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Is The Chief Justice A Tax Lawyer?, Stephanie Hoffer, Christopher J. Walker 2016 Pepperdine University

Is The Chief Justice A Tax Lawyer?, Stephanie Hoffer, Christopher J. Walker

Pepperdine Law Review

In our contribution to this symposium on King v. Burwell, we explore two aspects of the Chief Justice’s opinion where it is hard to ignore the fingerprints of a tax lawyer. First, in the Chief’s approach to statutory interpretation one sees a tax lawyer as interpreter with an approach that tracks tax law’s substance-over-form doctrine. Second, as to King’s sweeping administrative law holding, the Chief crafts a new major questions doctrine that could significantly cut back on federal agency lawmaking authority. Yet he seems to develop this doctrine against the backdrop of tax exceptionalism, and thus ...


The Rise And Fall Of Chevron In Tax: From The Early Days To King And Beyond, Steve R. Johnson 2016 Pepperdine University

The Rise And Fall Of Chevron In Tax: From The Early Days To King And Beyond, Steve R. Johnson

Pepperdine Law Review

Chevron is receding in tax, not because of any resurgence of tax exceptionalism but because it is receding everywhere. The case will continue to be cited by courts and masticated by commentators, but the unresolved – indeed worsening — conceptual, definitional, and practical incongruities of its doctrine rob it of operational force. King, which the Supreme Court conspicuously chose to resolve without “help” from Chevron, is another mile-marker on Chevron’s downward road. This article maps that road.


King V. Burwell And Tax Court Review Of Regulations, Ellen P. Aprill 2016 Pepperdine University

King V. Burwell And Tax Court Review Of Regulations, Ellen P. Aprill

Pepperdine Law Review

In King v. Burwell, the Supreme Court did not rely on Chevron to hold valid tax regulations allowing tax credits for taxpayers who enroll in an insurance plan through a federal rather than a state exchange. It instead concluded, relying in good measure on Brown and Williamson, that Congress had not delegated the question at issue to the IRS. It thus introduced a so-called Chevron Step 0. This essay reviews the Tax Court’s use of Chevron and Brown & Williamson to conclude that the Tax Court may well make use of King v. Burwell to review and reject tax regulations ...


Foreword—King V. Burwell Symposium: Comments On The Commentaries (And On Some Elephants In The Room), David Gamage 2016 Pepperdine University

Foreword—King V. Burwell Symposium: Comments On The Commentaries (And On Some Elephants In The Room), David Gamage

Pepperdine Law Review

As an introduction to the Symposium, this invited response essay reviews the pieces submitted for the Pepperdine Law Review symposium on the King v. Burwell case. The thrust of this essay’s response commentary is to praise the submitted essays for their excellence and insightfulness, but to suggest that the submitted essays nonetheless might benefit from focusing more on the role of the political mobilization that resulted in the King v. Burwell dispute. Ultimately, this essay suggests that what may have motivated the Supreme Court to develop and apply its new “deep economic and political significance” test in this this ...


An Obituary Of The Federal Estate Tax, M C. Mirow, Bruce A. McGovern 2016 Florida International University College of Law

An Obituary Of The Federal Estate Tax, M C. Mirow, Bruce A. Mcgovern

M. C. Mirow

The authors adopt the genre of the obituary to discuss the development and present condition of the Federal Estate Tax. Using this form of descriptive narrative, the authors present a concise summary of the most important changes in the tax over the past eighty-five years.


Doma Implications For Employee Benefit Plans: Round 3, 150 Tax Notes 101 (2016), Kathryn Kennedy 2016 John Marshall Law School

Doma Implications For Employee Benefit Plans: Round 3, 150 Tax Notes 101 (2016), Kathryn Kennedy

Kathryn J. Kennedy

This article is the third in a series on the implications for employee benefit plans of the Supreme Court’s decisions on the constitutionality of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) and state bans on same-sex marriage. In this article, Kennedy highlights the effect Obergefell v. Hodges will have on employee benefit plans.


Finishing The Job On Section 356(A)(2): Closing Loopholes And Providing Consistent Treatment To Boot In Tax-Free Reorganizations, 2016 Brigham Young University Law School

Finishing The Job On Section 356(A)(2): Closing Loopholes And Providing Consistent Treatment To Boot In Tax-Free Reorganizations

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


As American As Apple Inc.: Corporate Ownership And The Fight For Tax Reform, Penn Wharton PPI 2016 University of Pennsylvania

As American As Apple Inc.: Corporate Ownership And The Fight For Tax Reform, Penn Wharton Ppi

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

Both supporters and critics of the current tax advantages enjoyed by U.S. multinational corporations (MNCs) bolster their arguments with appeals to patriotism: the MNCs and their political supporters argue that allowing inversions or other similar arrangements and instituting another tax holiday for “repatriating” overseas earnings are good for the American economy as a whole; opponents condemn these tax advantages as unpatriotic in depriving the U.S. of enormous sums of needed revenue. But where, precisely, is the “home” to which profits held offshore return? For many purposes, home is where the shareholders are. Determining ownership of U.S. MNCs ...


The Future Of American Tax Administration: Conceptual Alternatives And Political Realities, Steve R. Johnson 2016 Florida State University College of Law

The Future Of American Tax Administration: Conceptual Alternatives And Political Realities, Steve R. Johnson

Scholarly Publications

No abstract provided.


The Target Method For Partnership Special Allocations And Why It Should Be Safe-Harbored, Daniel S. Goldberg 2016 University of Maryland School of Law

The Target Method For Partnership Special Allocations And Why It Should Be Safe-Harbored, Daniel S. Goldberg

Faculty Scholarship

The Treasury Regulations’ concept of “substantial economic effect” is the holy grail of partnership special allocations. Special allocations that have substantial economic effect will come within a safe harbor in the regulations and have assurance that the allocations that are provided in the partnership agreement will be respected. In order for the allocations to come within the substantial economic effect safe harbor, the partnership must (1) maintain capital accounts in accordance with the Treasury Regulations’ standard; (2) provide for liquidation in accordance with capital accounts in all events; and (3) either (a) provide for a deficit restoration obligation (DRO) on ...


An Argument In Support Of Tax-Free Per-Cap Distribution Payments Derived From Native American Nations Gaming Sources, 37 N. Ill. U. L. Rev. 66 (2016), Arthur Acevedo 2016 John Marshall Law School

An Argument In Support Of Tax-Free Per-Cap Distribution Payments Derived From Native American Nations Gaming Sources, 37 N. Ill. U. L. Rev. 66 (2016), Arthur Acevedo

Faculty Scholarship

Gaming activities play important social, cultural, and economic roles for many Native American tribes. During the 1970s and 1980s, gaming activities spread throughout the country, and became more accessible to nonnative individuals. This growth in gaming activities drew the attention of state and local officials who sought to limit and regulate Native American gaming. In California v. Cabazon Band of Mission Indians, the State of California, arguing before the Supreme Court, asserted that it could exercise jurisdiction over Native American gaming activities. In a stunning defeat, the Supreme Court ruled against the State of California when it announced its decision ...


When International Tax Agreements Fail At Home: A U.S. Example, Diane Ring 2016 Brooklyn Law School

When International Tax Agreements Fail At Home: A U.S. Example, Diane Ring

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Over the past two and a half years, the international tax community has focused on the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Project (BEPS project) undertaken by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) at the behest of the G20. According to the OECD, the resulting 2015 agreement involved the direct participation of more than sixty countries. An additional fifty-nine countries indirectly participated through regional dialogues. Furthermore, numerous international organizations are credited with participating in discussions and contributing to the resulting product. But, effective implementation of the BEPS agreement requires domestic action of various types—the domestic side of international ...


The Social Boundaries Of Corporate Taxation, Sloan G. Speck 2016 University of Colorado Law School

The Social Boundaries Of Corporate Taxation, Sloan G. Speck

Articles

Historically, the tax law distinction between corporate and conduit treatment drew primarily on doctrinal understandings, treating state-law corporations as corporate for tax purposes and classifying unincorporated legal entities based on their resemblance to conventional state-law corporations. More recently, commentators and Treasury have abandoned these doctrinal touchstones in favor of efficiency, broadly construed, as the guiding principle in determining an entity’s tax classification. This Article argues that, while important, efficiency considerations should not function as the sole arbiter of the boundary between corporate and conduit tax treatment. First, classical corporate taxation is, in many ways, deeply embedded within a larger ...


Tax Planning And Policy Drift, Sloan G. Speck 2016 University of Colorado Law School

Tax Planning And Policy Drift, Sloan G. Speck

Articles

This Article proposes a framework for analyzing how private-sector legal interpretations influence public policy. Political scientists and legal scholars use the terms “bureaucratic drift” and “legislative drift” to describe how administrative agencies and future legislative coalitions affect public policy enacted by Congress. This Article identifies a third category of policy drift: “planning drift.” Planning drift describes deviations from an enacting legislature’s policy preferences that result from private experts’ interpretations of existing law. After Congress enacts a statute, the first people to interpret and apply the new legislation generally are not regulators or judges, but instead are private experts, such ...


The Future Of The Cadillac Tax, Kathryn L. Moore 2016 University of Kentucky

The Future Of The Cadillac Tax, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The Affordable Care Act includes a 40 percent excise tax on high-cost employer-sponsored health care coverage. Often referred to as the “Cadillac tax,” this excise tax is one of the most controversial elements of the Affordable Care Act.

Currently scheduled to go into effect in 2020, the Cadillac tax poses serious challenges and uncertainty for employers. On the one hand, recent estimates suggest that the Cadillac tax may hit as many as 20 percent of employers with health care plans in 2020. On the other hand, there is a serious question as to whether the tax will be repealed before ...


Follow The Money: A Discussion Of The Organisation For Economic Co-Operation And Development’S Base Erosion And Profit Shifting Project: Has The Us Taken Steps To Adopt A Global Solution To This Worldwide Problem?, Claire Arritola 2016 University of Miami Law School

Follow The Money: A Discussion Of The Organisation For Economic Co-Operation And Development’S Base Erosion And Profit Shifting Project: Has The Us Taken Steps To Adopt A Global Solution To This Worldwide Problem?, Claire Arritola

University of Miami Business Law Review

This article looks at the recent actions taken by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to prevent hybrid mismatches and tax base erosion. These actions have come in the form of the “Action Plan for Base Erosion and Profits” (BEPS). BEPS has spanned from 2013 to 2015 and has been the collaborative effort of representatives from 34 countries (with much help from the G-20 countries) as well as input from other non-member countries. Through this project, the OECD seeks to eradicate the problems caused by the current corporate tax structure and the tendency of countries to choose country-specific ...


It Saves To Be Healthy: Using The Tax Code To Incentivize Employer-Provided Wellness Benefits, Hilary R. Shepherd 2016 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

It Saves To Be Healthy: Using The Tax Code To Incentivize Employer-Provided Wellness Benefits, Hilary R. Shepherd

Indiana Law Journal

With lifestyle-related disease on the rise and an increasing number of employers being held responsible for providing health insurance to their employees, we as a society have incentives to promote wellness, even if only to cut health care costs. Part I of this Note outlines a brief history of employer-provided wellness benefits and provides a concise summary of the employer-provided wellness benefits available. Part II analyzes the relevant federal income tax law, specifically, the fringe benefits provision of the Internal Revenue Code, and concludes that under existing tax law, on-premises gym facilities do not yield any taxable income to employees ...


The Tax Provisions Denying A Deduction For Illegal Expenses And Expenses Of Illegal Businesses Should Be Repealed, Douglas A. Kahn, Howard Bromberg 2016 University of Michigan Law School

The Tax Provisions Denying A Deduction For Illegal Expenses And Expenses Of Illegal Businesses Should Be Repealed, Douglas A. Kahn, Howard Bromberg

Articles

Currently, the tax law denies a deduction for business expenses that violate a federal or state law (but only if the state law is generally enforced). In addition, losses, including business losses, cannot be deducted if they arise out of an illegal activity. For example, medical expenses are denied a deduction if they are illegal. Kickbacks, bribes, and rebates given in connection with the Medicaid or Medicare program are nondeductible. Any expenses, legal or not, incurred in connection with the conduct of a business of selling a controlled substance that is prohibited by federal law (or by the law of ...


Back To 1913?: The Ryan Blueprint And Its Problems, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah 2016 University of Michigan Law School

Back To 1913?: The Ryan Blueprint And Its Problems, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Articles

From the Revolutionary War to the late 19th century, the federal government was financed primarily through regressive tariffs on imported goods. The exception was the income tax enacted during the national emergency of the Civil War, which was allowed to expire in 1872. The rise of an industrial economy in the post- Civil War era led to significant increases in inequality, which the tariffs exacerbated by falling primarily on the working class. ‘‘Robber barons’’ like J.P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, and John D. Rockefeller did not consume most of their income, and their intangible wealth avoided state-level personal property taxes ...


Full Circle? The Single Tax Principle, Beps, And The New Us Model, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah 2016 University of Michigan Law School

Full Circle? The Single Tax Principle, Beps, And The New Us Model, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Articles

This paper will argue that while there is some innovation in BEPS, it is in fact more of a continuation that a sharp break with the past. Like Alexis de Tocqueville’s French Revolution, BEPS represents both continuity and change. In particular, the single tax principle has formed the theoretical basis of much of the international tax regime from the beginning. And it is in fact this continuity rather than any sharp change that gives the final BEPS package its promise to, as Secretary General Gurria also promised, “put an end to double non-taxation.”


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