Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Criminal Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

20,389 Full-Text Articles 11,756 Authors 11,388,944 Downloads 231 Institutions

All Articles in Criminal Law

Faceted Search

20,389 full-text articles. Page 7 of 341.

Courts Have Gone Overboard In Applying The Maritime Drug Law Enforcement Act, Elaina Aquila 2018 Fordham University School of Law

Courts Have Gone Overboard In Applying The Maritime Drug Law Enforcement Act, Elaina Aquila

Fordham Law Review

The Maritime Drug Law Enforcement Act (MDLEA), enacted through Congress’s power to “define and punish . . . Felonies Committed on the high Seas,” prosecutes individuals for drug trafficking “on board” vessels. Individuals often raise jurisdictional defenses in U.S. courts when prosecuted under MDLEA, and scholarship in the area argues about whether the Constitution permits MDLEA to reach drug traffickers who are on the high seas. Recently, courts have begun using MDLEA to prosecute foreign nationals located in a foreign nation who are not on board a vessel as conspirators. However, no court has fully examined Congress’s authority to enact ...


Regulating Search Warrant Execution Procedure For Stored Electronic Communications, Sara J. Dennis 2018 Fordham University School of Law

Regulating Search Warrant Execution Procedure For Stored Electronic Communications, Sara J. Dennis

Fordham Law Review

Electronic communication services, from email, to social media, tomessaging applications, have not only dramatically changed daily life but have also had a profound impact on criminal investigations and procedure.The often large volume of electronically stored information has led to a two-step process for search warrant execution, codified in Federal Criminal Procedure Rule 41. When conducting a search pursuant to Rule 41, law enforcement often retains both responsive items—materials that fall within the scope of the warrant—and nonresponsive materials—intermingled items that can be searched, but ultimately exceed the scope of the warrant. This possession of nonresponsive material ...


Implicit Racial Biases In Prosecutorial Summations: Proposing An Integrated Response, Praatika Prasad 2018 Fordham University School of Law

Implicit Racial Biases In Prosecutorial Summations: Proposing An Integrated Response, Praatika Prasad

Fordham Law Review

Racial bias has evolved from the explicit racism of the Jim Crow era to amore subtle and difficult-to-detect form: implicit racial bias. Implicit racial biases exist unconsciously and include negative racial stereotypes andassociations. Everyone, including actors in the criminal justice system who believe themselves to be fair, possess these biases. Although inaccessible through introspection, implicit biases can easily be triggered through language. When trials involve Black defendants, prosecutors’ summations increasingly include racial themes that could trigger jurors’ implicit biases, lead to the perpetuation of unfair stereotypes, and contribute to racial injustice and disparate outcomes. This Note examines and critiques the ...


The Law Of Deception, Amit Pundik 2018 Tel Aviv University, Israel

The Law Of Deception, Amit Pundik

Notre Dame Law Review Online

The purpose of this Essay is both descriptive and normative. On the descriptive level, this Essay details the Israeli jurisprudence and scholarly opinions on the issue of rape by deception in a way accessible to non-Hebrew readers, and briefly compares it with approaches taken elsewhere. On the normative level, the Essay seeks to show that the various attempts to answer the question of which characteristics can constitute deception all fail. In particular, it seeks to show that the Israeli approach is the least attractive, a conclusion that, it is hoped, may serve as a warning to reformers in other jurisdictions ...


Unstitching Scarlet Letters?: Prosecutorial Discretion And Expungement, Brian M. Murray 2018 MINDSET forensic consulting group

Unstitching Scarlet Letters?: Prosecutorial Discretion And Expungement, Brian M. Murray

Fordham Law Review

This Article argues that scholarly discussions about prosecutorial discretion need to extend their focus beyond the exercise of prosecutorial judgment pretrial or questions of factual and legal guilt. Given that the primary role of the prosecutoris to do “justice,” this Article calls for increased attention to the exercise of discretion after the guilt phase is complete, specifically in the context of expungement of nonconviction andconviction information. It offers a framework for exercising such discretion and, in doing so, hopes to initiate additional conversation about the role of prosecutors during the phases that follow arrest and prosecution.


Police, Heroes, And Child Trafficking: Who Cries When Her Attacker Wears Blue?, Samuel Vincent Jones 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas -- William S. Boyd School of Law

Police, Heroes, And Child Trafficking: Who Cries When Her Attacker Wears Blue?, Samuel Vincent Jones

Nevada Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Failure Of International Law In Palestine, Svetlana Sumina, Steven Gilmore 2018 St. Mary's University School of Law

The Failure Of International Law In Palestine, Svetlana Sumina, Steven Gilmore

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming


Prisoner's Dilemma—Exhausted Without A Place Of Rest(Itution): Why The Prison Litigation Reform Act's Exhaustion Requirement Needs To Be Amended, Ryan Lefkowitz 2018 Syracuse University

Prisoner's Dilemma—Exhausted Without A Place Of Rest(Itution): Why The Prison Litigation Reform Act's Exhaustion Requirement Needs To Be Amended, Ryan Lefkowitz

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

The Prison Litigation Reform Act (PLRA) passed in 1996 in an effort to curb litigation from prisoners. The exhaustion requirement of the PLRA requires prisoners to fully exhaust any administrative remedies available to them before filing a lawsuit concerning any aspect of prison life. If a prisoner fails to do so, the lawsuit is subject to dismissal. The exhaustion requirement applies to all types of prisoner lawsuits, from claims filed for general prison conditions to excessive force and civil rights violations. It has been consistently and aggressively applied by the courts, blocking prisoners’ lawsuits from ever going to trial. Attempts ...


Errors In Misdemeanor Adjudication, Samuel R. Gross 2018 University of Michigan Law School

Errors In Misdemeanor Adjudication, Samuel R. Gross

Articles

Millions of defendants are convicted of misdemeanors in the United States each year but almost none obtain exonerations, primarily because ordinarily exoneration is far too costly and time consuming to pursue for anything less than years of imprisonment. The National Registry of Exonerations lists all known exonerations in the United States since 1989 — 2,145 cases, as of the end of 2017; only 85 are misdemeanors, 4%. In all but one of these misdemeanor exonerations the defendants were convicted of crimes that never happened; by comparison, more than three-quarters of felony exonerees were convicted of actual crimes that other people ...


Beyond Bad Apples: Adopting Sentinel Event Reviews In Nevada's Criminal Justice System, Beatriz Aguirre 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas -- William S. Boyd School of Law

Beyond Bad Apples: Adopting Sentinel Event Reviews In Nevada's Criminal Justice System, Beatriz Aguirre

Nevada Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The History Of Misdemeanor Bail, Shima Baughman 2018 S.J. Quinney College of Law, University of Utah

The History Of Misdemeanor Bail, Shima Baughman

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

Bail is one of the most consequential decisions in criminal justice. The ability to secure bail often makes the difference between guilt and innocence, retaining employment and family obligations, and keeping a place to live. These implications affect those charged with felonies and this has been the focus for many years, but it affects even more so those charged with misdemeanors. A misdemeanor is theoretically a less serious crime with less serious consequences, but the effects on a defendant’s life are just as serious in the short term. There is a growing body of important empirical work that demonstrates ...


Rhode Island's Top Lawyer: Peter Kilmartin, Rwu Class Of 1998 5-2018, Roger Williams University School of Law 2018 Roger Williams University

Rhode Island's Top Lawyer: Peter Kilmartin, Rwu Class Of 1998 5-2018, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Aspects Of The Jury In Criminal Proceedings, Hannah Akers 2018 Liberty University

Aspects Of The Jury In Criminal Proceedings, Hannah Akers

Senior Honors Theses

Although a trial by jury happens in only a fraction of the total criminal cases, the jury is one of the most intriguing facets of criminal proceedings. This thesis intends to delve into the various aspects of the criminal jury’s history, formulation, and processes. The different areas included are jury selection, elimination of bias, the jury’s role in criminal trials, their deliberations, determining a verdict, and potential problems with the system that is currently in place. All trials can be expected to have foundational court procedures, readings of the law, opening statements and closing arguments, and testimonies, but ...


Potential Jurors’ Perceptions Of Polygraphs In Court, Jacob Schiess 2018 Boise State University

Potential Jurors’ Perceptions Of Polygraphs In Court, Jacob Schiess

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The polygraph occupies a contentious place in the justice system. The instrument detects various physical responses and records these results, and the examiner interprets the readings and makes a determination on whether the test subject was truthful or deceptive. Polygraphs are, in some jurisdictions, a part of the court process and in others are forbidden. On the whole, there is less research on the polygraph and their permissibility in the legal process compared to other types of evidence. There is even less research on the opinions of jurors, especially compared to surveys of criminal justice professionals. That which is present ...


Life After Daubert V. Merrell Dow: Maine As A Case Law Laboratory For Evidence Rule 702 Without Frye, Leigh Stephens McCarthy 2018 University of Maine School of Law

Life After Daubert V. Merrell Dow: Maine As A Case Law Laboratory For Evidence Rule 702 Without Frye, Leigh Stephens Mccarthy

Maine Law Review

In reaching its recent decision in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., the United States Supreme Court grappled not with case law but with fundamental questions about the nature of science and its role in law. The court in Daubert addressed the problematic issue of admissibility of expert scientific testimony. In the end the Court rejected as an exclusionary rule the venerable standard set in 1923 by Frye v. United States. Frye held that scientific testimony was to be excluded unless it had gained “general acceptance” in its field. Daubert held that Rule 702 of the Federal Rules of Evidence ...


Prosecutorial Summation: Where Is The Line Between "Personal Opinion" And Proper Argument?, James W. Gunson 2018 University of Maine School of Law

Prosecutorial Summation: Where Is The Line Between "Personal Opinion" And Proper Argument?, James W. Gunson

Maine Law Review

Prosecutorial forensic misconduct has become front page news in Maine. Since April of 1993, the Maine Supreme Judicial Court, sitting as the Law Court, has reversed convictions in three highly publicized cases based on remarks made by the prosecutor. In State v. Steen, the prosecutor asked the defendant to give his opinion concerning the veracity of other witnesses and suggested in closing argument that the favorable testimony given by the defense's expert witness resulted from the fee he had received. The Law Court vacated the gross sexual assault conviction, finding that the prosecutor's questions and closing argument “clearly ...


Life Course Outcomes For Juveniles: Contact With The Criminal Justice System As A Turning Point, Dominique Tauffner 2018 Bowling Green State University

Life Course Outcomes For Juveniles: Contact With The Criminal Justice System As A Turning Point, Dominique Tauffner

Honors Projects

This research investigated the life course outcomes of respondents who have been arrested during adolescence. Although the creation of the juvenile justice system is relatively recent, only existing for 119 years, there is a need for data on the impact this system has on society. The pre-existing knowledge and literature on juvenile delinquency and the criminal justice system often fails to capture longitudinal data. Most scholars on this issue will discuss the immediate effects of things like incarceration and placement or what influences delinquency, ignoring the long-term consequences or life outcomes of those that have been arrested prior to 18 ...


Human Trafficking And Local Law Enforcement, Elizabeth Chesbrough 2018 Bowling Green State University

Human Trafficking And Local Law Enforcement, Elizabeth Chesbrough

Honors Projects

“To protect our kids, we’ve given law enforcement new tools to fight human trafficking (Brett Guthrie).” Though Brett’s hopeful sentiment portrays a police force that is ready to battle the epidemic of modern day slavery, research has shown that local officers are sorely uneducated on the subject. The main focus of this paper is the link between the prevalence of human trafficking in the U.S. and the lack of local law enforcement training on the issue. The first section will be a brief overview of human trafficking, defining and discussing a few relevant details about it first ...


Incapacitating Dangerous Repeat Offenders (Or Not): Evidentiary Restrictions On Armed Career Criminal Act Sentencing In United States V. King, Kayleigh E. McGlynn 2018 Boston College Law School

Incapacitating Dangerous Repeat Offenders (Or Not): Evidentiary Restrictions On Armed Career Criminal Act Sentencing In United States V. King, Kayleigh E. Mcglynn

Boston College Law Review

On March 30, 2017, in United States v. King, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit held that a sentencing court may not rely on information in bills of particulars for the Armed Career Criminal Act’s different-occasions inquiry. In so doing, the Sixth Circuit joined the Second, Fourth, Fifth, Seventh, Tenth, Eleventh, and D.C. Circuits in holding that sentencing courts deciding the different-occasions question may rely only on the evidentiary sources that the United States Supreme Court approved in Taylor v. United States in 1990 and Shepard v. United States in 2005. In contrast, on ...


Criminalizing Race: Racial Disparities In Plea-Bargaining, Carlos Berdejó 2018 Loyola Law School

Criminalizing Race: Racial Disparities In Plea-Bargaining, Carlos Berdejó

Boston College Law Review

Most of the empirical research examining racial disparities in the criminal justice process has focused on its two endpoints—the arrest and initial charging of defendants and judges’ sentencing decisions. Few studies have assessed disparities in the steps leading up to a defendant’s conviction, where various actors make choices that often constrain judges’ ultimate sentencing discretion. This Article addresses this gap by examining racial disparities in the plea-bargaining process, focusing on the period between the initial filing of charges and the defendant’s conviction. The results presented in this Article reveal significant racial disparities in this stage of the ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress