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Mary Lou Graves, Nolen Breedlove, And The Nineteenth Amendment, Ellen D. Katz 2022 University of Michigan Law School

Mary Lou Graves, Nolen Breedlove, And The Nineteenth Amendment, Ellen D. Katz

Articles

This close examination of two cases is part of a larger ongoing project to provide a distinct account of the Nineteenth Amendment. In 1921, the Alabama Supreme Court held the Nineteenth Amendment required that any poll tax be imposed equally on men and women. Sixteen years later, the Supreme Court disagreed. Juxtaposing these two cases, and telling their story in rich context, captures my larger claim that—contrary to the general understanding in the scholarly literature—the Nineteenth Amendment was deliberately crafted as a highly circumscribed measure that would eliminate only the exclusively male franchise while serving steadfastly to preserve and promote …


Textualism, Judicial Supremacy, And The Independent State Legislature Theory, Leah Litman, Katherine Shaw 2022 Michigan School of Law

Textualism, Judicial Supremacy, And The Independent State Legislature Theory, Leah Litman, Katherine Shaw

Articles

This piece offers an extended critique of one aspect of the so-called “independent state legislature” theory. That theory, in brief, holds that the federal Constitution gives state legislatures, and withholds from any other state entity, the power to regulate federal elections. Proponents ground their theory in two provisions of the federal Constitution: Article I’s Elections Clause, which provides that “[t]he Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof,” and Article II’s Presidential Electors Clause, which provides that “[e]ach State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature …


Election Law Localism And Democracy, Richard Briffault 2022 Columbia Law School

Election Law Localism And Democracy, Richard Briffault

Faculty Scholarship

American federal and state elections are largely run by local officials. Although election law is almost entirely determined by the federal government and the states, elections are actually conducted by thousands of different county and city elections offices. This decentralization of election administration has often, and fairly, been criticized as resulting in undesirable interlocal variation in the application of election rules, inefficiency, and racial discrimination. Yet, in 2020, local election administration, particularly in large urban areas, was a source of strength. Local officials proved to be resilient, innovative, and attentive to local conditions. The record-high turnout in the face of …


Black Women & Women's Suffrage: Understanding The Perception Of The Nineteenth Amendment Through The Pages Of The Chicago Defender, Tamar Anna Alexanian 2022 Children’s Law Center of California

Black Women & Women's Suffrage: Understanding The Perception Of The Nineteenth Amendment Through The Pages Of The Chicago Defender, Tamar Anna Alexanian

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Susan B. Anthony once famously stated, “I will cut off this right arm of mine before I will ever work for or demand the ballot for the Negro and not the woman.” The racism of many early suffragettes has been well documented and discussed; Black suffragettes and other suffragettes of color were, at best, relegated to the margins of the movement and, at worst, scorned and turned away by white suffragettes. Moreover, part of white suffragettes’ strategy for passage of the Nineteenth Amendment was based on racist appeals to white men; white suffragettes claimed that passage of the Nineteenth Amendment …


To Participate And Elect: Section 2 Of The Voting Rights Act At 40, Ellen D. Katz, Brian Remlinger, Andrew Dziedzic, Brooke Simone, Jordan Schuler 2022 University of Michigan Law School

To Participate And Elect: Section 2 Of The Voting Rights Act At 40, Ellen D. Katz, Brian Remlinger, Andrew Dziedzic, Brooke Simone, Jordan Schuler

Other Publications

This paper provides an overview of cases decided under Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act between September 1, 1982 and December 31, 2021. It updates our 2006 study documenting Section 2 litigation through 2005. Of note is the substantial decline in the number of Section 2 cases decided and diminished success for the plaintiffs who bring them. While recent litigation (including Brnovich and Merrill v. Milligan) suggests that Section 2 is likely to occupy, at best, a diminished role in future electoral disputes, this paper shows that Section 2’s reach had already declined significantly prior to recent disputes. …


An Attack On Local Authority, Richard Briffault, Kim Haddow 2022 Columbia Law School

An Attack On Local Authority, Richard Briffault, Kim Haddow

Faculty Scholarship

In the 2021 legislative sessions, Republican state lawmakers introduced a glut of preemption bills aimed at giving states more power over the administration of local government operations, signifying a new, deeper level of state interference into the inner workings of cities and counties. . . . Entering the 2021 legislative sessions, Republican state lawmakers used their power to respond to the events of 2020 – the pandemic, the racial justice movement, the presidential election, and what they perceived to be local government overreach (Brownstein 2021) – by introducing a surge of preemption bills aimed at appropriating the machinery of local …


One Vote, Two Votes, Three Votes, Four: How Ranked Choice Voting Burdens Voting Rights And More, Brandon Bryer 2021 University of Cincinnati College of Law

One Vote, Two Votes, Three Votes, Four: How Ranked Choice Voting Burdens Voting Rights And More, Brandon Bryer

University of Cincinnati Law Review

No abstract provided.


The National Popular Vote On Trial, Keaton Barnes 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The National Popular Vote On Trial, Keaton Barnes

Arkansas Law Review

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the Peopl to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them …


Yazzie V. Hobbs: The 2020 Election And Voting By Mail On- And Off-Reservation In Arizona, Jean Reith Schroedel, Kara Mazareas, Joseph Dietrich, Jamaica Bacus-Crawford 2021 University of Arkansas at Little Rock William H. Bowen School of Law

Yazzie V. Hobbs: The 2020 Election And Voting By Mail On- And Off-Reservation In Arizona, Jean Reith Schroedel, Kara Mazareas, Joseph Dietrich, Jamaica Bacus-Crawford

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

During the 2020 election, voting by mail was touted as a way to safely vote from home and avoid the risks of contracting COVID-19. While voting by mail is definitely safer than in-person voting, it also assumes that all citizens have equal access to the mail services needed for voting by mail. Lawyers, acting on behalf of Navajo plaintiffs in Arizona, argued in Yazzie et al. v. Hobbs (2020) that voters living on the Navajo Nation faced impermissible barriers in accessing voting by mail. They provided evidence showing there was limited mail service on the reservation and that mail delivery …


Time To Mail It In? A Survey Of 2020 Voting Rights Issues In Arkansas And Recommendations For More Inclusive Elections, Kim Vu-Dinh 2021 University of Arkansas at Little Rock William H. Bowen School of Law

Time To Mail It In? A Survey Of 2020 Voting Rights Issues In Arkansas And Recommendations For More Inclusive Elections, Kim Vu-Dinh

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

The highly contagious COVID-19 pandemic, combined with over fifty lawsuits brought by former President Donald Trump, made the general election of 2020 one of the most controversial in the history of the United States. Accusations of voter disenfranchisement proliferated across the nation and were initiated by members of both sides of the political spectrum, even before Election Day. Arkansas was no exception to this rule. In 2020, multiple Arkansas lawsuits highlighted the weaknesses of the state’s voter infrastructure, particularly with regard to the absentee ballot process. Voting-by-mail was particularly important in the pandemic year when long lines became a public …


Trumped: Intentional Voter Suppression In The Wake Of The 2020 Election, Wesley N. Watts 2021 Mercer University School of Law

Trumped: Intentional Voter Suppression In The Wake Of The 2020 Election, Wesley N. Watts

Mercer Law Review

There was nothing normal about the year 2020. For just the third time in history, an American president was impeached, world icons John Lewis and Kobe Bryant passed away, the country of Australia was devastated by brushfires that burned some forty-six million acres of land, and The United States faced a racial reckoning the likes of which had been unseen since the Civil Rights era. All of this took place on the heels of a global pandemic that has killed more than 4.3 million people to date and has infected 10% of the global population. These events of the year …


The Illiberalization Of American Election Law: A Study In Democratic Deconsolidation, James A. Gardner 2021 University at Buffalo School of Law

The Illiberalization Of American Election Law: A Study In Democratic Deconsolidation, James A. Gardner

Journal Articles

For many years, the dominant view among American election law scholars has been that the U.S. Supreme Court’s constitutional jurisprudence of democratic practice got off to a promising start during the mid-twentieth century but has since then slowly deteriorated into incoherence. In light of the United States’ recent turn toward populist authoritarianism, that view needs to be substantially revised. With the benefit of hindsight, it now appears that the Supreme Court has functioned, in its management of the constitutional jurisprudence of democracy, as a vector of infection—a kind of super-spreader of populist authoritarianism.

There is, sadly, nothing unusual these days …


State Lawmakers Must Step In To Remedy Supreme Court Voting Rights Blunder, Rachel Landy, Jarrett Berg 2021 Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law

State Lawmakers Must Step In To Remedy Supreme Court Voting Rights Blunder, Rachel Landy, Jarrett Berg

Online Publications

This June, a 6-3 Supreme Court decision further eroded the Voting Rights Act (VRA) by upholding an Arizona law that disqualifies ballots cast by voters at any poll site other than the one assigned — an administrative technicality that has been shown to disproportionately impact minority communities in multiple states.


A Guide To The 87th Texas Legislative Session, José Menéndez, Pearl D. Cruz 2021 The Senate of Texas, District 26

A Guide To The 87th Texas Legislative Session, José Menéndez, Pearl D. Cruz

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Challenges and potential solutions during the 87th Texas Legislative session.


Excessive Judicialization, Extralegal Interventions, And Violent Insurrection: A Snapshot Of Our 59th Presidential Election, Jerry H. Goldfeder 2021 Stroock & Stroock & Lavan LLP; Fordham University School of Law

Excessive Judicialization, Extralegal Interventions, And Violent Insurrection: A Snapshot Of Our 59th Presidential Election, Jerry H. Goldfeder

Fordham Law Review

The Symposium included in this issue of the Fordham Law Review provides scholars and lawyers with the opportunity to think about some of the most provocative issues related to the way we elect our chief executive. When first conceived, this Symposium was meant to expand and elevate the discourse. Many of the participating authors have thought and written about these matters for years. It was our hope that, after fifty-nine presidential elections, we could shape the debate—and perhaps reform the law—for our next presidential election, our country’s sixtieth. Little did we realize at the inception of this project that the …


The Illiberalization Of American Election Law: A Study In Democratic Deconsolidation, James A. Gardner 2021 University at Buffalo School of Law

The Illiberalization Of American Election Law: A Study In Democratic Deconsolidation, James A. Gardner

Fordham Law Review

For many years, the dominant view among American election law scholars has been that the U.S. Supreme Court’s constitutional jurisprudence of democratic practice got off to a promising start during the mid-twentieth century but has since then slowly deteriorated into incoherence. In light of the United States’ recent turn toward populist authoritarianism, that view needs to be substantially revised. With the benefit of hindsight, it now appears that the Supreme Court has functioned, in its management of the constitutional jurisprudence of democracy, as a vector of infection—a kind of super-spreader of populist authoritarianism. There is, sadly, nothing unusual these days …


Compulsory Voting And Black Citizenship, Ekow N. Yankah 2021 Cardozo School of Law

Compulsory Voting And Black Citizenship, Ekow N. Yankah

Fordham Law Review

Protesting Black votes is part of our history of rejecting Black Americans as legitimate wielders of political power and contesting the fullness of Black citizenship. Obviously, hostility toward viewing Black Americans as deserving of the rights owed to other Americans is present in nearly every aspect of American life. But, among the oldest and most contentious hostilities—from the Civil War to Reconstruction to the Civil Rights Movement to contemporary voter suppression efforts—has been the resistance against Black votes. Any opportunity to quell this locus of racial animus calls for urgent address. Particularly, at this moment, when long-standing prophylactic measures such …


Voting As Exclusion, Ava Ayers 2021 Albany Law School

Voting As Exclusion, Ava Ayers

Fordham Law Review

This Essay considers two prevalent narratives about voting. In one narrative, voting expresses the civic virtue of the voter. In another, voting is an expression of inclusion in our political community’s circle of membership. I argue that although both narratives are true, and important, there is a third narrative that shadows them both. In this third narrative, voting affirms the exclusion of millions of people from our political community. The stories we tell about voting are incomplete and, sometimes, harmful.


Election Observation Post-2020, Rebecca Green 2021 William & Mary Law School

Election Observation Post-2020, Rebecca Green

Fordham Law Review

The United States is in the midst of a crisis in confidence in elections, despite the many process protections baked into every stage of election administration. Part of the problem is that few Americans know just how rigorous the protections in place are, and most Americans have no concept of how modern elections are run. Election observation statutes are intended to provide a window for members of the public to learn about and oversee the process and to satisfy themselves that elections are fair and that outcomes are reliable. Yet in 2020, in part due to unforeseen pandemic conditions, election …


The Independent State Legislature Doctrine, Michael T. Morley 2021 Florida State University College of Law

The Independent State Legislature Doctrine, Michael T. Morley

Fordham Law Review

The U.S. Constitution grants authority to both regulate congressional elections and determine the manner in which a state chooses its presidential electors specifically to the legislature of each state, rather than to the state as an entity. The independent state legislature doctrine teaches that, because a legislature derives its power over federal elections directly from the Constitution in this manner, that authority differs in certain important respects from the legislature’s general police powers that it exercises under the state constitution. Although the doctrine was applied on several occasions in the nineteenth century, it largely fell into desuetude in the years …


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