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The Independent State Legislature Doctrine, Michael T. Morley 2021 Florida State University College of Law

The Independent State Legislature Doctrine, Michael T. Morley

Fordham Law Review

The U.S. Constitution grants authority to both regulate congressional elections and determine the manner in which a state chooses its presidential electors specifically to the legislature of each state, rather than to the state as an entity. The independent state legislature doctrine teaches that, because a legislature derives its power over federal elections directly from the Constitution in this manner, that authority differs in certain important respects from the legislature’s general police powers that it exercises under the state constitution. Although the doctrine was applied on several occasions in the nineteenth century, it largely fell into desuetude in the years …


How States Can Avoid Overcrowded Ballots But Still Protect Voter Choice, Richard Winger 2021 Ballot Access News

How States Can Avoid Overcrowded Ballots But Still Protect Voter Choice, Richard Winger

Fordham Law Review

Since the beginning of government-printed ballots for federal and state offices in 1889, state legislatures have been wrestling with the problem of how many signatures should be required for independent candidates and new political parties to get on the ballot. Laws on this subject are very volatile; there is not a single instance in United States history in which applicable state laws were the same for two consecutive presidential elections. The volatility increased in 1968, when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that overly strict ballot access laws for new parties and independent candidates violatetheU.S.Constitution. Sincethen,every state has been sued by …


Reducing Election Litigation, Derek T. Muller 2021 University of Iowa College of Law

Reducing Election Litigation, Derek T. Muller

Fordham Law Review

Which candidate’s name should be listed first on a ballot? Should inactive voters’ names appear printed in polling place books? Should elections be conducted exclusively by mail? Should online voter registration be available to prospective voters? When voters sign a petition to help a candidate appear on the ballot, must the petition’s circulator reside in the state? These are the questions that ordinary election administration rules answer. There might be better or worse rules. These rules might advance one set of benefits in exchange for another set of costs. They could benefit one candidate or group over another. Like every …


Free And Fair: Judicial Intervention In Elections Beyond The Purcell Principle And Anderson-Burdick Balancing, Danika Elizabeth Watson 2021 Fordham University School of Law

Free And Fair: Judicial Intervention In Elections Beyond The Purcell Principle And Anderson-Burdick Balancing, Danika Elizabeth Watson

Fordham Law Review

The United States’s politically charged 2020 federal election, conducted in the midst of a global pandemic, seismically shook the fault lines of state and local elections administration nationwide. Voters, candidates, parties, states, and political campaigns brought hundreds of claims to the courts, seeking judicial intervention to protect equity in their voting rights. The 2020 pandemic election cases demonstrated that Equal Protection claims relying on the Anderson-Burdick balancing test are both overly reliant on judicial discretion and highly vulnerable to invalidation under the Purcell principle. This Note examines the equal protection challenges raised in courts throughout the country in 2020 to …


Reforms For Presidential Candidate Death And Inability: From The Conventions To Inauguration Day, John Rogan 2021 Fordham University School of Law

Reforms For Presidential Candidate Death And Inability: From The Conventions To Inauguration Day, John Rogan

Fordham Law Review

The 2020 presidential election involved several significant threats to the health and safety of the candidates. But dangers to presidential candidates and presidents-elect have been present before. Despite previous candidate vacancies and near misses, the procedures for how to address many of these contingencies have shortcomings. Some scenarios are left unaddressed. The policies for other situations might be difficult to use or could result in undemocratic outcomes. This Article discusses possible reforms for addressing disability or death of presidential candidates from the time they are nominated at their political parties’ conventions to when they are sworn into office on Inauguration …


Reifying Anderson-Burdick: Voter Protection In The Time Of Pandemic And Beyond, Keeley Gogul 2021 University of Cincinnati College of Law

Reifying Anderson-Burdick: Voter Protection In The Time Of Pandemic And Beyond, Keeley Gogul

University of Cincinnati Law Review

No abstract provided.


An Open Governor’S Seat, Open Constitutional Question, And The Need For An Answer, Samuel Steele McLelland, James R. Baxter 2021 Emory University

An Open Governor’S Seat, Open Constitutional Question, And The Need For An Answer, Samuel Steele Mclelland, James R. Baxter

Arkansas Law Notes

Another election cycle always means a renewal of fresh lawsuits and legal questions, and 2022 is no exception. the announcement of Sarah Huckabee Sanders’s run for Governor of Arkansas reignites an interesting aspect of Arkansas’s Constitution: must a candidate for Governor live in the State of Arkansas for seven consecutive years, immediately preceding taking office? A final ruling by the Arkansas Supreme Court will give clarity and stability going forward for the most important elected position in the state.


Purcell In Pandemic, Wilfred U. Codrington III 2021 Brooklyn Law School

Purcell In Pandemic, Wilfred U. Codrington Iii

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Undue Deference To States In The 2020 Election Litigation, Joshua A. Douglas 2021 William & Mary Law School

Undue Deference To States In The 2020 Election Litigation, Joshua A. Douglas

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

COVID-19 has wreaked havoc on so much of our lives, including how to run our elections. Yet the federal courts have refused to respond appropriately to the dilemma that many voters faced when trying to participate in the 2020 election. Instead, the courts—particularly the U.S. Supreme Court and the federal appellate courts—invoked a narrow test that unduly defers to state election administration and fails to protect adequately the fundamental right to vote.

In constitutional litigation, a law usually must satisfy a two-part test: (1) does the state have an appropriate reason for the law and (2) is the law properly …


The Meaning, History, And Importance Of The Elections Clause, Eliza Sweren-Becker, Michael Waldman 2021 University of Washington School of Law

The Meaning, History, And Importance Of The Elections Clause, Eliza Sweren-Becker, Michael Waldman

Washington Law Review

Historically, the Supreme Court has offered scant attention to or analysis of the Elections Clause, resulting in similarly limited scholarship on the Clause’s original meaning and public understanding over time. The Clause directs states to make regulations for the time, place, and manner of congressional elections, and grants Congress superseding authority to make or alter those rules.

But the 2020 elections forced the Elections Clause into the spotlight, with Republican litigants relying on the Clause to ask the Supreme Court to limit which state actors can regulate federal elections. This new focus comes on the heels of the Clause serving …


Fighting A New Wave Of Voter Suppression: Securing College Students’ Right To Vote Through The Twenty-Sixth Amendment’S Enforcement Clause, Ryan D'Ercole 2021 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Fighting A New Wave Of Voter Suppression: Securing College Students’ Right To Vote Through The Twenty-Sixth Amendment’S Enforcement Clause, Ryan D'Ercole

Washington and Lee Law Review

Throughout the 1960s, young people protested for racial and LGBTQ+ equality, women’s rights, and an end to the Vietnam war. In the process, they earned the most fundamental right— the right to vote.

Fifty years ago, in the summer of 1971, the Twenty-Sixth Amendment was ratified. In addition to lowering the voting age to eighteen, the Twenty-Sixth Amendment prescribed that the right to vote “shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.” But in the fifty years since ratification, states have continued to enact laws that abridge the right to …


Baby & Bathwater: Standing In Election Cases After 2020, Steven J. Mulroy 2021 Univ. of Memphis Law School

Baby & Bathwater: Standing In Election Cases After 2020, Steven J. Mulroy

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

The current consensus among commentators is that the flood of cases challenging the 2020 presidential election results was almost completely meritless. This consensus is correct as to the ultimate result, but not as to the courts’ treatment of standing. In their (understandable) zeal to reject sometimes frivolous attempts to overturn a legitimate election and undermine public confidence in our electoral system, many courts were too quick to rule that plaintiffs lacked standing. These rulings resulted in unjustified sweeping rulings that voters were not injured even if their legal votes were diluted by states accepting illegal votes; that campaigns did not …


A New Way For Voting In American Elections: Addressing The Patentability Of A Blockchain Mail-In Voting System, Brandon D. Waller 2021 University of Georgia School of Law

A New Way For Voting In American Elections: Addressing The Patentability Of A Blockchain Mail-In Voting System, Brandon D. Waller

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

The novel corona virus turned life upside down throughout the world in 2020. One of its many impacts was the fear it gave people of going out in public as doing such could increase the likelihood of contraction. This disease happened to come about during an election year in the United States and this raised many questions about how voting could be safely conducted. A hot topic debate took over America as to whether or not mail-in voting would suffice. The United States Postal Service sought to find a reliable way to conduct mail-in voting and filed for a patent …


New York State Constitutional Amendment Explainer, Marissa Zanfardino, Jeffrey M. Wice 2021 New York Law School

New York State Constitutional Amendment Explainer, Marissa Zanfardino, Jeffrey M. Wice

Redistricting Resources

No abstract provided.


On The Ballot For Nov. 2, 2021: The Constitutional Amendment On Redistricting, Jeffrey M. Wice, Todd Breitbart 2021 New York Law School

On The Ballot For Nov. 2, 2021: The Constitutional Amendment On Redistricting, Jeffrey M. Wice, Todd Breitbart

Redistricting Resources

On November 2, 2021, New York State voters will be asked to approve a constitutional amendment revising the redistricting process to be based on the 2020 census. If the constitutional amendment is approved, the changes will take effect on January 1, 2022. This amendment is necessary to address delays in the census created by the pandemic and to accommodate New York State’s change from a September primary to an earlier June primary for both federal and state elections. These changes compressed the time needed to complete the redistricting. Without these changes, it is possible that the new districts will not …


S.2670 U.S. Senate Redistricting Bill, Marissa Zanfardino 2021 New York Law School

S.2670 U.S. Senate Redistricting Bill, Marissa Zanfardino

Redistricting Resources

This bill was introduced in the Senate by Senator Charles E. Schumer on August 6, 2021 and its consideration was blocked by the Senate on August 11, 2021. It outlines national reform for redistricting.


Summary Of New York State Redistricting Cases, Nicholas Stabile, Marissa Zanfardino 2021 New York Law School

Summary Of New York State Redistricting Cases, Nicholas Stabile, Marissa Zanfardino

Redistricting Resources

This article contains summaries for all of the major redistricting cases in New York State. This article was created with assistance by Stephanie Hernandez, David Romero, and Scott Matsuda.


Case Note: Avangrid Networks, Inc. V. Secretary Of State, Grady F. Hogan 2021 University of Maine School of Law

Case Note: Avangrid Networks, Inc. V. Secretary Of State, Grady F. Hogan

Maine Law Review

Citizen initiatives and referendums are important tools for participatory democracy. Because initiatives often concern contentious public policy matters, opponents of pending initiatives have at times turned to the courts to prevent particular initiatives from appearing on upcoming ballots. Courts typically will adjudicate such pre-election challenges when plaintiffs assert the proscribed procedural requirements for voting on an initiative have not been met or when plaintiffs allege an initiative’s subject-matter is outside the constitutionally delineated scope of permissible initiative content. However, because of the ripeness justiciability doctrine that requires a concrete, certain, and immediate legal problem, courts generally will not adjudicate pre-election …


Partisan Or Precedent: The History Of Nominating Supreme Court Judges In Presidential Election Years, Hattie Jefferies 2021 Liberty University

Partisan Or Precedent: The History Of Nominating Supreme Court Judges In Presidential Election Years, Hattie Jefferies

Helms School of Government Undergraduate Law Review

No abstract provided.


Purges And Closures And Lines, Oh My!--Do Georgia's 2018 Election Procedures Violate International Law?, Holly Katherine Stephens 2021 University of Georgia School of Law

Purges And Closures And Lines, Oh My!--Do Georgia's 2018 Election Procedures Violate International Law?, Holly Katherine Stephens

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


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