A Commentary On Litigation Involving Uber Technologies, Inc., 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
A Commentary On Litigation Involving Uber Technologies, Inc., Catherine Hagemeier
Economics Undergraduate Honors Theses
Uber Technologies, Inc. is a peer-to-peer ridesharing, food delivery, and transportation network managed in San Francisco, California. Travis Kalanick and Garrett Camp developed the idea for the ridesharing app in 2008, after experiencing difficulty hailing a cab. They originally designed the app to be used in major metropolitan areas, but the business inevitably took off; it now operates in 633 cities worldwide. In 2017, Uber claimed that the company earned roughly $7.5 billion in revenue, employed more than 12,000 “independent drivers,” and connected over one billion people (“Finding the Way”). Though widely successful and heralded as a major ...
Asarco Llc V. Atlantic Richfield Company, 2018 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana
Asarco Llc V. Atlantic Richfield Company, Ryan L. Hickey
Public Land and Resources Law Review
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liabiltiy Act, commonly known as CERCLA, facilitates cleanup of hazardous waste sites and those contaminated by other harmful substances by empowering the Environmental Protection Agency to identify responsible parties and require them to undertake or fund remediation. Because pollution sometimes occurrs over long periods of time by multiple parties, CERCLA also enables polluters to seek financial contribution from other contaminators of a particular site. The Ninth Circuit clarified the particuar circumstances under which contribution actions may arise in Asarco LLC v. Atlantic Richfield Co., holding non-CERCLA settlements may give rise to CERCLA contribution actions ...
Crowdfunding Civil Justice, 2018 University of Haifa
Crowdfunding Civil Justice, Ronen Perry
Boston College Law Review
The Article provides a systematic law and economics analysis of civil litigation crowdfunding. It first distinguishes between investment-based and non-investment-based crowdfunding models. Investment-based litigation crowdfunding is generally a welcome phenomenon, because it enables parties to pursue meritorious claims and defenses without generating a significant risk of frivolous litigation. Thus, it should be minimally regulated by securing disclosure of relevant information to potential investors. Non-investment-based crowdfunding of process costs should be subject to professional vetting, which will inhibit frivolous claims and defenses that waste scarce administrative resources and do not further the underlying goals of civil law. Non-investment-based crowdfunding of outcome ...
Was The Amt Effectively Repealed?, 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School
Was The Amt Effectively Repealed?, Reed Shuldiner
The individual alternative minimum tax (AMT) was a much disliked feature of the tax law prior to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA). Yet, despite repeated promises to repeal the AMT as part of tax reform, the TCJA dropped AMT repeal in favor of increasing the AMT exemption and its phaseout threshold. The question raised by this development is whether the AMT changes should be viewed as yet another stop-gap tweak of the AMT or whether the changes should be viewed as returning the AMT to its roots as a tax on high-income taxpayers using excessive loopholes. In this ...
Incomplete Contracting And Ai Alignment, 2018 UC Berkeley
Incomplete Contracting And Ai Alignment, Dylan Hadfield-Menell, Gillian K. Hadfield
University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series
We suggest that the analysis of incomplete contracting developed by law and economics researchers can provide a useful framework for understanding the AI alignment problem and help to generate a systematic approach to finding solutions. We first provide an overview of the incomplete contracting literature and explore parallels between this work and the problem of AI alignment. As we emphasize, misalignment between principal and agent is a core focus of economic analysis. We highlight some technical results from the economics literature on incomplete contracts that may provide insights for AI alignment researchers. Our core contribution, however, is to bring to ...
Antitrust And Democracy: A Case Study From German Fascism, 2018 University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
Antitrust And Democracy: A Case Study From German Fascism, Daniel A. Crane
Law & Economics Working Papers
In the recent political discourse around antitrust reform, prominent voices from across the political spectrum have asserted that excessive economic concentration imperils democracy. This theme has been raised periodically over the course of U.S. history, perhaps most forcibly after the Second World War when the framers of the Celler-Kefauver Act argued that industrial concentration in Germany enabled the rise of Nazism. This paper examines the relationship between Nazism and monopoly through a case study of the I.G. Farben chemical cartel. In analyzing Farben's role as Hitler's facilitator, this paper asks three questions: (1) How did industrial ...
Mutuals: An Area Of Legal Climate Change, 2018 College of William & Mary Law School
Mutuals: An Area Of Legal Climate Change, Karl T. Muth, Andrew Leventhal
William & Mary Business Law Review
Underappreciated in its importance and often-misunderstood in its implications, the choice between a company limited by shares and a company organized as a mutual is an important decision in sectors ranging from agriculture to banking to insurance. Adding gravity to this particular decision is the difficulty and enormous cost of corporate metamorphosis between company types later in the company’s life. The authors examine the history of the mutual form, its popularity’s rise and fall during the twentieth century, and its advantages and disadvantages in today’s environment.
A 2016 Copa America Bump For Major League Soccer? Strengthening The Case For Legal Action Arising From The Corrupted 2022 World Cup Bid, 2018 College of William & Mary Law School
A 2016 Copa America Bump For Major League Soccer? Strengthening The Case For Legal Action Arising From The Corrupted 2022 World Cup Bid, Jeff Todd, R. Todd Jewell
William & Mary Business Law Review
Governmental and private investigations have generated evidence of corruption in the bidding process to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, which went to Qatar rather than the United States. One economic study has shown an increase in professional soccer attendance in European countries that host the World Cup and the European Championships. Accordingly, Major League Soccer and its investor-operators could pursue tort and unfair competition claims to argue that denial of a 2022 World Cup USA will result in lowered attendance, and thus lost profits and diminished business value. Key differences in American and European soccer leagues and sports markets ...
Oligopoly Pricing And Richard Posner, 2018 Boston Univeristy School of Law
Oligopoly Pricing And Richard Posner, Keith Hylton
Over a span of nearly 50 years Richard Posner’s voice has loomed large over the subject of oligopoly pricingand antitrust. The span begins in 1969 with Posner’s publication of “Oligopoly and the Antitrust Laws: A Suggested Approach,” which argues for more aggressive enforcement of Section 1 in cases involving circumstantial evidence of conspiracy. The span ends with Posner’s opinion in In re Text Messaging Antitrust Litigation, in 2015. The two writings, the first an academic article published early in Posner’s career and the second a judicial opinion published near the end of his time on the ...
Reputational Economies Of Scale, 2018 USC Law School
Reputational Economies Of Scale, Daniel M. Klerman
University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series
For many years, most scholars have assumed that the strength of reputational incentives is positively correlated with the frequency of repeat play. Firms that sell more products or services were thought more likely to be trustworthy than those that sell less because they have more to lose if consumers decide they have behaved badly. That assumption has been called into question by recent work that shows that, under the standard infinitely repeated game model of reputation, reputational economies of scale will occur only under special conditions, such as monopoly, because larger firms not only have more to lose from behaving ...
Misbehavioral Law And Economics, 2018 Rutgers Law School
Misbehavioral Law And Economics, Jacob Hale Russell
University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform
Many legal rules—ranging from common-law contract doctrines to modern consumer protection regulations—are designed to protect individuals from their own mistakes. But scholars have neglected a core difficulty facing such policies: we humans are a motley bunch, and we are defined in part by our idiosyncrasies. As a result, one person’s mistake is another’s ideal choice. Making matters worse, it is hard to observe when a policy response misfires. If cognitive errors and psychological biases are as prevalent as current research suggests, then we have no reliable way of knowing consumers’ true preferences. So are we always ...
Deterrence And Aggregate Litigation, 2018 Boston University
Deterrence And Aggregate Litigation, Keith N. Hylton
This paper examines the deterrence properties of aggregate litigation and class actions, with an emphasis on positive value claims. In the multiple victim scenario with positive value claims, the probability that an individual victim will bring suit falls toward zero with geometric decay as the number of victims increases. The reason is that the incentive to free ride increases with the number of victims. Deterrence does not collapse but is degraded. Undercompliance is observed, which worsens as the number of victims increases. Compliance is never socially optimal, and the shortfall from optimality increases with the number of victims. These results ...
A Vatcoin Solution To Mtic Fraud: Past Efforts, Present Technology, And The Eu's 2017 Proposal, 2018 Boston University School of Law
A Vatcoin Solution To Mtic Fraud: Past Efforts, Present Technology, And The Eu's 2017 Proposal, Richard Thompson Ainsworth
On October 4, 2017, in an effort to recover some of the VAT lost annually, the European Commission proposed “far-reaching reforms.” The immediate target is a €50 billion slice of an estimated €150 billion overall annual loss. In its proposal the Commission is looking only at Missing Trader Intra-Community (MTIC) fraud in goods.
Goods (alone) are targeted.
If we have learned anything about MTIC fraud since January 1, 1993, it is that fraudsters engaged in this activity are exceptionally agile. MTIC frauds migrate and mutate on command. For example, MTIC fraud in cell phones quickly migrated to computer chips in ...
Presenting A Critical Perspective On “Economic Efficiency” In Law And Economics Courses, 2018 Southern Methodist University
Presenting A Critical Perspective On “Economic Efficiency” In Law And Economics Courses, Gregory Crespi
SMU Law Review
“Law and Economics” courses are sometimes criticized for inadequately explaining the normative criterion of “economic efficiency” and then applying this criterion throughout the course in a superficial and biased manner that pejoratively labels most governmental market interventions and wealth redistribution measures as inefficient. These criticisms have merit, and in this article I point out a number of conceptual problems, empirical difficulties, and normative shortcomings of the economic efficiency criterion that students need to understand in order to be able to effectively counter policy arguments that rest upon dubious efficiency assessments.
The eight specific shortcomings of the economic efficiency criterion that ...
Florida Water Management Districts And The Florida Water Resources Act: The Challenges Of Basin-Level Management, 2018 Concordia Univeristy School of Law
Florida Water Management Districts And The Florida Water Resources Act: The Challenges Of Basin-Level Management, Ryan Stoa
Ryan B. Stoa
Florida’s plentiful freshwater resources are indispensable to the state’s municipal, agricultural, and environmental interests. As such, decision makers presiding over complex water management decisions wield extraordinary powers. The Water Resources Act of Florida vests these powers in five water management districts drawn according to hydrological, not political, boundaries. The water management districts have robust technical, financial, and regulatory powers, and hold the key to Florida’s sustainable development. With the stakes so high, Florida’s water management districts are at the center of a broad fight for control of water resources. In particular, transboundary water conflicts, political pressure ...
The "Common Word," Development, And Human Rights: African And Catholic Perspectives, 2018 Concordia University School of Law
The "Common Word," Development, And Human Rights: African And Catholic Perspectives, Joseph M. Isanga
Africa is the most conflict-ridden region of the world and has been since the end of the Cold War. The Continent's performance in both development and human rights continues to lag behind other regions in the world. Such conditions can cause religious differences to escalate into conflict, particularly where religious polarity is susceptible to being exploited. The sheer scale of such conflicts underscores the urgency and significance of interreligious engagement and dialogue: 'Quantitative and qualitative analysis based on a ... database including 28 violent conflicts show that religion plays a role more frequently than is usually assumed.' This ...
Texas Gulf Sulphur And The Genesis Of Corporate Liability Under Rule 10b-5, 2018 University of Michigan Law School
Texas Gulf Sulphur And The Genesis Of Corporate Liability Under Rule 10b-5, Adam C. Pritchard, Robert B. Thompson
Law & Economics Working Papers
This Essay explores the seminal role played by SEC v. Texas Gulf Sulphur in establishing Rule 10b-5’s use to create a remedy against corporations for misstatements made by their officers. The question of the corporation’s liability for private damages loomed large for the Second Circuit judges in Texas Gulf Sulphur, even though that question was not directly at issue in an SEC action for injunctive relief. The judges considered both construing narrowly "in connection with the purchase or sale of any security," and the requisite state of mind required for violating Rule 10b-5. We explore the choices of ...
Lawyer As Soothsayer: Exploring The Important Role Of Outcome Prediction In The Practice Of Law, 2018 University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
Lawyer As Soothsayer: Exploring The Important Role Of Outcome Prediction In The Practice Of Law, Mark K. Osbeck
Law & Economics Working Papers
Outcome prediction has always been an important part of practicing law. Clients rely heavily on their attorneys to provide accurate assessments of the potential legal consequences they face when making important decisions (such as whether to accept a plea bargain, or risk a conviction on a much more serious offense at trial). And yet, notwithstanding its enormous importance to the practice of law (and notwithstanding the handsome legal fees it commands), outcome prediction in the law remains a very imprecise endeavor.
The reason for this inaccuracy is that the three principal tools lawyers have traditionally relied on to facilitate outcome ...
Aproximación A Los Mecanismos Para Completar El Contrato Desde La Teoría Económica. El Caso De La Cadena Alimentaria, Teresa Rodríguez-Cachón
The Latin American and Iberian Journal of Law and Economics
The economic theory of the contract has put into the firing line of legal debate the relevance of taking into account the incomplete nature of this legal instrument, coming from the bounded rationality of human beings and from the existence of transaction costs. From this point of view, it is necessary to study legal system mechanisms to correct this problem. These mechanisms, apart from being particularly relevant in long-term contractual relations, differ according to the nature of each relation. Among all, special attention is focused on default rules as a mechanism to fill in contracts and their application to the ...
Unicorns, Guardians, And The Concentration Of The U.S. Equity Markets, 2018 University at Buffalo Law School
Unicorns, Guardians, And The Concentration Of The U.S. Equity Markets, Amy Deen Westbrook, David A. Westbrook
No abstract provided.