Kingdom completed transitioning its tax system from one that treated husbands and wives as a marital unit to one that mandates an individual-based system, and so it has two decades of experience with the new regime. This article provides American policymakers valuable information regarding the consequences of adopting individual taxation by examining the United Kingdom's experience. First, it establishes a matrix of factors that identifies and assesses differences between the two nations that affect ...


Avoiding Misuse Of Donor Advised Funds, Michael J. Hussey 2010 Widener University

Avoiding Misuse Of Donor Advised Funds, Michael J. Hussey

Cleveland State Law Review

This Article presents a proposal for further modifying donor advised funds to retain most of their hallmark flexibility and ease of use while drawing them into line with other charitable giving vehicles that put contributed funds to use for active charitable purposes. This Article argues that using individual retirement accounts as an underlying legal model for donor advised funds will address Congress's concerns regarding the appropriateness of the income tax deductions for contributions to donor advised funds while allowing donor advised funds to retain much of their hallmark flexibility and ease of operation.


Critique Of U.S. House Bill 2454 On Climate Change, Michael J. Waggoner 2010 University of Colorado Law School

Critique Of U.S. House Bill 2454 On Climate Change, Michael J. Waggoner

Articles

The U.S. House of Representatives, in June 2009, approved a bill to create a cap and trade system and a system of regulations and subsidies to address the problems of climate change. The U.S. Senate is now considering remedies for climate change. The approach of House Bill 2454 is ill-advised, and should be rejected by the Senate, because of the problems outlined below. I propose that these problems that would not be presented by a carbon tax, a simpler and more effective remedy for the risk of climate change.


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