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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Nudging As A Support For Behavioral Change In Lifestyle Medicine, Simon Matthews Jan 2024

Nudging As A Support For Behavioral Change In Lifestyle Medicine, Simon Matthews

Nursing and Health Papers and Journal Articles

The practice of lifestyle medicine and its emphasis on behavioral change continues to grow around the world. Yet much of the burden of disease weighing on healthcare systems from chronic, modifiable conditions remains stubbornly present. From a behavior change perspective, efforts to date have primarily focused on public health messaging and public health campaigns (global approaches) to interventions such as health coaching (individual approaches). There exists an opportunity to consider contextual elements which support behavioral change. The practice of “nudging” behavior in primary care and allied health settings is proposed as a means of responding to these contextual opportunities. Nudging ...


Cooperative Extension In Urban America: Place-Based Approaches For Improving Health, Dawn Burton, Latoya O'Neal, Erin Yelland, Suzanne Stluka, Rodger Rennekamp Jun 2022

Cooperative Extension In Urban America: Place-Based Approaches For Improving Health, Dawn Burton, Latoya O'Neal, Erin Yelland, Suzanne Stluka, Rodger Rennekamp

Journal of Human Sciences and Extension

While the bulk of Cooperative Extension’s (Extension) historical work has been with rural populations, its future work should also address the needs of those living in urban areas. The opportunity to live a long and healthy life is paramount among those needs. Cooperative Extension’ National Framework for Health Equity and Well-Being (Framework) provides a roadmap by which Cooperative Extension can help ensure that all people have that opportunity. The central premise of the Framework is that future work of Extension must include but extend beyond the promotion of healthy behaviors to place-based approaches for improving conditions in which people ...


Data-Driven Analysis Of Drug And Substance Abuse Rates Across The Varying Regions In The United States Of America, Reem Saleh Jun 2022

Data-Driven Analysis Of Drug And Substance Abuse Rates Across The Varying Regions In The United States Of America, Reem Saleh

University Honors Theses

Drugs and substance abuse is one of the leading causes of death for adolescents in the United States. The consequences of using these drugs are profound and can cause both damage to one's physical and psychological health. The rates of drug abuse in the United States continue to increase over the years. This paper analyzes the trends in rates of drug abuse in the four regions in the United States. It looks at the rates in cocaine, cigarettes, marijuana, and tobacco. A preliminary analysis was done to look at the trend in rates followed by an ARIMA time series ...


Ageism, Eldercare, And Healthcare: An Examination Of Growing Old In Costa Rica, Akshaya Vijayasankar May 2022

Ageism, Eldercare, And Healthcare: An Examination Of Growing Old In Costa Rica, Akshaya Vijayasankar

Honors Theses

The world’s aging population and the Covid-19 pandemic have revealed the high level of ageism against older adults around the globe, which has resulted in an overall decreased quality of life for elders. Societies are now faced with the challenge of creating a suitable and equitable model of care to support their aging population. Despite the recent publication of the World Health Organization's Global Report on Ageism, there is still a large gap in the literature regarding ageism. This paper addresses the issues of institutional ageism in the eldercare and healthcare sector. I argue that Costa Rica serves ...


Factors Associated With Advance Care Planning Engagement In Healthy Young Adults, Pablo J. Vasquez May 2022

Factors Associated With Advance Care Planning Engagement In Healthy Young Adults, Pablo J. Vasquez

UT SON Dissertations (Open Access)

Background: Advance care planning (ACP) is a process that supports individuals at any stage of health in understanding and sharing their personal values and goals pertaining current or future medical needs with their families and healthcare providers. Although ACP is applicable to adults of any age and any stage of the health continuum, it is widely associated with older or terminally ill populations, and the need for end-of-life (EOL) planning in healthy young adults is generally found unnecessary. The National Institutes of Health supports the expansion of ACP research in understudied populations. Investigating ACP in healthy young adults support such ...


Documenting & Describing Experiences Of Marginalized Gender Identities In Healthcare, Laura Stepnowski May 2022

Documenting & Describing Experiences Of Marginalized Gender Identities In Healthcare, Laura Stepnowski

Gettysburg Social Sciences Review

Despite its importance to quality and length of life, health varies widely among the U.S. population depending on various sociodemographic factors, such as age, race, gender, and income. This research focuses on the perception of treatment for those with marginalized gender identities. There is a long history of discrepancies in healthcare, but no time such as the present seems to be filled with such a nuanced perspective of quality of treatment for those with marginalized gender identities. This became evident through the focus groups conducted for this study. Findings show that participants used more collaborative language when discussing their ...


Assessing The Coverage Of Us Cancer Center Primary Catchment Areas., Amy E Leader, Christopher Mcnair, Christina Yurick, Matthew Huesser, Elizabeth Schade, Emily E Stimmel, Caryn Lerman, Karen E Knudsen May 2022

Assessing The Coverage Of Us Cancer Center Primary Catchment Areas., Amy E Leader, Christopher Mcnair, Christina Yurick, Matthew Huesser, Elizabeth Schade, Emily E Stimmel, Caryn Lerman, Karen E Knudsen

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

Background: Cancer centers are expected to engage communities and reduce the burden of cancer in their catchment areas. However, the extent to which cancer centers adequately reach the entire US population is unknown. Methods: We surveyed all members of the Association of American Cancer Institutes (N ¼ 102 cancer centers) to document and map each cancer center’s primary catchment area. Catchment area descriptions were aggregated to the county level. Catchment area coverage scores were calculated for each county and choropleths generated representing coverage across the US. Similar analyses were used to overlay US population density, cancer incidence, and cancer-related ...


Infrastructure And Policies Supporting Physical Activity Habits: A Comparison Between The United States And Europe, Anisha Laddha May 2022

Infrastructure And Policies Supporting Physical Activity Habits: A Comparison Between The United States And Europe, Anisha Laddha

Honors College Theses

Most adults in the United States are not getting enough physical activity, and this is causing high rates of adverse health conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the population. The rising costs of cardiovascular disease are a national problem that must be tackled from multiple perspectives. This literature review explores policies and infrastructure implemented in European countries with better health outcomes and higher physical activity levels in the population compared to the United States. The infrastructure in places such as Germany and Denmark is constructed to encourage physical activity in the form of active transportation such as walking ...


Assessing Nutritional Health Knowledge In Sharing Clinic Patients With Diabetes, Minden Huntrods May 2022

Assessing Nutritional Health Knowledge In Sharing Clinic Patients With Diabetes, Minden Huntrods

Capstone Experience

Effective diabetes prevention and management relies on nutritional behaviors, thus a basic level of health knowledge is important for patients with diabetes and their caregivers in their quest to acquire acute glycemic control and minimize negative health outcomes (Ley et al., 2014). The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrition-related health knowledge of patients living with diabetes who are seen at the UNMC Sharing Clinic by use of a verbal questionnaire. This nutritional health knowledge assessment was a quantitative, prospective, survey-based study utilizing descriptive statistics. Approximately 86% of patients were proficient in food group and nutritious foods knowledge ...


The Perception Of Technology On Continuous Health And Environmental Monitoring For Professional Drivers, Troy Suwondo May 2022

The Perception Of Technology On Continuous Health And Environmental Monitoring For Professional Drivers, Troy Suwondo

Capstone Experience

Due to the sedentary nature of professional truck driving (among other high-risk behaviors and hazardous exposures) many suffer from acute and chronic health conditions. There are many potential hazards in the professional driving profession. Many of these hazards come from those that transport hazardous materials. Figuring out what health and environmental indicators are important to measure can be a way to minimize hazards. Continuous health monitoring technology may be an option to detect disease and alert professional drivers when vital signs indicate impending health crises. Before this can be implemented, it will be important to evaluate the perception of wearable ...


Is Health Literacy A Defined Risk Factor? A Literature Review Of Health Literacy As It Relates To Immigrant Populations In The U.S., Kelly Zdanuczyk May 2022

Is Health Literacy A Defined Risk Factor? A Literature Review Of Health Literacy As It Relates To Immigrant Populations In The U.S., Kelly Zdanuczyk

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

Throughout its lifespan the definition of health literacy in the United States has been ambiguous and disagreeable. This discrepancy has created disparity among health outcomes for vulnerable populations who are classified with lower degrees of health literacy and thus have a harder time interacting with the healthcare system. This paper will review published peer-reviewed literature on the topic of health literacy as it relates to immigrant populations in the United States and explore the ways in which low health literacy results in negative health outcomes. The literature review finds the discrepancies among health literacy, as it pertains to immigrant communities ...


Housing To Health: A Literature Review Analyzing Housing Pathways And Policy Initiatives, Evan P. Lesser May 2022

Housing To Health: A Literature Review Analyzing Housing Pathways And Policy Initiatives, Evan P. Lesser

Capstone Experience

Housing is a vital aspect of an individual’s ability to enjoy a healthy lifestyle. It is so integral that the United Nations has stated that housing is a human right and extends beyond just basic shelter where housing should provide a certain level of structural integrity of the infrastructure, security, affordability, and access to surrounding resources. Existing research studying the relationship between housing and health outcomes suggest those with poor housing exhibit higher levels of chronic conditions such as asthma, heart disease, and diabetes, and higher chances of accidents within the home. The goal of this literature review, which ...


Pandemic And Substance Use: A Cross-Sectional Analysis, Vanessa E. Ermilio May 2022

Pandemic And Substance Use: A Cross-Sectional Analysis, Vanessa E. Ermilio

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Background: The COVID-19 Pandemic called individuals to stay at home which may have impacted individuals to become not only physically, but socially isolated as well. With social isolation, comes an increase in mental health complications which may lead to an increase in substance use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association between COVID-19 social isolation and substance use among college students.

Method: The present study’s data was collected from a public, four-year university located in Southern California. The survey was disseminated through instructors at the university and students were incentivized with extra course credit to ...


Racial Health And Productivity Inequalities In The United States, Elissia Vecere Apr 2022

Racial Health And Productivity Inequalities In The United States, Elissia Vecere

Honors Theses

Across America, it is frequently seen that there are may differences by race in economic and social outcomes. This variability can be seen in judicial, social, and economic systems. The breakdown of economic systems presenting racial variability can be displayed via workplace statistics. There is a general discrepancy between the workplace statistics represented with Black and White employees. These differences frequently are blamed on the productivity and background education supplied by the employee upon being hired. However, the levels of variation across these two races varies minutely in comparison to the differences in wages supplied. When all factors are kept ...


Applying Self-Compassion And Stress Management Techniques To Increase Healthy Behaviors Among Women At The New Beginnings Center, Payton Knupp Apr 2022

Applying Self-Compassion And Stress Management Techniques To Increase Healthy Behaviors Among Women At The New Beginnings Center, Payton Knupp

OTD Capstone Projects

The New Beginnings Center is a nonprofit organization that serves as an empowerment program for women from disadvantaged backgrounds in the Nashville area. Current curriculum includes a 12-week program focused on nutrition, exercise, and positive lifestyle changes that provide a holistic approach to long-term behavior change and a lasting support system. The objective for this project was to provide updated programming based on current research and relevant topics for the population, utilizing the cognitive behavioral frame of reference to facilitate behavior change, reframing negative and distorted thinking into healthy and productive habits. The subjects of the two workshops focused on ...


Antibody Dependent Enhancement Of Infectious Bronchitis Virus In Poultry, Zachary Hamilton, Barry Simpson Dr., Donald L. Reynolds, Dvm, Dr. Apr 2022

Antibody Dependent Enhancement Of Infectious Bronchitis Virus In Poultry, Zachary Hamilton, Barry Simpson Dr., Donald L. Reynolds, Dvm, Dr.

UCARE Research Products

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is a coronavirus infection of chickens that causes respiratory disease and reproductive problems in chickens. Currently, there are vaccines that are effective against IB. However, new variants and strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) routinely emerge. A vaccine that is not the same strain as the virus is not completely effective in protecting against other variants because the vaccine will not allow the host antibodies to completely neutralize the strain. This is a problem because it makes IB difficult to control and diagnose.

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is a phenomenon whereby non-neutralizing antibodies, or low levels ...


International Approach Of Physical Activity And Health: Accomplishment And Challenges, Yuanlong Liu Phd Apr 2022

International Approach Of Physical Activity And Health: Accomplishment And Challenges, Yuanlong Liu Phd

International Journal of Physical Activity and Health

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Mosaic Law Observance On Human Health, Emily Uhlmeyer Apr 2022

The Effects Of Mosaic Law Observance On Human Health, Emily Uhlmeyer

Senior Honors Theses

For the people of ancient Israel, life was guided and regulated by adherence to the law of Moses. Dietary restrictions, purification rituals, circumcision, and Sabbath observance were each critical components of this code and were meticulously detailed in the Old Testament, specifically in the Torah. Still today, dietary laws are observed and select rituals practiced by many Jews and Seventh Day Adventists. Although health protection was never the primary purpose of the law, noticeable effects on human health have been connected to its observance. Evaluation of the effects of the Levitical law on human health can be achieved by a ...


Health Care In South Africa: An Overview Of Past And Current Challenges, Silas Westers Apr 2022

Health Care In South Africa: An Overview Of Past And Current Challenges, Silas Westers

Senior Honors Theses

The health care system in South Africa is a living remnant of apartheid. Divided and disjointed, the system is unable to cope with the significant challenges that exist in the public health of South Africa. Social issues such as poverty, inequality, and xenophobia influence how the health system operates. Health care workers face challenges such as communicable diseases, particularly HIV. Moving forward, the government plans to transition to a single payer nationalized health insurance (NHI) system. NHI will not solve all the problems the system faces, and the government must be diligent in rooting out corruption, incentivizing quality care, and ...


Coping Strategies, Perception Of Sport Risk And Satisfaction With Life In Men And Women Practicing Extreme Sports, Daniel Krokosz, Magdalena Jochimek Mar 2022

Coping Strategies, Perception Of Sport Risk And Satisfaction With Life In Men And Women Practicing Extreme Sports, Daniel Krokosz, Magdalena Jochimek

Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity

Background:‪Few studies concern strategies for coping with stress in people who practice extreme sports. The goal of the current work is to analyse the relationships between strategies for coping with stress used by male and female extreme athletes, perception of threat associated with their sport, and their satisfaction with life.Material and methods:‪The sample consisted of 144 athletes, 55 females and 89 males, who have practiced extreme sports for at least 2 years. Participants completed the Brief COPE questionnaire, the SWLS questionnaire, and a survey to collect sociodemographic data and information about participants’ perceptions of threats associated with ...


The Effects Of Physical Activity On Glycaemic Control In Children And Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Participating In Diabetes Camps, Marcin Sikora, Anna Zwierzchowska, Marzena Jaworska, Magdalena Solich Talanda, Rafal Mikolajczyk, Aleksandra Zebrowska Mar 2022

The Effects Of Physical Activity On Glycaemic Control In Children And Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Participating In Diabetes Camps, Marcin Sikora, Anna Zwierzchowska, Marzena Jaworska, Magdalena Solich Talanda, Rafal Mikolajczyk, Aleksandra Zebrowska

Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity

Background:‪Children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at high risk of having insufficient physical activity during school days and, thus, the importance of special program in promoting regular physical exercise has been largely emphasized. Therefore, this study examined the levels of physical activity and glycemia control in children with T1D, with particular focus on the relative contributions of regular physical education and physical activity program during the diabetes camp.Material and methods:‪Ninety-eight children suffering from T1D for 3.0 ±1.4 years free of diabetic complications participated in the study. Glycemia, insulin doses and diet were monitored, and ...


Incidence Of Overweight And Obesity In Women Aged 20–59 Years From The Świętokrzyskie Region, Andrzej Jopkiewicz, Stanislaw Bogdan Nowak Mar 2022

Incidence Of Overweight And Obesity In Women Aged 20–59 Years From The Świętokrzyskie Region, Andrzej Jopkiewicz, Stanislaw Bogdan Nowak

Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity

Background:‪The occurrence of overweight and obesity is a complex phenomenon, determined by genetic, metabolic and environmental factors. This is why, despite the continuous progress in treating obesity, it seems justified to indicate its diversification and the need for prevention and for developing a strategy of action at the level of entire populations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of overweight and obesity in women aged 20–59 years according to selected socio-economic factors.Material and methods:‪The study used a combination of nonprobability and random sampling and it encompassed 547 women from the Świętokrzyskie Region ...


Paediatric Physical Activity And Health: Moving Towards A Measure Of Quality, Cain C.T. Clark, Claire M. Barnes Mar 2022

Paediatric Physical Activity And Health: Moving Towards A Measure Of Quality, Cain C.T. Clark, Claire M. Barnes

Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity

It is clear that physical activity, holistically, is linked with several positive factors through the life course. There exists a large evidence base for physical activity quantity, yet there has been little integration of physical activity qualities, and whilst qualityis a nebulous term, recent developments in literature suggest it may be a viable measure in the characterisation of physical activity. The purpose of the study was to comprehensively review the development towards a measure of physical activity quality.‪A review of literature was conducted using online databases: Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar. A narrative review was subsequently prepared ...


The Assessment Of The Quality Of Health Related Websites By Students Of Physical Education And Physiotherapy Using The Discern Instrument, Ida Laudanska-Krzeminska Mar 2022

The Assessment Of The Quality Of Health Related Websites By Students Of Physical Education And Physiotherapy Using The Discern Instrument, Ida Laudanska-Krzeminska

Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity

Background: The purpose of the article is to characterise the assessment of the Internet sites by physical education and physiotherapy students using the DISCERN questionnaire. An attempt has also been made to indicate the determinants of the overall final assessment of individual health-related Internet sites from 2005 to 2009. Material/Methods: The survey was carried out in 2005 and 2009 among 376 physical education and physiotherapy students at the University School of Physical Education in Poznan. The students assessed five Polish health-related websites. They used the DISCERN questionnaire to rate the quality of health information and filled in the ME ...


Prevention Of Violence Against Women And Girls: A Cost-Effectiveness Study Across 6 Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Giulia Ferrari, Sergio Torres-Rueda, Esnat Chirwa, Andrew Gibbs, Stacey Orangi, Edwine Barasa, Theresa Tawiah, Rebecca Kyerewaa Dwommoh Prah, Rozina Karmaliani, Hussain Maqbool Ahmed Khuwaja Mar 2022

Prevention Of Violence Against Women And Girls: A Cost-Effectiveness Study Across 6 Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Giulia Ferrari, Sergio Torres-Rueda, Esnat Chirwa, Andrew Gibbs, Stacey Orangi, Edwine Barasa, Theresa Tawiah, Rebecca Kyerewaa Dwommoh Prah, Rozina Karmaliani, Hussain Maqbool Ahmed Khuwaja

School of Nursing & Midwifery

Background: Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a human rights violation with social, economic, and health consequences for survivors, perpetrators, and society. Robust evidence on economic, social, and health impact, plus the cost of delivery of VAWG prevention, is critical to making the case for investment, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where health sector resources are highly constrained. We report on the costs and health impact of VAWG prevention in 6 countries.
Methods and findings: We conducted a trial-based cost-effectiveness analysis of VAWG prevention interventions using primary data from 5 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in sub-Saharan Africa ...


Obesity And Overweight Among Children And Adolescents In The Light Of Health Education Principles, Adam Wiek, Katarzyna Tkacz, Waclaw Mozolewski, Malgorzata E. Kusmierczyk, Sylwester Rybaczek Mar 2022

Obesity And Overweight Among Children And Adolescents In The Light Of Health Education Principles, Adam Wiek, Katarzyna Tkacz, Waclaw Mozolewski, Malgorzata E. Kusmierczyk, Sylwester Rybaczek

Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity

Pedagogical and educational institutions play an important role in health education. The proposed systemic principles should account for biological, environmental and cultural factors that determine the health of children and adolescents. Young people’s individual needs should constitute the framework of educational policy in the prevention of obesity and overweight. An analysis of health education practice in the Polish educational system indicates that the adopted measures, their practical applications and educational goals are adequate. Despite the above, the proposed systemic solutions are not always deployed or correctly implemented by the responsible institutions at various levels of local or social governance ...


Effect Of A Combined Exercise Program (Aerobic And Rebound Therapy) With Two Different Ratios On Some Physical And Motor Fitness Indices In Intellectually Disabled Girl, Amir Hossein Haghighi, Fatemeh Mohammadtaghipoor, Mohammadreza Hamedinia, Javad Harati Mar 2022

Effect Of A Combined Exercise Program (Aerobic And Rebound Therapy) With Two Different Ratios On Some Physical And Motor Fitness Indices In Intellectually Disabled Girl, Amir Hossein Haghighi, Fatemeh Mohammadtaghipoor, Mohammadreza Hamedinia, Javad Harati

Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity

Background: ‪Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are mostly neglected and hardly exercised. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a combined program (aerobic and rebound therapy) with two different ratios on some physical and motor fitness indices in intellectually disabled girls. Material and methods: ‪A total of 24 girls with ID (13–17 years old with an IQ of 50 to 70) were selected and randomly divided into two experimental and one control group. Experimental groups performed a combined aerobic rebound therapy program with two different proportions: (group 1 performed 10 minutes of aerobic exercises and ...


Sport And Public Policy In Romania. Case Study: Timisoara, Delia Nadolu Mar 2022

Sport And Public Policy In Romania. Case Study: Timisoara, Delia Nadolu

Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity

The inclusion of physical activities in the weekly routine is undoubtedly a necessary condition for a healthy life. In order for sport to become a habit, it is necessary not only to have an adequate and diversified infrastructure, but also to be valued as such in the personal lifestyle. TIn this article we analyse a series of official data regarding the non-practice of sports activities in Romania (EVS 2017), compared to the European situation (EHIS & ESPA 2014), with a focus on the case study of Timisoara. The expectation of the youth form Timisoara youth (2013), The Strategy for the Youth ...


Physical Activity Of School Children And Youth, Leszek Tomaczkowski, Joanna Klonowska Mar 2022

Physical Activity Of School Children And Youth, Leszek Tomaczkowski, Joanna Klonowska

Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity

Physical activity is a key element of a healthy lifestyle, especially in relation to children and adolescents. It is crucial for proper physical, psychological and social development. Systematic physical activity tailored to individual needs stimulates development in childhood and adolescence and increases health resources. An insufficient level of physical activity among children and adolescents, in comparison to the needs, is a problem occurring more and more commonly on a global scale. It has been confirmed in numerous research studies.


A Guide To Common Nutrition, Troy Scheer Mar 2022

A Guide To Common Nutrition, Troy Scheer

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The purpose of this project was to use the knowledge I have gained through my undergraduate courses and apply it in a format that would be beneficial for the average consumer. This project was researched, written, and designed to be accessible by someone without a background in science or nutrition with the goal of educating the reader of some basic nutrition principles. With this knowledge, it is my hope that the reader will be able to make better nutritional choices and liver a longer and healthier lifestyle by first learning how to choose the right foods. While putting this project ...