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The Theory And Practice At The Intersection Between Human Rights And Humanitarian Law, Monica Hakimi 2018 University of Michigan Law School

The Theory And Practice At The Intersection Between Human Rights And Humanitarian Law, Monica Hakimi

Reviews

The United States is more than fifteen years into a fight against terrorism that shows no sign of abating and, with the change in administration, appears to be intensifying. Other Western democracies that have historically been uneasy about U.S. counterterrorism policies have, in recent years, shifted toward those policies. And armed nonstate groups continue to commit large-scale acts of violence in multiple distinct theaters. The legal issues that these situations present are not entirely new, but neither are they going away. Recent publications, like the three works under review, thus provide useful opportunities to reflect on and refine our ...


Silent War: Applicability Of The Jus In Bello To Military Space Operations, Kubo Mačák 2018 University of Exeter

Silent War: Applicability Of The Jus In Bello To Military Space Operations, Kubo Mačák

International Law Studies

There are no molecules of air that could carry sound waves in the vacuum of outer space. Accordingly, space warfare may well become the first type of war whose signature sound would be—silence. But does the law of armed conflict (jus in bello) fall silent in times of Silent War? This article addresses the uncertainty at the heart of this issue. First, it delineates the relevant conceptual framework by examining the factual notion of “military space operations,” and its relationship with the legal concept of “armed conflict,” as well as the overlap between the potentially applicable bodies of law ...


Technical Fouls: Adjudicating Statutory Violations With Equitable Resolutions, Antonio G. Fraone 2018 Boston College Law School

Technical Fouls: Adjudicating Statutory Violations With Equitable Resolutions, Antonio G. Fraone

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

In Weinberger v. Romero-Barcelo, the United States Supreme Court allowed for an equitable resolution to a lawsuit seeking immediate enforcement, by injunction, of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“FWPCA”). In this case, the United States Navy violated the FWPCA by discharging munitions—a pollutant as defined by the statute—during training exercises into the waters surrounding the Island of Vieques. The Navy also failed to obtain a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit, which would have made the discharge lawful under the statute. The people of Puerto Rico sought to enjoin the training exercises through the FWPCA. The Navy ...


International Coalitions And Non-Militarily Contributing Member States: A Perspective From Panama’S Practice And The Law Of Neutrality, Alonso E. Illueca 2018 University of Miami Law School

International Coalitions And Non-Militarily Contributing Member States: A Perspective From Panama’S Practice And The Law Of Neutrality, Alonso E. Illueca

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

The military actions of an International Coalition and the role of its non-military contributing member States is yet another fundamental example of international practice concerning conflation between jus ad bellum and jus in bello. Although International Law proscribes the use of force in international relations, membership in an International Coalition engaged in military operations does not come without a cost. Non-military contributing member States may be regarded as co-belligerents or neutral States violating the laws of neutrality. This article argues that mere membership in a coalition does not amount to co-belligerency. Nevertheless, it claims that membership could entail a violation ...


Reflexive Control And Disinformation In Putin's Wars, Francis King 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Reflexive Control And Disinformation In Putin's Wars, Francis King

Germanic and Slavic Languages and Literatures Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The use of reflexive control (RC) and disinformation in the Russian conduct of kinetic and non-kinetic warfare is evident in conflicts from the Second Chechen War to Russian meddling in the U.S. 2016 presidential election. The original Soviet theory of RC has been refined and expanded into new dimensions of warfare including the concepts of information warfare and cyberwarfare, thus becoming a major weapon of the Russian military in its influence campaigns against the West. The technique of feeding disinformation or selecting the information an opponent receives in order to influence his voluntary decisions has been exploited by Russia ...


Targeted Capture, Alexander K.A. Greenawalt 2018 Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University

Targeted Capture, Alexander K.A. Greenawalt

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This Article confronts one of the most difficult and contested questions in the debate about targeted killing that has raged in academic and policy circles over the last decade. Suppose that, in wartime, the target of a military strike may readily be neutralized through nonlethal means such as capture. Do the attacking forces have an obligation to pursue that nonlethal alternative? The Article defends the duty to employ less restrictive means (“LRM”) in wartime, and it advances several novel arguments in defense of that obligation. In contrast to those who look to external restraints--such as those imposed by international human ...


Contemporary Practice Of The United States Relating To International Law (112:1 Am J Int'l L), Jean Galbraith 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Contemporary Practice Of The United States Relating To International Law (112:1 Am J Int'l L), Jean Galbraith

Faculty Scholarship

This article is reproduced with permission from the January 2018 issue of the American Journal of International Law © 2018 American Society of International Law. All rights reserved.

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U.S. War Powers And The Potential Benefits Of Comparativism, Curtis A. Bradley 2018 Duke Law School

U.S. War Powers And The Potential Benefits Of Comparativism, Curtis A. Bradley

Faculty Scholarship

There is no issue of foreign relations law more important than the allocation of authority over the use of military force. This issue is especially important for the United States given the frequency with which it is involved in military activities abroad. Yet there is significant uncertainty and debate in the United States over this issue — in particular, over whether and to what extent military actions must be authorized by Congress. Because U.S. courts in the modern era have generally declined to review the legality of military actions, disputes over this issue have had to be resolved, as a ...


The Corporate Governance Of National Security, Andrew Verstein 2018 Wake Forest University School of Law

The Corporate Governance Of National Security, Andrew Verstein

Washington University Law Review

At hundreds of companies, the government installs former spies and military officers to run the business without shareholder oversight, putting security before profits in order to protect vital projects from potentially treasonous influences. Through procedures I call “National Security Corporate Governance,” corporate boardrooms have quietly become instruments of national defense, marrying the efficiency norms of corporate law and the protective ambitions of national security. How is this achieved, and how successfully? Using a variety of research approaches – including Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests, archival searches, telephone interviews, and in-person conversations with industry insiders – this Article illuminates a secretive government ...


If War Is Everywhere, Then Must The Law Be Nowhere?, Alexander K.A. Greenawalt 2018 Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University

If War Is Everywhere, Then Must The Law Be Nowhere?, Alexander K.A. Greenawalt

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This response focuses on one of the most difficult questions posed by Rosa Brooks's How Everything Became War and the Military Became Everything: How should the erosion of the war / peace dichotomy impact the justifications for the use of lethal force by the United States government and what, if any, role is there for law in this context? While Brooks is unambiguously critical of Bush administration legal policies that asserted expansive executive war powers, she is less certain about the Obama administration's own reliance on the war paradigm to justify its targeted killing policies. While describing these policies ...


Event Horizon: Examining Military And Weaponization Issues In Space By Utilizing The Outer Space Treaty And The Law Of Armed Conflict, Ryan M. Esparza 2018 University of Mississippi School of Law

Event Horizon: Examining Military And Weaponization Issues In Space By Utilizing The Outer Space Treaty And The Law Of Armed Conflict, Ryan M. Esparza

Journal of Air Law and Commerce

This article takes the position that any lingering ambiguities surrounding the militarization and weaponization of outer space should be analyzed via the joint scope of the Outer Space Treaty and the Law of Armed Conflict. This article pulls key provisions from Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions because of Additional Protocol I’s application in international conflicts and affirmation of the four Geneva Conventions. After an examination of key Additional Protocol I provisions and their application to space, this article conducts a joint analysis of the Outer Space Treaty and the Law of Armed Conflict. This joint analysis examines ...


Targeting Of Persons: The Contemporary Challenges, Charles J. Dunlap Jr. 2018 Duke Law School

Targeting Of Persons: The Contemporary Challenges, Charles J. Dunlap Jr.

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Aba Rule Of Law Initiative Celebrating 25 Years Of Global Initiatives, M. Margaret McKeown 2018 United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

The Aba Rule Of Law Initiative Celebrating 25 Years Of Global Initiatives, M. Margaret Mckeown

Michigan Journal of International Law

Relying on extensive reports, program documentation, and interviews with important actors in the rule of law movement, this article will explore how one key player in the international-development field—the ABA—has furthered rule of law values through its global programs. The first half of the article surveys the ABA’s involvement in rule of law initiatives. Part I explores the origins of the ABA’s work in this field, which date back to the organization’s founding and took shape after the demise of the former Soviet Union. Part II surveys the expansion of the ABA’s programs beyond ...


Military Officers And The Civil Office Ban, Stephen Vladeck 2018 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University

Military Officers And The Civil Office Ban, Stephen Vladeck

Indiana Law Journal

In the symposium Essay that follows, I aim to push back against this impression by introducing readers to an important—but little-known—constraint on the militarization of civilian government: the ban on active-duty military officers holding “civil office” codified today at 10 U.S.C. § 973(b). Like its far-better-known contemporary, the Posse Comitatus Act of 1878, the civil office ban was enacted after the Civil War as a means of limiting the ability of the military to exercise control over civilian matters. As the Ninth Circuit put it in 1975, its purpose was “to assure civilian preeminence in government ...


Patterns Of Civilian And Child Deaths Due To War-Related Violence In Syria: A Comparative Analysis From The Violation Documentation Center Dataset, 2011-16, Debarati Guha-Sapir, Benjamin Schluter, Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Llanes, Louis Lillywhite, Madelyn J. Hsiao-Rei Hicks 2018 Université catholique de Louvain

Patterns Of Civilian And Child Deaths Due To War-Related Violence In Syria: A Comparative Analysis From The Violation Documentation Center Dataset, 2011-16, Debarati Guha-Sapir, Benjamin Schluter, Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Llanes, Louis Lillywhite, Madelyn J. Hsiao-Rei Hicks

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Since March, 2011, the Syrian civil war has lowered life expectancy by as much as 20 years. We describe demographic, spatial, and temporal patterns of direct deaths of civilians and opposition combatants from conflict-related violence in 6 years of war.

METHODS: We analysed conflict-related violent deaths with complete information on date, place, and cause of death and demographic group occurring from March 18, 2011, to Dec 31, 2016, recorded by the Violation Documentation Center (VDC). We included civilian and combatant deaths in all Syrian governorates, excluding government-controlled areas. We did not include detainees and missing persons, nor deaths from ...


Polar Opposites: Assessing The State Of Environmental Law In The World’S Polar Regions, Mark Nevitt, Robert V. Percival 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Polar Opposites: Assessing The State Of Environmental Law In The World’S Polar Regions, Mark Nevitt, Robert V. Percival

Faculty Scholarship

Climate change is fundamentally transforming both the Arctic and Antarctic polar regions. Yet they differ dramatically in their governing legal regimes. For the past sixty years the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), a traditional “hard law” international law treaty system, effectively de-militarized the Antarctic region and halted competing sovereignty claims. In contrast, the Arctic region lacks a unifying Arctic treaty and is governed by the newer “soft law” global environmental law model embodied in the Arctic Council’s collaborative work. Now climate change is challenging this model. It is transforming the geography of both polar regions, breaking away massive ice sheets ...


Justice Against Sponsors Of Terrorism: Why Suing Terrorists May Not Be The Most Effective Way To Advance United States Foreign Policy Objectives, Drew Watkins 2018 University of Kentucky College of Law

Justice Against Sponsors Of Terrorism: Why Suing Terrorists May Not Be The Most Effective Way To Advance United States Foreign Policy Objectives, Drew Watkins

Kentucky Law Journal

No abstract provided.


What's So Great About The Declare War Clause?, Matthew C. Waxman 2018 Columbia Law School

What's So Great About The Declare War Clause?, Matthew C. Waxman

Faculty Scholarship

I have long believed two things about constitutional war powers, which my reading of Noah Feldman’s “The Three Lives of James Madison” largely confirmed. First, James Madison was brilliant and prescient about many things, but the strategy and politics of war were not among them. Second, modern constitutional critics of an imperial presidency place too much weight on the declare war clause — and especially Madison’s statements about it. Madison, indeed, worried deeply about unchecked presidential war powers. But Feldman’s book shows that Madison did not emphasize the same risks and checks so often ascribed to him today ...


Whatever Happened To Military Good Order And Discipline?, Colonel Jeremy S. Weber 2017 United States Air Force

Whatever Happened To Military Good Order And Discipline?, Colonel Jeremy S. Weber

Cleveland State Law Review

Discipline is often called “the soul of an army.” If this is so, the United States military seems to be experiencing a spiritual crisis. Article 134 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) allows commanders to punish acts prejudicial to “good order and discipline,” but the reach of this provision has been increasingly limited in recent years. Appellate courts have repeatedly overturned convictions of conduct charged as prejudicial to good order and discipline, and in recent years, the military’s high court has issued a series of decisions limiting the reach of the UCMJ’s “general article.” Congress has ...


Neutrality And Outer Space, Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg 2017 Europa-Universität Viadrina, Frankfurt (Oder), Germany

Neutrality And Outer Space, Wolff Heintschel Von Heinegg

International Law Studies

This article discusses the law of neutrality as it pertains to belligerent operations in and through outer space as well as belligerent outer space operations involving the territory and national airspace of neutral States. As far as the latter is concerned, the traditional law of neutrality is fully applicable. Accordingly, international law prohibits belligerents from launching space objects from neutral territory or through neutral national airspace. While neutral States may not provide belligerents with outer space assets or the use of communications infrastructure located in their territories, they are not obliged to prevent their nationals from providing any of the ...


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