(Anti)Poverty Measures Exposed, 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas -- William S. Boyd School of Law
(Anti)Poverty Measures Exposed, Francine J. Lipman
Few economic indicators have more salience and pervasive financial impact on everyday lives in the United States than poverty measures. Nevertheless, policymakers, researchers, advocates, and legislators generally do not understand the details of poverty measure mechanics. These detailed mechanics shape and reshape poverty measures and the too often uninformed responses and remedies. This Article will build a bridge from personal portraits of families living in poverty to the resource allocations that failed them by exposing the specific detailed mechanics underlying the Census Bureau’s official (OPM) and supplemental poverty measures (SPM). Too often, when we confront the problem of poverty ...
Putting The Substance Back Into The Economic Substance Doctrine, 2017 Brooklyn Law School
Putting The Substance Back Into The Economic Substance Doctrine, Nicholas Giordano
Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law
The foreign tax credit, which saves U.S. taxpayers from paying both foreign and domestic income taxes on the same income, is critical to facilitating global commerce. However, as savvy taxpayers discover increasingly complicated ways to abuse the foreign tax credit regime through the structuring of business transactions, courts have become increasingly skeptical of the validity of those transactions. Using the economic substance doctrine, a common law doctrine codified in 2010 at I.R.C. § 7701(o), courts will disallow tax benefits stemming from a transaction that is not profitable absent its tax benefits, and which the taxpayer had no ...
A Consumer Protection Rationale For Regulation Of Tax Return Preparers, 2017 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana
A Consumer Protection Rationale For Regulation Of Tax Return Preparers, Pippa Browde
Faculty Law Review Articles
Of the 150 million tax returns filed each year, approximately fifty-six percent are prepared with the help ofa paid preparer. Although state-licensed lawyers and certified public accountants may prepare tax returns for clients, the vast majority ofpaid tax return preparers are completely unregulated. For low-income taxpayers who are eligible for refundable tax credits, these unregulated tax return preparers do more than just fill out tax returns. Return preparers who serve low-income taxpayers often also market consumer credit products, such as refund anticipation loans or checks. Government agencies and consumer advocates have documented widespread problems with the tax return preparer industry ...
Reforming The Tax Incentives For Higher Education, 2017 University of Georgia School of Law
Reforming The Tax Incentives For Higher Education, Camilla E. Watson
Federal spending on higher education has long been controversial, primarily because it has grown exponentially since the 1950s but it has produced a system which many regard as too expensive and grossly inefficient. The soaring costs are placing higher education beyond the reach of many Americans, and of those who enter college, less than half complete their degrees. Particular criticism has been directed toward the education tax incentives, enacted mostly in the late 1990s, which shifted federalfunding for higher education from direct benefits to students in the form of grants, loans and work-study programs to indirect benefits through the tax ...
Tax Treatment Of A Marijuana Business, 2017 University of Michigan Law School
Tax Treatment Of A Marijuana Business, Douglas A. Kahn, Howard Bromberg
Currently, twenty-eight states and the District of Columbia allow the use of marijuana for medical purposes and permit the conduct of a business marketing of marijuana for that purpose. Eight of those states and the District of Columbia permit the recreational use of marijuana. There is reason to believe that more states will decriminalize the marketing of marijuana. However, marijuana is listed in Schedule 1 of the federal Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (CSA) which makes it illegal under federal law to manufacture or distribute marijuana even when it is legal to do so under local state law. In a ...
The Fallacious Objections To The Tax Treatment Of Carried Interests, 2017 Florida State University College of Law
The Fallacious Objections To The Tax Treatment Of Carried Interests, Jeffrey H. Kahn, Douglas A. Kahn
No abstract provided.
Donor Advised Funds: Charitable Spending Vehicles For 21st Century Philanthropy, 2017 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law
Donor Advised Funds: Charitable Spending Vehicles For 21st Century Philanthropy, Roger Colinvaux
Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions
The donor advised fund (DAF) is changing longstanding giving norms in United States philanthropy. DAF contributions now account for around 8.4% of giving by individuals in the U.S. Over half of those contributions go to national DAF sponsors that have relationships with large commercial investment firms like Fidelity, Vanguard, and Schwab. This Article seeks to advance the understanding of the donor advised fund and to address two of the main policy questions: whether to require a mandatory distribution of funds by DAFs and their sponsoring organizations and how to respond to the increased use of DAFs for noncash ...
The Importance Of A Participatory Charitable Giving Incentive, 2017 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law
The Importance Of A Participatory Charitable Giving Incentive, Roger Colinvaux
Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions
Leading tax reform proposals contemplate a charitable deduction claimed by just five percent of taxpayers. Such a limited deduction would fatally undermine the foundations of a giving incentive that has fostered an altruistic and pluralistic society through its broad-based participation and would seriously harm the charitable sector. Section 501(c)(3) would recede in importance as setting the standard for a public benefit organization. More gifts would go to private benefit and political organizations. The article argues that a charitable deduction for the few should be rejected. Instead, Congress should consider expanding the charitable giving incentive by extending it to ...
The Great Etf Tax Swindle: The Taxation Of In-Kind Redemptions, 2017 Fordham University School of Law
The Great Etf Tax Swindle: The Taxation Of In-Kind Redemptions, Jeffrey Colon
Since the repeal of the General Utilities doctrine over 30 years ago, corporations must recognize gain when distributing appreciated property to their shareholders. Regulated investment companies (RICs), which generally must be organized as domestic corporations, are exempt from this rule when distributing property in kind to a redeeming shareholder. In-kind redemptions, while rare for mutual funds, are a fundamental feature of exchange-traded funds (ETFs). Because fund managers decide which securities to distribute, they distribute assets with unrealized gains and thereby significantly reduce the future tax burdens of their current and future shareholders. Many ETFs have morphed into investment vehicles that ...
Considering "Citizenship Taxation": In Defense Of Fatca, 2017 University of Utah, SJ Quinney College of Law
Considering "Citizenship Taxation": In Defense Of Fatca, Young Ran Kim
Utah Law Faculty Scholarship
Inspired by Ruth Mason’s recent article, Citizenship Taxation, which reaches a general conclusion against citizenship taxation, this Article also questions citizen taxation under the same normative framework, but with a particular focus on efficiency and administrability, and takes a much less critical stance towards the merits of citizenship taxation. First, neither citizenship taxation nor residence-based taxation can completely account for the differences between residents’ and nonresidents’ ability to pay taxes under the fairness argument. Second, the efficiency argument, that citizenship taxation may distort both Americans’ and non-Americans’ citizenship decisions, is not convincing. The American citizenship renunciation rate is not ...
Pop Culture Business Handbook For Cons And Festivals: Gambling, Raffles, Door Prizes, And Competitions, 2017 Nova Southeastern University - Shepard Broad College of Law
Pop Culture Business Handbook For Cons And Festivals: Gambling, Raffles, Door Prizes, And Competitions, Jon Garon
Games of chance are highly regulated activities, whereas bona fide competitions are generally left unregulated. Both are big businesses. Competitions, drafts, and other events help support the popularity of trading card games. Many nonprofit organizations take advantage of their charitable status to raise funds through various indirect strategies, including raffles, bingo, games of chance, and competitions. For the games of chance, it often comes as a surprise to nonprofit volunteers that these activities are highly regulated under state law and IRS rules. Many of the common practices used by charities are illegal, and it is only the high public regard ...
Simplexity: Plain Language And The Tax Law, 2017 New York University School of Law
Simplexity: Plain Language And The Tax Law, Joshua D. Blank, Leigh Osofsky
In recent years, federal government agencies have increasingly attempted to use plain language in written communications with the public. The Plain Writing Act of 2010, for instance, requires agencies to incorporate "clear and simple" explanations of rules and regulations into their official publications. In the tax context, as part of its "customer service" mission, the Internal Revenue Service bears a "duty to explain" the tax law to hundreds of millions of taxpayers who file tax returns each year. Proponents of the plain language movement have heralded this form of communication as leading to simplicity in tax compliance, more equitable access ...
The Definitions Of Income, 2017 Georgetown University Law Center
The Definitions Of Income, John R. Brooks
Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works
What is income? It’s a seemingly simple question that’s surprisingly hard to answer. Income is the basis for assigning tax burdens, for distributing transfers, and for broader normative issues of inequality and justice. Yet we lack a shared conception of income, and a pure, rigorous definition of income is impossible. In this Article I review the intellectual history of the income concept among tax and fiscal theorists to show the difficulty of the problem, and also to show that some important debates about what’s proper under an income tax can be explained instead as arguments over competing ...
Income Tax At 100 Years : Essays And Reflections On The Income War Tax Act, 2017 Osgoode Hall Law School of York University
Income Tax At 100 Years : Essays And Reflections On The Income War Tax Act, Jinyan Li
Income Tax at 100 Years: Essays and Reflections on the Income War Tax Act commemorates the 100th anniversary of Canada's Income War Tax Act, 1917, with papers and panel discussions from a wide range of distinguished contributors: tax practitioners, both accountants and lawyers; academic experts in tax law, economics, and public policy; judges; journalists; and policy makers from both the Department of Justice and the Canada Revenue Agency. The book considers, among other things, the historical context from which Canada's modern income tax system emerged, demonstrating how the tax law was shaped by the challenges that faced the ...
Government As Investor: The Case Of Immediate Expensing, 2017 Wake Forest University
Government As Investor: The Case Of Immediate Expensing, Rebecca N. Morrow
Kentucky Law Journal
For more than sixty years, tax scholars have recognized conditions under which the government ceases to be a mere taxing entity—imposing a rate of tax on a business’s profits—and through the operation of tax law becomes more like an investment partner—contributing its fair share of capital to new investments and proportionately sharing in losses as well as gains. These conditions, which are satisfied by immediate expensing policies, are now common.
The investment partner analogy has been analyzed from the perspective of a taxpayer who, as a result of partnership-like treatment, enjoys returns on investment that are ...
Consumer-Based Use Tax Enforcement And Taxpayer Compliance, 2017 Indiana University Maurer School of Law
Consumer-Based Use Tax Enforcement And Taxpayer Compliance, David Gamage, Adam Thimmesch, Darien Shanske
Articles by Maurer Faculty
This essay explains how current state government approaches to use-tax enforcement undermine tax morale and taxpayer compliance. This essay further argues that these threats to tax morale and taxpayer compliance will become even more severe as many states are moving toward adopting notice and reporting statutes for their sales and use taxes.
In Search Of Smarter Homeowner Subsidies, 2017 Case Western University School of Law
In Search Of Smarter Homeowner Subsidies, Matthew Rossman
Critics have long assailed the federal tax code’s homeowner subsidies as lucrative tax breaks for upper income households that are essentially worthless to lower income households financially constrained from purchasing a home. This article examines the subsidies through a different lens and reveals another serious flaw that has received little attention. It demonstrates how the homeowner subsidies do very little to contain the negative housing externalities that other federal policies seek to abate and, worse yet, probably undermine these policies by subsidizing behavior that exacerbates the externalities. These policies are wide-ranging and include: (i) combating blight, deterioration and public ...
R&D Tax Incentives--Growth Panacea Or Budget Trojan Horse?, 2016 Harvard Law School
R&D Tax Incentives--Growth Panacea Or Budget Trojan Horse?, Stephen E. Shay, J. Clifton Fleming Jr., Robert J. Peroni
No abstract provided.
When Helpers Hurt: Protecting Taxpayers From Preparers, 2016 Washington and Lee University School of Law
When Helpers Hurt: Protecting Taxpayers From Preparers, Michelle L. Drumbl
Michelle L Drumbl
Joint Statement Of The Ncc And The Uscc Regarding Tax Reforms, 2016 St. John's University School of Law
Joint Statement Of The Ncc And The Uscc Regarding Tax Reforms
The Catholic Lawyer
No abstract provided.