Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medicine and Health Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Virginia Commonwealth University

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 4023

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Cervical Collar Clearance: Using Ebp To Decrease Pressure Injuries, Christoph Lecznar Jan 2021

Cervical Collar Clearance: Using Ebp To Decrease Pressure Injuries, Christoph Lecznar

VCU Health Nursing

Purpose: The purpose of this evidence-based practice (EBP) project was to decrease medical device pressure injury (MDPI) related to Cervical Collar (C-collar) clearance in adult blunt trauma patients. PICO: In the adult obtunded blunt trauma patient, should a c-collar be cleared with a negative CT, compared to a negative CT with adjunct imaging to reduce adverse events such as MDRPI?

Background: Our unit observed an incidence in C-collar MDRPI of 3 in 2019 and 3 in 2020 based on the date of the survey. C-collar clearance in the blunt trauma patient is a crucial step to avoid MDRPI. There are ...


Cauti: What Are We Testing?, Christoph Lecznar Jan 2021

Cauti: What Are We Testing?, Christoph Lecznar

VCU Health Nursing

Purpose: The purpose of this evidence-based practice (EBP) project was to identify and implement evidence-based practice to reduce Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTI).

Background: CAUTIs are deemed never events by Centers for Medicaid and Medicare and are tied to financial reimbursements. CDC states 17-69% of CAUTIs are preventable with recommended infection control measures. UTIs are the most common type of Hospital-acquired infection, with an estimated of occurrence of 9.5% reported by acute care hospitals. Every day a catheter is in place, the risk of CAUTI increases by 3-7%. Current recommendations for reduction in CAUTI rates include educational strategies, catheter ...


Cardiac Arrest And Global Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Role Of Mitochondria And Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Signaling., Jennifer L. Bradley Jan 2021

Cardiac Arrest And Global Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Role Of Mitochondria And Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Signaling., Jennifer L. Bradley

Theses and Dissertations

We explored the effects of cardiac arrest on mitochondria populations and heart whole tissue lysate proteomics utilizing the Weil Institute’s in vivo rat model of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We have discovered that brain mitochondria are more sensitive to global ischemia compared to heart mitochondria. Additionally, complex I is the most sensitive electron transport chain complex to ischemic injury and is a major control point of the rate of oxidative phosphorylation following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Preservation of brain mitochondrial activity and function during cardiac arrest may enhance outcomes and recovery.

A recent article focusing on acute ...


Acute Fish Oil Supplementation And Aspirin Treatment Modulates Lipid Profile In Platelet Rich Plasma: A Randomized Pilot Trial, Joshua M. Morriss, Lisa A. Turner, Danielle M. Mccormack, Daniel Contaifer, Naren Gajenthra Kumar, Saidheeraj Paravataneni, Monther Alsultan, Suad Alshammari, Silas Contaifer, Parthasarathy Madurantakam, Dayanjan Wijesinghe Jan 2021

Acute Fish Oil Supplementation And Aspirin Treatment Modulates Lipid Profile In Platelet Rich Plasma: A Randomized Pilot Trial, Joshua M. Morriss, Lisa A. Turner, Danielle M. Mccormack, Daniel Contaifer, Naren Gajenthra Kumar, Saidheeraj Paravataneni, Monther Alsultan, Suad Alshammari, Silas Contaifer, Parthasarathy Madurantakam, Dayanjan Wijesinghe

Pharmacotherapy and Outcomes Science Publications

Aims: Platelet rich plasma (PRP) has been used in tissue repair to treat numerous inflammatory pathophysiologies. Recent studies have elucidated that the bioactive lipid fraction of PRP significantly contributes towards the resolution of inflammation. There has been great interest in how therapeutics could modulate the PRP lipidome to formulate a more pro-resolving matrix. Many of the pathways used to produce either pro-resolving or pro-inflammatory lipids are shared between ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Here, we explored the separate and interacting effects acute exogenous ω-3 PUFA supplementation and aspirin had on the lipidome of PRP within 6 hours.

Methods ...


Development Of An Online Warfarin Dosing Platform Using R Programming Language To Facilitate Healthcare Professional Duties And Limit Medication Related Errors., Monther Alsultan Jan 2021

Development Of An Online Warfarin Dosing Platform Using R Programming Language To Facilitate Healthcare Professional Duties And Limit Medication Related Errors., Monther Alsultan

Graduate Research Posters

Development of an online warfarin dosing platform using R programming language to facilitate healthcare professional duties and limit medication related errors.

Monther Alsultan, Joshua M. Morriss, Daniel Contaifer Jr, Suad Alshammari; Silas Contaifer, Rachel W Flurie, Dayanjan S. Wijesinghe#

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Outcome Sciences

Objective: 1) Gain experience in developing platform agnostic, fully operational and clinically relevant web applications for effective pharmacist led patient care. 2) Create a decision- support tool using open source software to facilitate evidence-based management therapy of warfarin in clinical settings where it is available for everyone to use at anytime and anywhere.

Introduction: Healthcare ...


Influence Of Telephone Preoperative Evaluations On Patient Medication Compliance On Day Of Surgery, Emmanuel Magsino, Michael Jung, Olga Suarez Md Jan 2021

Influence Of Telephone Preoperative Evaluations On Patient Medication Compliance On Day Of Surgery, Emmanuel Magsino, Michael Jung, Olga Suarez Md

Graduate Research Posters

Patient compliance with medication instructions on day of surgery (DOS) is an important part of the preoperative assessment, as failure to comply with these may lead to serious perioperative consequences. Prior studies have shown that compliance increases with multimodal interventions. However due to the recent COVID-19 pandemic, many in-person visits transitioned to telephone visits and providers had to rely on patients to follow solely verbal instructions.

To determine medication compliance, this study compared the medication instructions provided by the VCU Preoperative Assessment Communication and Education Clinic, per chart review, with each patient’s own report of which medications they took ...


Carotid Artery Dissections From Tcar As Reported By The Food And Drug Administration, Dongjin Suh Bs, Yuchi Ma Bs, Daniel H. Newton Md, Michael F. Amendola Md, Kedar S. Lavingia Md Jan 2021

Carotid Artery Dissections From Tcar As Reported By The Food And Drug Administration, Dongjin Suh Bs, Yuchi Ma Bs, Daniel H. Newton Md, Michael F. Amendola Md, Kedar S. Lavingia Md

Graduate Research Posters

BACKGROUND: Transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR) is hybrid procedure that allows carotid stenting using direct surgical access of the carotid artery to restore blood flow through the carotid artery. It has shown the lowest perioperative stroke rate when compared with any prospective trial of transfemoral carotid artery stenting. However, intraoperative injuries related to the procedure and its management are not well characterized. We anticipate that this analysis will add qualitative insight in further characterizing adverse outcomes of this novel technology.

METHODS: The FDA maintains a database called the MAUDE (Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience) for surveillance of all medical devices ...


A Scoping Review Of The Roles, Training, And Impact Of Community Health Workers In Oral Health Supplemental Tables, Dina T. Garcia, Jaime Lawson, Erica R. Brody, Susan C. Mckernan, Sarah E. Raskin, Nixon Arauz, Maghboeba Mosavel, Tegwyn Brickhouse Jan 2021

A Scoping Review Of The Roles, Training, And Impact Of Community Health Workers In Oral Health Supplemental Tables, Dina T. Garcia, Jaime Lawson, Erica R. Brody, Susan C. Mckernan, Sarah E. Raskin, Nixon Arauz, Maghboeba Mosavel, Tegwyn Brickhouse

Health Behavior and Policy Publications

Objective: To synthesize English or Spanish-language literature on community health workers’ (CHWs’) roles, training, and impact in oral health. Basic research design: A scoping review conducted in accordance with the Arksey and O’Malley (2005) methodological framework. Method: Electronic literature searches were conducted in Medline (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), DOSS, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Global Health CAB from inception of the databases to April 2020. Three reviewers independently conducted the title and abstract and full-text reviews. This was followed by data charting by three reviewers and data summarizing by two reviewers. Results: Out of the 36 articles that met the ...


Pharmacogenomics And Ssris Appropriateness In Older Community Dwelling African Americans, Wint War Phyo, Lana Sargent, Elvin T. Price Jan 2021

Pharmacogenomics And Ssris Appropriateness In Older Community Dwelling African Americans, Wint War Phyo, Lana Sargent, Elvin T. Price

Graduate Research Posters

Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders are among the most common illnesses experienced by older adults (age > 60). The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are preferred class of antidepressants for these disorders due to their high efficacy and safety profiles among older adults. However, SSRIs are metabolized by highly polymorphic cytochrome P450 enzymes, specifically CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. This can lead to variable dose-response outcomes, especially among older African American population.

Objective: Analyze the frequency of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms in African American older adults who are taking SSRIs and identify potential inappropriate use of SSRIs in these older adults using the ...


Device-Related Adverse Events From Watchman Flx Implants As Reported By The Food And Drug Administration, Dongjin Suh Bs, Paul Eugene Kim Bs, Emmanuel Magsino Bs, Tae Shik Park Jan 2021

Device-Related Adverse Events From Watchman Flx Implants As Reported By The Food And Drug Administration, Dongjin Suh Bs, Paul Eugene Kim Bs, Emmanuel Magsino Bs, Tae Shik Park

Graduate Research Posters

No abstract provided.


Peptidomimetic And Non- Peptidomimetic Derivatives As Possible Sars-Cov-2 Main Protease (Mpro) Inhibitors, Mohammed A. Al Awadh, Mohini S. Ghatge Ph.D, Mona A. Al Khairi, Faik N. Musayev, Akua K. Donkor, Mohammed H. Al Mughram, Abdelsattar M. Omar Ph.D, Moustafa M. El-Araby Ph.D, Martin K. Safo Ph.D Jan 2021

Peptidomimetic And Non- Peptidomimetic Derivatives As Possible Sars-Cov-2 Main Protease (Mpro) Inhibitors, Mohammed A. Al Awadh, Mohini S. Ghatge Ph.D, Mona A. Al Khairi, Faik N. Musayev, Akua K. Donkor, Mohammed H. Al Mughram, Abdelsattar M. Omar Ph.D, Moustafa M. El-Araby Ph.D, Martin K. Safo Ph.D

Graduate Research Posters

To design novel inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), we investigated the binding mode of the recently reported α-ketoamide inhibitors of this enzyme. Following, we utilized in-silico screening to identify 168 peptidomimetic and non-peptidomimetic compounds that are high probability Mpro binding candidates. The compounds were synthesized in 5 to 10 mg for initial screening for their potential inhibition of Mpro using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assay. The study was conducted using the main protease, MBP-tagged (SARS-CoV-2) Assay Kit (BPS Bioscience, #79955-2), and the fluorescence due to enzymatic cleavage of substrate measured using BMG LABTECH CLARIOstar™, a fluorescent microplate ...


Frequency Of Genetic Polymorphisms Of Cyp2c19 In Native Hawaiian, And Asian And Pacific Islander Subgroups: Implications For Personalized Medicine, Khalifa Y. Alrajeh, Youssef Roman Dr Jan 2021

Frequency Of Genetic Polymorphisms Of Cyp2c19 In Native Hawaiian, And Asian And Pacific Islander Subgroups: Implications For Personalized Medicine, Khalifa Y. Alrajeh, Youssef Roman Dr

Graduate Research Posters

Pharmacogenetic testing, where prescriptions are tailored to the individual patient based on his/her genetic makeup, increases the ability to predict individual drug response. However, little is known about the prevalence of clinically actionable pharmacogenes in diverse populations. This study seeks to assess the prevalence of select drug-gene alleles that are implicated in the metabolism of commonly prescribed drugs, so-called Very Important Pharmacogenes (VIPs). The results of this study will fill in the gaps of knowledge of VIPs in underrepresented populations and characterize their potential risk for drug adverse events or due to their underlying genetic polymorphisms, especially in patients ...


Transcriptional Repressor Protein Based Macrolide Biosensor Development With Improved Sensitivity, Jayani A. Christopher Jan 2021

Transcriptional Repressor Protein Based Macrolide Biosensor Development With Improved Sensitivity, Jayani A. Christopher

Graduate Research Posters

Macrolide antibiotics are in high demand for clinical applications. Macrolides are biosynthesized via giant assembly line polyketide synthases (PKS) which are arranged in a modular fashion. Combinatorial biosynthetic methods have been used to produce diversified macrolides by reprograming these modules and modifying tailoring enzymes required for post synthetic modifications. However it is challenging due to the size and complexity of PKSs. To overcome this challenge, new enzymes for macrolide diversification could be obtained by directed evolution where a large number of enzyme variants need to be screened. Therefore it is important to develop high throughput screening methods to identify the ...


The Value Of Postoperative Appointments Following Full Mouth Dental Rehabilitation Under General Anesthesia, Priyanka Patel Jan 2021

The Value Of Postoperative Appointments Following Full Mouth Dental Rehabilitation Under General Anesthesia, Priyanka Patel

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: Follow-up appointments after full mouth dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia (GA) have been suggested as a method for preventing future caries and need for repeat treatment under GA. The purpose of this study is to determine current practitioner and parental perceived value of the postoperative GA appointment.

Methods: Three separate surveys were administered for this study. The pre-appointment survey asked about the guardian’s desire to have a follow-up appointment. At the follow-up appointment, the post-appointment survey ascertained the level of patient satisfaction with their follow-up appointment and postoperative experience. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) members were e-mailed ...


Selective Gsk3b Deletion In Camk2a+ Forebrain Neurons Or Inhibition Via Tideglusib, Decreases Ethanol Consumption In C57bl/6j Mice, Sam Gottlieb, Andrew D. Van Der Vaart, Brennen O'Rourke, Michael F. Miles Jan 2021

Selective Gsk3b Deletion In Camk2a+ Forebrain Neurons Or Inhibition Via Tideglusib, Decreases Ethanol Consumption In C57bl/6j Mice, Sam Gottlieb, Andrew D. Van Der Vaart, Brennen O'Rourke, Michael F. Miles

Graduate Research Posters

Purpose: We previously identified glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (Gsk3b) as a central member of a gene network highly regulated by acute ethanol in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and associated with risk for alcohol dependence in humans. Further, we have demonstrated modulation of Gsk3b alters ethanol consumption in rodent models. GSK3B could thus represent a potential new therapeutic target for the treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Here, we investigate the mechanisms of Gsk3b action in ethanol consumption and report preclinical evidence for the selective GSK3B inhibitor, tideglusib, as a therapeutic agent for AUD.

Methods: (1) Selective Cre-induced Gsk3b deletion in ...


Radiation Induces Metabolic Dysregulation In Pulmonary Fibroblasts, Josly Pierre-Louis, Margaret A. T. Freeberg, Jane K. Rebman, Thomas H. Thatcher, Patricia J. Sime Jan 2021

Radiation Induces Metabolic Dysregulation In Pulmonary Fibroblasts, Josly Pierre-Louis, Margaret A. T. Freeberg, Jane K. Rebman, Thomas H. Thatcher, Patricia J. Sime

Graduate Research Posters

Rationale: Exposure of the lung to ionizing radiation, such as during radiotherapy, can result in pulmonary fibrosis (PF), which has few treatment options. PF is characterized by an accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins that form scar tissue, resulting in dyspnea, disruption of gas exchange, and even death. We and others have shown that metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). IPF lung tissue, and lung fibroblasts treated with TGF-β, exhibit increased aerobic glycolysis with increased expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and excess production of lactate, leading to reduced extracellular pH that activates latent TGF-β. Here, we ...


Cost-Effectiveness Of Alternative Hiv Testing Strategies Among Hard-To-Reach Populations In East And Southern Africa., Deo Mujwara, Deo Mujwara Jan 2021

Cost-Effectiveness Of Alternative Hiv Testing Strategies Among Hard-To-Reach Populations In East And Southern Africa., Deo Mujwara, Deo Mujwara

Graduate Research Posters

No abstract provided.


Validity Of The Actigraph Gt9x Accelerometer Step-Count Function In Adults With Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction, Jonathan D. Kenyon, Hayley Billingsley, Natalie J. Bohmke, Danielle Kirkman, Salvatore Carbone, Youngdeok Kim Jan 2021

Validity Of The Actigraph Gt9x Accelerometer Step-Count Function In Adults With Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction, Jonathan D. Kenyon, Hayley Billingsley, Natalie J. Bohmke, Danielle Kirkman, Salvatore Carbone, Youngdeok Kim

Graduate Research Posters

Low physical activity is associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Step-counts, a measure of physical activity, can be measured via accelerometry. To date, few studies have examined validity of accelerometer-derived step-counts in the adults with HFpEF.

PURPOSE To assess criterion validity of the Actigraph GT9X accelerometer step-count function in adults with HFpEF via ankle, waist, and wrist placement, compared with manually counted, directly observed steps.

METHODS Six adults with HFpEF (age: 57.2 ± 9.4 y; African American: 50%; females: 100%) completed a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on a treadmill while wearing synchronized GT9X accelerometers on the ...


Covid-10, Healthcare Interior Design + Provider Experience - How Does Your Space Work For You?, Ruth E.P. Deibler Jan 2021

Covid-10, Healthcare Interior Design + Provider Experience - How Does Your Space Work For You?, Ruth E.P. Deibler

Graduate Research Posters

The lack of research on healthcare staff experience and interior design of the spaces they work in is evident. A focus on staff perspective is needed, particularly staff who navigated the COVID-19 pandemic. This research seeks to capture those stories to develop further research in order to improve staff experience. The initial phase of this mixed-methods approach is a survey. Hypothetically, by placing providers at the center of qualitative research related to healthcare interior design, we can better understand existing healthcare spaces. Ideally, we can develop additional evidence-based, human-centered solutions to transform interior environments in healthcare.

The 20-year Women’s ...


Modeling Longitudinal Change In Cervical Length Across Pregnancy, Hope M. Wolf, Shawn J. Latendresse, Jerome F. Strauss Iii, Timothy P. York Jan 2021

Modeling Longitudinal Change In Cervical Length Across Pregnancy, Hope M. Wolf, Shawn J. Latendresse, Jerome F. Strauss Iii, Timothy P. York

Graduate Research Posters

Introduction: A short cervix (cervical length < 25 mm) in the mid-trimester (18 to 24 weeks) of pregnancy is a powerful predictor of spontaneous preterm delivery (gestational age at delivery < 37 weeks). Although the biological mechanisms of cervical remodeling have been the subject of extensive investigation, very little is known about the rate of change in cervical length over the course of a pregnancy, or the extent to which rapid cervical shortening increases maternal risk for spontaneous preterm delivery.

Methods: A cohort of 5,160 unique women carrying 5,971 singleton pregnancies provided two or more measurements of cervical length during pregnancy. Cervical length was measured in millimeters using a transvaginal 12-3 MHz ultrasound endocavity probe (SuperSonic Imagine). Maternal characteristics, including relevant medical history and birth outcome data, were collected for each participant. Gestational age at delivery was measured from the first day of each woman’s last menstrual period and confirmed by ultrasound. Repeated measurements of cervical length during pregnancy were modeled as a longitudinal, multilevel growth curve in MPlus. A three-level ...


Evaluating Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Access To Primary Care Among Gay And Bisexual Men In The Us, A Population At High-Risk Of Hiv Infection, Jessica S. Kiernan, April D. Kimmel Jan 2021

Evaluating Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Access To Primary Care Among Gay And Bisexual Men In The Us, A Population At High-Risk Of Hiv Infection, Jessica S. Kiernan, April D. Kimmel

Graduate Research Posters

BACKGROUND: 69% of new HIV diagnoses in the US are among gay and bisexual men, with disparities by race and ethnicity. Primary care providers increasingly provide HIV prevention. Racial and ethnic disparities in primary care access are well-documented, but their persistence among gay and bisexual men is unknown. We examined racial and ethnic disparities in access to primary care among this population.

METHODS: We used nationally representative person-level sociodemographic, health status and utilization data, and data on organizational- and socially determinant barriers to care, from the National Health Interview Survey, 2013-2018. Outcomes were: 1) general physician visit

RESULTS: The sample ...


Can Botox Be The Cure For Tmj Associated Pain And Dysfunction?, Haley Headley, Bella Pollard Jan 2021

Can Botox Be The Cure For Tmj Associated Pain And Dysfunction?, Haley Headley, Bella Pollard

Dental Hygiene Student Scholarship

Problem: Over 10 million Americans suffer from pain, headaches, and jaw dysfunction associated with temporomandibular joint disorders. Traditionally, when diagnosed, patients are given conservative treatment option recommendations such as an occlusal bite guard, stabilization splint, and over-the-counter pain medication, such as Ibuprofen. These conservative treatment options are meant for short term use. What is the long term answer to temporomandibular joint pain and dysfunction? Surgical replacement of jaw joints with artificial implants has been considered; however, the effectiveness of this irreversible procedure is inconclusive and highly controversial. Botulinum toxin type A injections, or botox, offers an alternative treatment that could ...


Outcomes Of Catheter Ablation Of Ventricular Tachycardia Based On Etiology In Nonischemic Heart Disease: An International Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation Center Collaborative Study, Akhila R. Kunuthuru Jan 2021

Outcomes Of Catheter Ablation Of Ventricular Tachycardia Based On Etiology In Nonischemic Heart Disease: An International Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation Center Collaborative Study, Akhila R. Kunuthuru

VCU's Medical Journal Club: The Work of Future Health Professionals

This presentation explores the study conducted by Marmar Vaseghi, Tiffany Y. Hu, Roderick Tung, et al.:

Outcomes of Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia Based on Etiology in Nonischemic Heart Disease: An International Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation Center Collaborative Study

Researchers determined the effects of ventricular tachycardia ablation in nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) patients. By studying the six most common etiologies of NICM, researchers came to the conclusion that the etiology of NICM is an important factor when predicting ventricular tachycardia recurrence, death, or cardiac transplantation. The paper also indicated that adjustments were performed to the data to account for confounding factors such ...


Nsynergistic Antiviral Effect Of Hydroxychloroquine And Azithromycin In Combination Against Sars-Cov-2, Samiya Majid Jan 2021

Nsynergistic Antiviral Effect Of Hydroxychloroquine And Azithromycin In Combination Against Sars-Cov-2, Samiya Majid

VCU's Medical Journal Club: The Work of Future Health Professionals

This presentation gives a brief overview of the study conducted by Fantini, J., Chahinian, H., & Yahi, N. on nSynergistic antiviral effect of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in combination against SARS-CoV-2: what molecular dynamics studies of virus-host interactions reveal. The study considered two drugs, hydroxychloroquine (CLQ) and azithromyocin (ATM), as potential treatments for curing COVID. Hydroxychloriquine is a drug commonly used in the treatment of malaria but has been shown by recent studies to not be an effective cure against COVID on its own. Azithromyocin is a commonly used antiobiotic that was also considered in this study. Hydroxychloriquine interacts with the ganglioside-binding ...


Disentangling Social-Genetic From Rearing-Environment Effects For Alcohol Use Disorder Using Swedish National Data, Aiman Hanif, Han Tran Jan 2021

Disentangling Social-Genetic From Rearing-Environment Effects For Alcohol Use Disorder Using Swedish National Data, Aiman Hanif, Han Tran

VCU's Medical Journal Club: The Work of Future Health Professionals

The presentation introduces Dr. Jessica Salvatore and colleagues’ work, Disentangling Social-Genetic From Rearing-Environment Effects for Alcohol Use Disorder Using Swedish National Data, on the social-genetic effects of having a spouse whose parent(s) is/are affected by alcohol use disorder (AUD). After collecting personal data of over 300,000 Swedish opposite-sex couples, the study used actor-partner interdependence model and logistic regression model to examine the association between a spouse’s AUD predisposition and the proband’s risk of developing AUD. The results showed that the proband is at a high risk of developing AUD upon marrying an AUD-predisposed spouse. The ...


Impacts Of A National Lockdown On Smallholder Farmers’ Income And Food Security: Empirical Evidence From Two States In India, Samiya Majid Jan 2021

Impacts Of A National Lockdown On Smallholder Farmers’ Income And Food Security: Empirical Evidence From Two States In India, Samiya Majid

VCU's Medical Journal Club: The Work of Future Health Professionals

This presentation gives a brief overview of the study conducted by Francisco Ceballos, Samyuktha Kannan, & Berber Kramer on the Impacts of a national lockdown on smallholder farmers’ income and food security: Empirical evidence from two states in India. The study considered the disproportionate effect of COVID on economies worldwide, specifically the two states, Haryana and Odisha, in India. The COVID-19 pandemic posed many challenges for small farmers in these two states. National and local policies posed varying challenges for farmers. They were interviewed about these challenges by phone, right after the announcement of the lockdown and harvest season in both ...


The Covid-19 Vaccine Development Landscape, Areebah Ahmed Jan 2021

The Covid-19 Vaccine Development Landscape, Areebah Ahmed

VCU's Medical Journal Club: The Work of Future Health Professionals

This presentation focused on the current ongoing developments for the COVID-19 vaccine as described in The Covid-19 Vaccine Development Landscape by Tung Thanh Le et. al. An overview of the competing companies and the specifics of their vaccine development is presented, along with the current phases. Moderna and Inovio Pharmaceuticals are just a few of the companies working towards the common goal of a proven effective vaccine. Additionally, the presentation contains visuals of the biological components of the virus, as well as discussions of how organizations such as the CEPI (Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations) have assisted the progress of ...


Β-Amyloid Accumulation In The Human Brain After One Night Of Sleep Deprivation, Shahad Musa Jan 2021

Β-Amyloid Accumulation In The Human Brain After One Night Of Sleep Deprivation, Shahad Musa

VCU's Medical Journal Club: The Work of Future Health Professionals

This presentation is on the effects of sleep deprivation on β-amyloid accumulation in the brain. During sleep, the glymphatic system is involved in the clearance of metabolic including metabolic wastes. β-amyloid accumulation is directly correlated to impairment of brain function and Alzheimer's disease. Increased sleep or ways to decrease β-amyloid accumulation could be beneficial in the prevention of Alzheimer's. Data collected in the article published by Shokri-Kojori, E. et al. suggests that sleep deprivation negatively affected mood and was correlated with increases in amyloid- β burden in the right hippocampal cluster. Further research on how sleep impacts β-amyloid ...


Phase I Trial And Pharmacokinetics Of Fenretinide In Children With Neuroblastoma, Shahad Musa Jan 2021

Phase I Trial And Pharmacokinetics Of Fenretinide In Children With Neuroblastoma, Shahad Musa

VCU's Medical Journal Club: The Work of Future Health Professionals

This presentation is on the effect of different dosages of fenretinide on children with neuroblastoma. Neuroblastomas are the second most common malignant tumor growth in children with a high fatal relapse rate. Children diagnosed with this disease have less than a 50% chance of survival within five years of diagnosis. Fenretinid and other retinoids have been extensively studied in vitro, but this article highlights phase I where the safest and most effective dosages lie. Patients' eligibility was based on a list of guidelines, and patients were given the drug for 28 days followed by a seven-day interruption in a cycle ...


Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy For Knee Osteoarthritis: 5 Years Follow- Up Of Three Patients, Shahad Musa Jan 2021

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy For Knee Osteoarthritis: 5 Years Follow- Up Of Three Patients, Shahad Musa

VCU's Medical Journal Club: The Work of Future Health Professionals

This presentation is on the effects of mesenchymal stem cells on osteoarthritis in the knees. Osteoarthritis is the degeneration of cartilage and has very little long-term treatments. Most treatments are geared towards pain management and surgery is an option, but no cure exists to reverse or stop degeneration. Embryonic stem cell research is severely limited, meaning mesenchymal stem cells (adult-derived stem cells) are more accessible to research. In this study, stem cells from the patient’s bone marrow were derived and then injected into the severely damaged knees. Results were conducted six months and five years after. Six months after ...