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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Mechanical Properties Of Canine Patella-Ligament-Tibia Segment., Jeffery Biskup, Andy Freeman, W Camisa, J Innes, Michael Conzemius Jan 2104

Mechanical Properties Of Canine Patella-Ligament-Tibia Segment., Jeffery Biskup, Andy Freeman, W Camisa, J Innes, Michael Conzemius

Jeffery Biskup, DVM, DACVS

OBJECTIVE: To test the ex vivo mechanical properties of canine patella-ligament-tibia (PLT) segment and establish the relationship between donor size and PLT dimensions to the mechanical properties of PLT grafts.STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo mechanical testing study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Canine PLT segments (n = 21 dogs; 42 PLT). METHODS:Morphometric measurements of PLT segments were taken from computed tomography (CT) images and compared with results obtained using calipers. PLT were tested to failure at a rate of 100% length/s. Mechanical properties and failure mode were recorded. RESULTS: PLT width and thickness (P < .001 for both) measured by calipers were significantly lower than those taken from CT images. Thirty-five (83%) specimens failed by avulsion fracture from the patella, 1 failed mid-ligament, and 6 failed by tibial fracture. Dog weight and PLT length had the strongest Pearson's r value when correlated with load at failure (r = 0.73, 0.81, respectively). CONCLUSION:Dog weight and PLT length were the best predictors of load at failure. PLT failure load of dogs weighing >25 kg were similar to those reported for ...


Prostate Cancer: Patient Education For Changing Guidelines, Richard Mendez Jan 2018

Prostate Cancer: Patient Education For Changing Guidelines, Richard Mendez

Family Medicine Clerkship Student Projects

In May 2012 United States Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended against prostate cancer screening, Grade D, with no other recommendation for providers. Since prostate cancer continues to be among the most common cancer in the United States among men, patients were exposed to previous guidelines during routine visits and require updated educational materials for primary care visits.


Grand Rounds: Year End Roundup, Daniel G. Kipnis, Msi Dec 2017

Grand Rounds: Year End Roundup, Daniel G. Kipnis, Msi

Jefferson Digital Commons News

Use your break to expand your knowledge by checking out the many Grand Rounds posted in the Jefferson Digital Commons. Topics range from nasal reconstruction to sexuality and aging. With hours of Grand Rounds to experience (see some samples below), your holiday will transform from boredom to excitement! Happy holidays from the Jefferson Digital Commons!


The Effects Of Perinatal Methamphetamine Use On Maternal And Child Outcomes: Implications For Education Among Bsn Nursing Students, Tina Nguyen Dec 2017

The Effects Of Perinatal Methamphetamine Use On Maternal And Child Outcomes: Implications For Education Among Bsn Nursing Students, Tina Nguyen

Honors Theses

The implications of methamphetamine use are vast and prevalent in the U.S. This epidemic is also well recognized in Tennessee and in Hamilton County. The number of men and women that continue to use methamphetamine speaks to the importance of this issue. Among these individuals, pregnant women comprise a significant portion of female methamphetamine users across the United States. The potential complications that can arise for not only a mother but also her child due to maternal methamphetamine use pose a much more significant issue. The detrimental effects that a child can experience as a result of maternal methamphetamine ...


Example Doctor Of Nursing Practice Project, Steven W. Pryor Test Nov 2017

Example Doctor Of Nursing Practice Project, Steven W. Pryor Test

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects

This is an example of a Doctor of Nursing Practice Project uploaded to SPARK.

This is where the abstract of the submission will appear, briefly summarizing the problem and research results in a few sentences.


Mechanistic Mathematical Models: An Underused Platform For Hpv Research, Marc Ryser, Patti Gravitt, Evan R. Myers Jun 2017

Mechanistic Mathematical Models: An Underused Platform For Hpv Research, Marc Ryser, Patti Gravitt, Evan R. Myers

Global Health Faculty Publications

Health economic modeling has become an invaluable methodology for the design and evaluation of clinical and public health interventions against the human papillomavirus (HPV) and associated diseases. At the same time, relatively little attention has been paid to a different yet complementary class of models, namely that of mechanistic mathematical models. The primary focus of mechanistic mathematical models is to better understand the intricate biologic mechanisms and dynamics of disease. Inspired by a long and successful history of mechanistic modeling in other biomedical fields, we highlight several areas of HPV research where mechanistic models have the potential to advance the ...


Intractable Epilepsy, Sameh Morkous Md May 2017

Intractable Epilepsy, Sameh Morkous Md

Department of Pediatrics

No abstract provided.


Technical And Physical Match Demands Of A Ncaa Division I Soccer Goalkeeper, Joanne Spalding May 2017

Technical And Physical Match Demands Of A Ncaa Division I Soccer Goalkeeper, Joanne Spalding

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the goalkeeper position in order to prepare goalkeepers for competition. The objectives of this study were to characterize the technical and physical demands of an NCAA Division I collegiate goalkeeper over three seasons and examine trends from season to season. Count and frequency for each definition were analyzed. Results show that although the goalkeeper’s technical demands were characterized by engaging in play without action and being in the goal area, the gradually increased use of the feet over three season’s hints on the importance of skills ...


Synthesis And In-Vitro Cell Viability/Cytotoxicity Studies Of Novel Pyrrolobenzodiazepine Derivatives, John M. Jarrett May 2017

Synthesis And In-Vitro Cell Viability/Cytotoxicity Studies Of Novel Pyrrolobenzodiazepine Derivatives, John M. Jarrett

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) are a group of naturally occurring compounds that were discovered in the cultures of Streptomyces in the 1960s. Some natural PBDs discovered in these cultures, such as anthramycin and sibiromycin, were shown to possess a broad spectrum of anti-tumor activity. Since cancer is still a leading cause of death globally, the development of novel anti-proliferative derivatives of PBDs is essential for human welfare worldwide. Further synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of the parent natural products and their tetracyclic analogs will lead to the discovery of drug candidates. In this work, thirteen PBD analogues were synthesized using no ...


Validation Of The Medication Box Task Assessment, Katherine Blank, Alison Chandler, Malcolm Isely, Serena Soria, Yamin Zaw May 2017

Validation Of The Medication Box Task Assessment, Katherine Blank, Alison Chandler, Malcolm Isely, Serena Soria, Yamin Zaw

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

There are a limited number of validated occupation-based cognitive assessments that are feasible in clinical settings. For individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI), ecologically valid cognitive assessments are needed to understand how cognition influences functional performance. This study implemented a quantitative exploratory correlational design using a battery of gold standard tabletop cognitive assessments as criterion measurements against the Medication Box Task assessment, an occupation-based cognitive assessment. Eight participants completed the test battery. The student researchers used Pearson correlations to analyze each participant’s scores on the Medication Box Task assessment and the scores on the battery of gold standard assessments ...


Efficacy Of Therapeutic Listening® Quickshifts In Children With Sensory Processing Difficulties, Shannon Preto, Ann Malloy, Bryant Luong May 2017

Efficacy Of Therapeutic Listening® Quickshifts In Children With Sensory Processing Difficulties, Shannon Preto, Ann Malloy, Bryant Luong

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

Few empirical studies provide evidence for the effectiveness of Therapeutic Listening - Quickshifts (TL-Q). However, anecdotally, therapists and clients report TL-Q produces consistent positive results as an intervention for children with learning and developmental problems. In this study, the researchers examined the effectiveness of TL-Q intervention for five children with sensory processing difficulties to improve participation and function in (1) self-regulation and arousal, (2) activities of daily living (ADLs), (3) social/emotional skills, and (4) sensorimotor skills. Over the course of an 8-week prospective study, the researchers conducted a pre-test, post-test, prospective case study. During the intervention period, occupational therapist with ...


Sleep As An Occupation In College Students: A Mixed Method Study, Charlotte Sally, Savannah Hancock, Rhianna Wallace, Jacqueline Bloom May 2017

Sleep As An Occupation In College Students: A Mixed Method Study, Charlotte Sally, Savannah Hancock, Rhianna Wallace, Jacqueline Bloom

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

Sleep is an emerging area of research and practice for occupational therapists. The purpose of this study was to identify and investigate how college students’ cognitive perceptions and beliefs about sleep affect their quality of sleep. Four college students participated in qualitative interviews investigating their sleep beliefs and attitudes. The students also completed a two-week daily sleep diary to report their sleep beliefs, attitudes, and daily living patterns. Four emerging themes were identified from the interviews: beliefs about sleep patterns related to temporal structure of sleep, stress, daytime performance associated with sleep, and conflicting beliefs about sleep. Daily sleep diaries ...


Implementing Multifactorial Education Modules With Older Adults: Individualized And Interactive Fall Prevention Education, Salvador Chavez, Jocelle Flores, Rachelle Yambao May 2017

Implementing Multifactorial Education Modules With Older Adults: Individualized And Interactive Fall Prevention Education, Salvador Chavez, Jocelle Flores, Rachelle Yambao

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

Falls are a significant concern for community-dwelling older adults (OAs), with one in four OAs reporting a fall every year. Occupational therapy students collaborated with first responders of the Novato Fire District to identify gaps in fall prevention community outreach programs and found that many interventions lack an interactive or individualized approach. Based on the gap analysis and current literature, seven education modules were developed to address key risk factors including home safety hazards, polypharmacy, fear of falling, and strength and balance exercises. Thirty community-dwelling OAs participated in the education modules that were implemented at two senior community sites in ...


The Duc Healthy Aging Website: Providing Online Occupation-Based Information, Haley Caruthers, Samantha Talavera, Jackeline Ulloa, Stephanie Vera May 2017

The Duc Healthy Aging Website: Providing Online Occupation-Based Information, Haley Caruthers, Samantha Talavera, Jackeline Ulloa, Stephanie Vera

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

Access to current, evidence-based health information is an important step to the promotion of health and wellness for all age groups, including OAs. Since the virtual world is easily accessible and is being used more frequently by OAs, an effective way to convey relevant up-to-date health information is through a website devoted to the dissemination of health promotion information tailored for OAs, including tips for integrating healthy habits into their lifestyle. Dominican University of California’s (DUC) Healthy Aging website, developed in May 2014, contains relevant and evidence-based research, including activities and local community based programs that promote healthy aging ...


Increasing Functional Task Performance In Adults With Low Vision, Carrie Payne, Lauren Kufer May 2017

Increasing Functional Task Performance In Adults With Low Vision, Carrie Payne, Lauren Kufer

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

This critically appraised topic explores the functional task performance of adults with low vision utilizing tactile vision substitution systems, specifically tongue display units (TDUs). TDUs are a novel assistive device that functions to provide artificial vision to those with low vision. TDUs pixelate images captured on a camera the person wears and the images are translated via electronic stimulation on the tongue to paint a picture. Two studies that measured functional task performance utilizing a TDU with adults with low vision were explored. Examples of functional tasks measured include word recognition, object recognition, and orientation and mobility tasks. The studies ...


Occupational Therapy In The Intensive Care Unit, Kelsie Colombini, Kristen M. Henderson, Michelle Huie, Courtney Malachowski May 2017

Occupational Therapy In The Intensive Care Unit, Kelsie Colombini, Kristen M. Henderson, Michelle Huie, Courtney Malachowski

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

In recent years, the number of inpatient cardiovascular surgeries has significantly increased in hospitals around America. Occupational therapists in the intensive care unit (ICU) at Mills-Peninsula Medical Center (Burlingame, California) lack a standard protocol for addressing physical, cognitive, and psychosocial factors in patients post cardiac surgery. Furthermore, individuals’ experience and clinical reasoning frequently guides interventions rather than current evidence. The American Occupational Therapy Association’s Centennial Vision encourages occupational therapists to pursue science-driven practices and provide evidence-based interventions. In response to this Vision, an evidence-based clinical pathway was developed for the occupational therapists at Mills-Peninsula Medical Center. The clinical pathway ...


Schizophrenia And Its Effects On An American Family: A Call To Action For The 21st Century, Cynthia Newton Captain May 2017

Schizophrenia And Its Effects On An American Family: A Call To Action For The 21st Century, Cynthia Newton Captain

Senior Theses and Capstone Projects

Our country’s healthcare system is at a moral crossroads. The way we treat those whom we call “the homeless” is deplorable. The majority of the homeless are mentally ill and need treatment. Our country needs to treat those with the severe brain diseases of schizophrenia, schizo-affective disorder, and bi-polar disorder just as we would Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Those with severe mental illness, who have no insight into their illness, should not be allowed to dictate their own treatment. If a homeless person is brought to San Francisco General Hospital and is found to be a ...


Design, Synthesis, And Evaluation Of Novel Positron Emission Tomography Radiotracers, Christopher Philip Surdock May 2017

Design, Synthesis, And Evaluation Of Novel Positron Emission Tomography Radiotracers, Christopher Philip Surdock

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial tumor in patients under 1 year of age and it constitutes about 8-10% of all childhood cancer. It originates from neural crest cells that normally differentiate to form the sympathetic ganglia, adrenal medulla and other paraspinal sites where sympathetic nervous system tissue is present. Even with an extensive treatment regimen that typically includes surgery, chemotherapy, total body irradiation and autologous stem cell transplantation, the 5-year event-free survival is <50% for high risk patients, and there are numerous long-term side effects associated with treatment. This body of work investigated two projects for improving patient outcomes through the development of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers that could be used for therapy planning. The goal of the first project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate PET radiotracers that could measure the enzymatic activation of Irinotecan (CPT-11), a potent chemotherapeutic used in the treatment of colon cancer and several pediatric solid tumors. CPT-11 itself is a prodrug which is converted in vivo to SN-38, via metabolism by carboxylesterase (CE) enzymes. St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital researchers have designed a two-pronged protocol of tumor-targeted CPT-11 chemotherapy combining the complementary approaches of a) specific modulation of human CE in normal tissues to improve drug delivery, and b) tumor-targeted activation of prodrug using neural progenitor cells (NPC) transfected with a mutant human CE cDNA. The tumor-selective trafficking of NPC allows over-expression of CE within the tumor. This prodrug/activating enzyme therapeutic approach has shown extremely encouraging preclinical results in the treatment of NB (90% 1-year survival in mice). However, successful translation of this novel therapeutic approach into general clinical practice requires a better understanding of progenitor cell trafficking, duration and intensity of enzymatic activity and the ultimate biological fate of the therapeutic construct. Toward this end, PET radiotracers were developed based on extensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of CE binding. The goal of the second project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate PET radiotracers that could identify the presence of the tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB). TrkB is not normally found in sympathetic nervous tissue, which is the tissue NB develops from, and thus is a potential target for imaging and therapy. The presence of TrkB and its neurotrophin, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have been reported to protect neuroblastoma tumor cells from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis via a phosphatidylinositol 3’-kinase pathway. Radiotracers were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to identify TrkB both in vitro and in vivo. PET radiosynthetic procedures were optimized to synthesize novel radiotracers for imaging targets that could help clinicians monitor therapy or identify markers that would aid in therapy planning for NB patients. The method development could be applied to future compounds that show improved chemical characteristics for synthesis and selectivity.


The Chronic Disease Prevention Program, Ashley Northcutt May 2017

The Chronic Disease Prevention Program, Ashley Northcutt

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Therapeutic Listening On Bilateral Coordination, Avery Wilson, Mios Buccat, Amanda Grace Irao, Morgan Mousley, Michael Yra Munchua May 2017

The Effects Of Therapeutic Listening On Bilateral Coordination, Avery Wilson, Mios Buccat, Amanda Grace Irao, Morgan Mousley, Michael Yra Munchua

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

Therapeutic Listening® is an intervention increasingly used by occupational therapists despite the lack of supporting evidence in current literature. Therapeutic Listening® is a sound-based treatment developed by Sheila Frick, OTR/L, rooted in sensory integration. The purpose of this continuation study was to compare the quality of bilateral movement in typically developing children after either listening to Therapeutic Listening® Bilateral Coordination Quick Shift or listening to white noise. This study used a randomized control pretest-posttest experimental design to analyze posture, smooth and continuous movement, effort, precision, and arm/leg movements. Specific items were further analyzed after eliminating those with a ...


Coping Strategies Of Prelicensure Registered Nursing Students Experiencing Student-To-Student Incivility, Robin A. Foreman May 2017

Coping Strategies Of Prelicensure Registered Nursing Students Experiencing Student-To-Student Incivility, Robin A. Foreman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Incivility is rude or discourteous behavior that demonstrates a lack of respect for others. Some nurses ignore the dictates of professionalism and exhibit a total disregard for colleagues and peers by purposefully targeting each other with uncivil behaviors. Incivility has invaded the nursing educational environment with deleterious results. Uncivil behaviors perpetrated by nursing students against other nursing students cause psychological and physiological distress for victims and witnesses. The purposes of this quantitative descriptive study were to identify the behaviors that constituted lateral student-to-student incivility, determine the frequency of experienced student-to-student incivility, and describe the coping strategies employed by prelicensure registered ...


A Motivational Profile Of Nurses Who Pursue Doctoral Education, Tomekia Yvette Luckett May 2017

A Motivational Profile Of Nurses Who Pursue Doctoral Education, Tomekia Yvette Luckett

Dissertations

The need for nurses to pursue doctoral education is imperative to the professionalization of the discipline of nursing in light of the changing healthcare environment. Presently, < 1% of the nursing workforce possesses a doctoral degree (“Transforming Nursing Education,” 2016), albeit recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) (2010) admonish the need to increase the number of doctoral-prepared nurses. The need to understand characteristics of nurses who seek doctoral education is critical in planning long-term strategies for nursing education in the United States (US) (Kovner, Brewer, Katigbak, Djukic, & Fatehi, 2012). In conjunction with describing characteristics of nurses pursuing doctoral education, this research describes the motivational orientation and factors of registered nurses (RNs) pursuing doctoral education.

A descriptive correlational design was utilized to examine concepts relating to motivational orientation of RNs pursuing doctoral education. Participants were divided into two categories: (a) RNs seeking the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree and (b) RNs pursuing the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degree. A total of 173 RNs enrolled in either a Ph.D. or DNP program in the Gulf South region of the US comprised the final sample. Binary logistic regression ...


A Human Factors Approach For Identifying Latent Failures In Healthcare Settings, Tara N. Cohen Apr 2017

A Human Factors Approach For Identifying Latent Failures In Healthcare Settings, Tara N. Cohen

Dissertations and Theses

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the current research was to assess the utility of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), a tool that has historically been used reactively to look at accidents and incidents, for classifying observational data from various healthcare venues.

METHOD: Three studies are presented to investigate the reliability of HFACS for classifying observational data. In Study I, HFACS was applied to observational human factors data collected from the cardiovascular operating room (CVOR) at an academic medical university. Three trained analysts categorized the data using HFACS and several approaches were used to evaluate its reliability during the ...


Cec Newsletter (Spring 2017), Mary Lloyd Moore, Executive Director Apr 2017

Cec Newsletter (Spring 2017), Mary Lloyd Moore, Executive Director

CEC Publications

No abstract provided.


Leaders Of The Pack: Women And The Future Of Veterinary Medicine, Julie Kumble, Donald F. Smith Mar 2017

Leaders Of The Pack: Women And The Future Of Veterinary Medicine, Julie Kumble, Donald F. Smith

Purdue University Press Book Previews

Veterinary medicine has undergone sweeping changes in the last few decades. Women now account for 55 percent of the active veterinarians in the field, and nearly 80 percent of veterinary students are women. However, average salaries have dropped as this shift has occurred, and even with women in the vast majority, only 25 percent of leadership roles are held by women.

These trends point to gender-based inequality that veterinary medicine, a profession that tilts so heavily toward women, is struggling to address. How will the profession respond? What will this mean for our students and schools? What will it mean ...


Eating Disorders: Identifying, Assessing, And Treatment, Valerie M. Miranda Mar 2017

Eating Disorders: Identifying, Assessing, And Treatment, Valerie M. Miranda

National Youth-At-Risk Conference Savannah

This presentation will address DSM-V criteria for feeding and eating disorders, demographics for eating disorders, long-term medical issues associated with eating disorders, assessment measures for feeding and eating disorders, and resources for the community. Being able to identify, assess, and treat eating disorders within the children and adolescent population is crucial in their long-term physical development and mental health as eating disorders typically begin in mid-adolescence.


Effects Of Height Increasing Heel Insole On Lower Extremity Joint Mechanics, Youngwook Kim Mar 2017

Effects Of Height Increasing Heel Insole On Lower Extremity Joint Mechanics, Youngwook Kim

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

High-heel shoes alter foot pressure distribution and lower extremity kinetic and kinematics. Unlike general women’s high-heeled shoes, height increasing heel insoles are cushioned, which may contribute to impact absorption. The purpose of this study is to compare the kinetic and kinematics of gaits with and without height increasing heel insoles. Two male subjects performed level walking under two conditions: wearing sports shoes with and without height increasing heel insoles which added additional 5 cm of the heel height (total 6 cm). The vertical ground reaction force (GRF), angle, moment, and power of ankle, knee, and hip during the stance ...


Creating A Standard In At-Home Pulmonary Exercise Maintenance Programs, Casey Caniglia Mar 2017

Creating A Standard In At-Home Pulmonary Exercise Maintenance Programs, Casey Caniglia

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Between 12-24 million people in the United States suffer chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is linked to reduced physical activity and may be due to effects of the disease on the musculoskeletal system. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) clinics offer patients the chance for a better quality of life through exercise programs. However, PR typically lasts 36 sessions and is covered by Medicare. However, any maintenance past the 36 visits requires that costs to be covered by the patient. Cost and access to infrastructure are major barriers to continued supervised maintenance. Lack of confidence and motivation are barriers to at-home fitness ...


Effect Of A Passive Exoskeletal Device On Locomotor Adaptive Ability In Healthy Human Subjects, James Nielsen Mar 2017

Effect Of A Passive Exoskeletal Device On Locomotor Adaptive Ability In Healthy Human Subjects, James Nielsen

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Background: Functional mobility in stroke survivors is affected by the deterioration in bilateral coordination while walking. A passive exoskeletal device, the Kickstart (Cadence Biomedical, Seattle, WA), that provides assistance during walking may help correct asymmetrical gait patterns by providing different task constraints for each leg during gait training. Methods: 15 healthy young participants walked on a split-belt treadmill where the speed of each belt could be controlled independently. Each participant’s preferred walking speed (PWS), fast walking speed (FWS) and slow walking speed (SWS) was established. Participants then underwent the experimental protocol while either wearing or not wearing the exoskeleton ...


Construction Of Auxotrophic Strains Of Candida Albicans Clinical Strains, Jenna L. Christiansen Mar 2017

Construction Of Auxotrophic Strains Of Candida Albicans Clinical Strains, Jenna L. Christiansen

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Candida albicans is a yeast commonly found in the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals. Although part of the normal human microbiome, C. albicans can be problematic to certain populations such as individuals with compromised immune systems or those taking broad-spectrum antibiotics. C. albicans is the cause of diaper rash, thrush, vaginal yeast infections, and is a leading cause of systemic infections in hospitals. The focus of C. albicans research has almost entirely been focused on a single strain background, SC5314, found in clade I. This research will contribute to a larger project to delete several marker genes (URA3 ...