Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Labor and Employment Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

7,737 Full-Text Articles 4,988 Authors 3,420,678 Downloads 173 Institutions

All Articles in Labor and Employment Law

Faceted Search

7,737 full-text articles. Page 7 of 161.

Caring For Workers, Martha T. McCluskey 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Caring For Workers, Martha T. Mccluskey

Maine Law Review

This essay examines the question of conflict between market work and family care from the angle of family caretaking labor for workers rather than for dependents. Feminist legal scholars and activists have been concerned for generations about the effect of women's unpaid caretaking work on women's participation and success in the wage labor market. Better public support for this gendered family care work is crucial to many leading visions of feminist legal and economic change. Recent welfare reforms, however, have increased the extent to which public policy treats caretaking instead as a personal responsibility (or a sign of ...


Caretaking And The Contradictions Of Contemporary Policy, Michael Selmi, Naomi Cahn 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Caretaking And The Contradictions Of Contemporary Policy, Michael Selmi, Naomi Cahn

Maine Law Review

Contemporary social policy relating to women's employment remains strikingly ambivalent. Those in favor of traditional family structures, a position that is generally associated with conservative political agendas, have often expressed a preference for a family model that emphasizes the woman's role as a homemaker, or to use the more recent term, a caretaker. At the same time, as the 1996 Welfare Reform Act demonstrates, if the choice is between providing financial support that would enable lower-income women to stay in the home and forcing those women into the labor market, the conservative agenda will opt for the latter ...


Telecommuting: The Escher Stairway Of Work/Family Conflict, Michelle A. Travis 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Telecommuting: The Escher Stairway Of Work/Family Conflict, Michelle A. Travis

Maine Law Review

According to Working Mother magazine, telecommuting is a “wonderful arrangement for working moms.” Advertisements for telecommuting jobs and related technologies show us pictures of these happy telecommuting moms, who are conducting important business on the telephone or typing busily at their computers, as their smiling toddlers play quietly by their sides or sit contentedly in their laps. Some employers have offered this wonderful experience in direct response to concerns raised by “women's issues” committees. That was probably just what Jack Nilles had in mind when he first coined the term “telecommuting” in the 1970s and described it as a ...


Job Segregation, Gender Blindness, And Employee Agency, Tracy E. Higgins 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Job Segregation, Gender Blindness, And Employee Agency, Tracy E. Higgins

Maine Law Review

Almost forty years after the enactment of Title VII, women's struggle for equality in the workplace continues. Although Title VII was intended to “break[] down old patterns of segregation and hierarchy,” the American workplace remains largely gender-segregated. Indeed, more than one-third of all women workers are employed in occupations in which the percentage of women exceeds 80%. Even in disciplines in which women have made gains, top status (and top paying) jobs remain male-dominated while the lower status jobs are filled by women. This pattern of gender segregation, in turn, accounts for a substantial part of the persistent wage ...


Lessons From The Fields: Female Farmworkers And The Law, Maria L. Ontiveros 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Lessons From The Fields: Female Farmworkers And The Law, Maria L. Ontiveros

Maine Law Review

In both the fields of labor law and gender studies, we learn the most from experience. The experience of workers coming together to demand equality and respect and the experience of women coming together to share their experiences has led to most of what we study in these fields. Unfortunately, too many times traditional legal doctrine does not fit these experiences. In those cases, we must struggle to change the law to be responsive to the lived experiences of women and workers. This Article explores the lived experiences of one particular group of workers—immigrant farmworking women in California. From ...


Gender Typing In Stereo: The Transgender Dilemma In Employment Discrimination, Richard F. Storrow 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Gender Typing In Stereo: The Transgender Dilemma In Employment Discrimination, Richard F. Storrow

Maine Law Review

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII) prohibits discrimination against men because they are men and against women because they are women. This familiar characterization of the Act has been quoted in dozens of sex discrimination cases to support a narrow view of who is protected against sex discrimination in this country. When transsexuals file suit, “[e]mployment discrimination jurisprudence at both the federal and state levels ... captures transsexuals in a discourse of exclusion from social participation. This wide net, using a remarkably refined system of semantic manipulations, snags all claims launched by transsexuals and reveals ...


Sex, Allies And Bfoqs: The Case For Not Allowing Foreign Corporations To Violate Title Vii In The United States, Keith Sealing 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Sex, Allies And Bfoqs: The Case For Not Allowing Foreign Corporations To Violate Title Vii In The United States, Keith Sealing

Maine Law Review

The extent to which foreign corporations as well as their domestic subsidiaries can discriminate against American employees on the basis of sex, age, religion, and national origin in a manner that would be acceptable under their own laws and customs but inimical to American law is currently determined by a muddled jumble of circuit court opinions interpreting a “[w]e express no view” Supreme Court footnote. As a result, American victims of sexual discrimination have much less protection under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 when the discriminating actor is a foreign corporation or its domestic subsidiary ...


Congressional Power To Regulate Sex Discrimination: The Effect Of The Supreme Court's "New Federalism", Calvin Massey 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Congressional Power To Regulate Sex Discrimination: The Effect Of The Supreme Court's "New Federalism", Calvin Massey

Maine Law Review

Congressional power to prevent and remedy sex discrimination in employment has been founded almost entirely upon the commerce power and Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment, which gives Congress power “to enforce, by appropriate legislation” the equal protection guarantee. The commerce power has enabled Congress to prohibit private sex discrimination in employment, and the combination of the commerce and enforcement powers has enabled Congress to prohibit such sex discrimination by public employers. From the late 1930s until the early 1990s the doctrinal architecture of these powers was relatively stable, even if statutory action to realize the promise of a nondiscriminatory ...


The Unenforced Promise Of Equal Pay Acts: A National Problem And Possible Solution From Maine, Elizabeth J. Wyman Esq. 2017 University of Maine School of Law

The Unenforced Promise Of Equal Pay Acts: A National Problem And Possible Solution From Maine, Elizabeth J. Wyman Esq.

Maine Law Review

Equal pay for women is a concept that has been around for a long time. It was during World War I that women were first guaranteed pay equity in the form of regulations enforced by the War Labor Board of 1918. The Board's equal pay policy required manufacturers, who put women on the payroll while male employees were serving in the military, to pay those women the same wages that were paid to the men. The National War Labor Board continued that trend through World War II. Shortly after the war, states began enacting statutes that required employers to ...


Foreword: Law, Labor And Gender, Jennifer B. Wriggins 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Foreword: Law, Labor And Gender, Jennifer B. Wriggins

Maine Law Review

The theme of the conference, Law, Labor, & Gender, came out of a working group comprised of law students, lawyers, a judge, and myself. We thought that a number of issues deserved attention, ranging from current jurisprudence on employment discrimination to more theoretical issues having to do with work/family dilemmas. Professor Deborah Rhode kindly accepted our invitation to be the keynote speaker, and various other academic speakers also agreed to present papers. The working group, and the editors of the Maine Law Review, drafted and sent out a call for papers to approximately 1600 law professors and others. The Law ...


Taking Care Of Business And Protecting Maine's Employees: Supervisor Liability For Employment Discrimination Under The Maine Human Rights Act, Katharine I. Rand 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Taking Care Of Business And Protecting Maine's Employees: Supervisor Liability For Employment Discrimination Under The Maine Human Rights Act, Katharine I. Rand

Maine Law Review

On the heels of federal legislation prohibiting employment discrimination most states, including Maine, have enacted their own civil or human rights statutes aimed at eliminating discriminatory behavior in the workplace. Like its federal counterpart, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII), the Maine Human Rights Act, enacted in 1971, prohibits employers from discriminating on the basis of race, gender, age, religion, or national origin and provides a civil remedy for victims of employment discrimination. Moreover, like Title VII, the question of just who constitutes a liable “employer” under the Maine Human Rights Act has been the ...


Customer Domination At Work: A New Paradigm For The Sexual Harassment Of Employees By Customers, Einat Albin 2017 Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Customer Domination At Work: A New Paradigm For The Sexual Harassment Of Employees By Customers, Einat Albin

Michigan Journal of Gender and Law

This Article introduces a novel legal paradigm—customer domination at work—to address the sexual harassment of employees by customers. This new approach challenges the prevailing paradigm, which focuses on the employer-employee binary relationship. I show how, under current Title VII law, the prevailing paradigm leads to a weaker form of employer liability than other instances where employers are liable for the sexual harassment of their employees. The protection for workers is also limited. The same is true of two other legal regimes discussed in the Article: Germany and Britain. More importantly, I argue that the prevailing paradigm precludes a ...


2017 Newsletter, Golden Gate University School of Law 2017 Golden Gate University School of Law

2017 Newsletter, Golden Gate University School Of Law

Women’s Employment Rights Clinic

No abstract provided.


The History Books Tell It? Collective Bargaining In Higher Education In The 1940s, William A. Herbert 2017 CUNY Hunter College

The History Books Tell It? Collective Bargaining In Higher Education In The 1940s, William A. Herbert

Publications and Research

This article presents a history of collective bargaining in higher education during and just after World War II, decades before the establishment of applicable statutory frameworks for labor representation. It examines the collective bargaining program adopted by the University of Illinois in 1945, along with contracts negotiated at other institutions. The article also examines the role of United Public Workers of America (UPWA) and its predecessor unions in organizing and negotiating on behalf of faculty, teachers, and instructors. The first known collective agreements applicable to faculty, teachers and instructors, were negotiated by those unions before UPWA was destroyed during the ...


Ai And Jobs: The Role Of Demand, James Bessen 2017 Boston University School of Law

Ai And Jobs: The Role Of Demand, James Bessen

Faculty Scholarship

In manufacturing, technology has sharply reduced jobs in recent decades. But before that, for over a century, employment grew, even in industries experiencing rapid technological change. What changed? Demand was highly elastic at first and then became inelastic. The effect of artificial intelligence (AI) on jobs will similarly depend critically on the nature of demand. This paper presents a simple model of demand that accurately predicts the rise and fall of employment in the textile, steel, and automotive industries. This model provides a useful framework for exploring how AI is likely to affect jobs over the next 10 or 20 ...


Panel 2: The Nlrb, Unions, Courts, And Democracy, Elizabeth L. MacDowell, Matthew Dimick, Charlotte Garden, Ryan McGinley Stempel, Ann C. McGinley, Brishen Rogers 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas -- William S. Boyd School of Law

Panel 2: The Nlrb, Unions, Courts, And Democracy, Elizabeth L. Macdowell, Matthew Dimick, Charlotte Garden, Ryan Mcginley Stempel, Ann C. Mcginley, Brishen Rogers

Matthew Dimick

Moderator: Elizabeth MacDowell Matthew Dimick: Unions, Employers and Social Policy Preferences Charlotte Garden: Union Made: Labor's Litigation for Broad Social Change Ryan McGinley Stempel & Ann McGinley: Facebook and Concerted Activity: A Renewal of Democracy at Work? Brishen Rogers: Passion and Reason in Labor Law


Third Generation Discrimination: The Ripple Effects Of Gender Bias In The Workplace, Catherine Ross Dunham 2017 The University of Akron

Third Generation Discrimination: The Ripple Effects Of Gender Bias In The Workplace, Catherine Ross Dunham

Akron Law Review

This Article joins together threads of ongoing conversations regarding implicit bias and gender discrimination. The Article builds on the groundbreaking work of Susan Sturm of Columbia University who developed the theory of second generation gender discrimination, Title VII gender discrimination based on implicit bias, in her article Second Generation Employment Discrimination: A Structural Approach, 101 Colum. L. Rev. 458 (2001). In her article, Sturm developed a theory to pursue Title VII claims where the employment practice at issue is facially-neutral, but the effect of the policy in a bias-based, homogeneous work environment is discriminatory. Since 2001, several high profile cases ...


Law-And-Economics Approaches To Labour And Employment Law, Stewart J. Schwab 2017 Cornell Law School

Law-And-Economics Approaches To Labour And Employment Law, Stewart J. Schwab

Stewart J Schwab

This article describes the distinctive approaches that law and economics takes to labour and employment law. The article distinguishes between ‘economic analysis of law’ and ‘law and economics’, with the former applying economic models to generally simple legal rules while the latter blends messier institutional detail with legal and economic thought. The article describes three eras of law-and-economics scholarship, recognizing that economics teaches that markets work and markets fail. Era One emphasizes that labour laws and mandatory employment rules might reduce overall social welfare by preventing a benefit or term from going to the party that values it most highly ...


The Supreme Court’S Application Of 'Ordinary Contract Principles' To The Issue Of The Duration Of Retiree Healthcare Benefits: Perpetuating The Interpretation/Gap-Filling Quagmire, Robert A. Hillman 2017 Cornell Law School

The Supreme Court’S Application Of 'Ordinary Contract Principles' To The Issue Of The Duration Of Retiree Healthcare Benefits: Perpetuating The Interpretation/Gap-Filling Quagmire, Robert A. Hillman

Robert Hillman

The United States Supreme Court purported to apply "ordinary contract principles" in its decision reversing the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals in M&G Polymers USA v. Tackett . The Sixth Circuit had held that plaintiffs, retired employees of M&G, were entitled to lifetime healthcare benefits under their union's agreement with M&G. According to the Supreme Court, the Sixth Circuit wrongly relied on a false set of "inferences" established in International Union v. Yard-Man, Inc. to find that "in the absence of extrinsic evidence to the contrary, the provisions of [the collective bargaining agreement] indicated an intent to ...


Tthe Requirement Of Domestic Participation In New Mining Ventures In Zambia, Muna Ndulo 2017 Unza School of Law

Tthe Requirement Of Domestic Participation In New Mining Ventures In Zambia, Muna Ndulo

Muna B Ndulo

No abstract provided.


Digital Commons powered by bepress