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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Shadow Standards And The Logic Of Costs: Care, Stewardship, And Data In U.S. Community Health, Margarite J. Whitten Jun 2020

Shadow Standards And The Logic Of Costs: Care, Stewardship, And Data In U.S. Community Health, Margarite J. Whitten

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation examines the delegation of responsibility for providing health care to particular categories of marginalized populations in the United States in the absence of a uniform and universal health care system. It explores how the U.S. federal government governs patient populations at a distance by mandating that healthcare providers collect, produce, and report on patient data. Drawing from eighteen months of ethnographic research in Massachusetts clinics for the homeless and the frail elderly between 2014-2015, I argue that when marginalized patients are unable to satisfy the neoliberal ideal of self-governance to maintain their health in cost-effective ways, providers ...


Promising Practices For Boating Safety Initiatives That Target Indigenous Peoples In New Zealand, Australia, The United States Of America, And Canada, Mitchell Crozier, Audrey R. Giles May 2020

Promising Practices For Boating Safety Initiatives That Target Indigenous Peoples In New Zealand, Australia, The United States Of America, And Canada, Mitchell Crozier, Audrey R. Giles

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Boating-related incidents are responsible for a significant number of the drowning fatalities that occur within Indigenous communities in New Zealand, Australia, the USA, and Canada. The aim of this paper was to identify promising practices for boating safety initiatives that target Indigenous peoples within these countries and evaluate past and ongoing boating safety initiatives delivered to/with Indigenous peoples within these countries to suggest the ways in which they – or programs that follow them - may be more effective. Based upon evidence from previous research, boating safety initiatives that target Indigenous peoples in New Zealand, Australia, the USA, and Canada should ...


Mathematic Modeling Of Covid-19 In The United States, Yuanji Tang, Shixia Wang Apr 2020

Mathematic Modeling Of Covid-19 In The United States, Yuanji Tang, Shixia Wang

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Since the early reports of COVID-19 cases in China in late January 2020 (1-2), the worst pandemic in 100 years has spread to the entire globe with approximately 2.4 million diagnosed cases and over 165,000 deaths up to April 20, 2020.

While scientists from various public and private groups use math and computer to simulate the course of this pandemic to try to predict how this outbreak might evolve (3), most of such analyses are either quite complicated or not publicly available.

Here a simple mathematic modeling approach is taken to track the outbreaks of COVID-19 in the ...


Know Your Epidemic, Know Your Response: Covid-19 In The United States, Alberto Ciancio, Fabrice Kämpfen, Iliana V. Kohler, Daniel Bennett, Wändi Bruine De Bruin, Jill Darling, Arie Kapteyn, Jürgen Maurer, Hans-Peter Kohler Mar 2020

Know Your Epidemic, Know Your Response: Covid-19 In The United States, Alberto Ciancio, Fabrice Kämpfen, Iliana V. Kohler, Daniel Bennett, Wändi Bruine De Bruin, Jill Darling, Arie Kapteyn, Jürgen Maurer, Hans-Peter Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

We document that during the week of March 10-16, the Covid-19 pandemic fundamentally affected the perceptions of U.S. residents about the health risks and socioeconomic consequences entailed by the pandemic. During this week, it seems, "everything changed." Not only did the pandemic progress rapidly across the United States, but U.S. residents started to realize that the threat was real: increasing Covid-19 caseloads heightened perceptions of infection risks and excess mortality risks, concerns about the economic implications increased substantially, and behavioral responses became widespread as the pandemic expanded rapidly in the U.S. In early to mid-March 2020, average ...


Analysis On Addiction And Opioid Crisis: Implications And Solutions, Bhavika Korat Mar 2020

Analysis On Addiction And Opioid Crisis: Implications And Solutions, Bhavika Korat

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Opioids have become a popular way of pain management treatment over the past decades and although they have proven to be very successful to treat pain, they require serious attention as they have become the cause of addiction and overdose deaths. Opioid overdose costs the US government $78.5 billion each year. This project exhibits the background on opioids, the different types of opioids and their role in the addiction and overdose epidemic. The objective behind this project was to demonstrate what kind of people are more vulnerable to addiction and overdose.

This project shows the statistics of opioid overdose ...


Congenital Chagas Disease In The United States: The Effect Of Commercially Priced Benznidazole On Costs And Benefits Of Maternal Screening, Victoria Perez-Zetune, Stephanie R. Bialek, Susan P. Montgomery, Eileen Stillwaggon Feb 2020

Congenital Chagas Disease In The United States: The Effect Of Commercially Priced Benznidazole On Costs And Benefits Of Maternal Screening, Victoria Perez-Zetune, Stephanie R. Bialek, Susan P. Montgomery, Eileen Stillwaggon

Economics Faculty Publications

Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is transmitted by insect vectors, and through transfusions, transplants, insect feces in food, and mother to child during gestation. An estimated 30% of infected persons will develop lifelong, potentially fatal cardiac or digestive complications. Treatment of infants with benznidazole is highly efficacious in eliminating infection. This work evaluates the costs of maternal screening and infant testing and treatment for Chagas disease in the United States, including the cost of commercially available benznidazole. We compare costs of testing and treatment for mothers and infants with the lifetime societal costs without testing and consequent morbidity and ...


What Is "Safe Sex"? Understanding The Need For Sex Education Reform, Julianne Baker Jan 2020

What Is "Safe Sex"? Understanding The Need For Sex Education Reform, Julianne Baker

Gettysburg Social Sciences Review

Currently, the United States has no standardized requirement for sex education. This has precipitated a large gap in knowledge about safe sex and a lack of consensus in current social and educational policy. Debates about abstinence-only and comprehensive sex education have reached a standstill. In an effort to advance the discussion, this paper reveals that the neuroscience behind adolescent sexual risk taking provides underutilized evidence for comprehensive sex education programs. Research shows that adolescents have biological differences in their brain structure that result in a decision-making process different from that of adults, one that can preference rash decisions and potentially ...


The Importance Of Doctor Liability In Medical Malpractice Law: China Versus The United States, Vincent R. Johnson Jan 2020

The Importance Of Doctor Liability In Medical Malpractice Law: China Versus The United States, Vincent R. Johnson

St. Mary's Journal on Legal Malpractice & Ethics

Medical malpractice law in China does not work. Disappointed patients and their families, or the gangs they hire, frequently resort to physical violence, beating up doctors and disrupting hospital activities in order to extort settlements. This happens because Chinese law has failed to provide viable remedies to many victims of medical malpractice.

This dysfunctional situation (medical chaos or yinao) has persisted for more than two decades. Today, parents in China discourage their children from attending medical school because practicing medicine is too dangerous.

Reforming Chinese medical malpractice law will be difficult. Many factors contribute to the public’s lack of ...


An American Crisis: An Analysis Of Maternal Mortality Across The U.S., Emily Fernandes Jan 2020

An American Crisis: An Analysis Of Maternal Mortality Across The U.S., Emily Fernandes

Honors Theses

No abstract provided.


Opioid And Non-Opioid Prescribing Rates For Ankle Fractures In Emergency Departments Across The United States Between 2006 And 2015, Lucy C. Bowers, Kyle B. Kosik, Alejandro G. Villasante Tezanos, Matthew C. Hoch, Phillip A. Gribble Jan 2020

Opioid And Non-Opioid Prescribing Rates For Ankle Fractures In Emergency Departments Across The United States Between 2006 And 2015, Lucy C. Bowers, Kyle B. Kosik, Alejandro G. Villasante Tezanos, Matthew C. Hoch, Phillip A. Gribble

Posters-at-the-Capitol Presentations

This presentation describes the percentage of patients prescribed a controlled and non-controlled medication in an United States Emergency Department for a diagnosed ankle fracture.


Uninsured/Underinsured: Who's Problem Is It?, Manpreet Kaur Jan 2020

Uninsured/Underinsured: Who's Problem Is It?, Manpreet Kaur

Student Research Poster Presentations 2020

The problem of uninsured and underinsured in terms of health care was implored in the population of the United States of America. Other developed nations have implemented universal health care whereas the United States have fallen behind. It is an ongoing problem in the nation, and it is not only the problem of the people who face being uninsured and underinsured. It is everyone’s problem because it affects the economy as a whole and every person is affected by the way the country decides to treat health care. Nurses, as health care professionals, have the opportunity to help patients ...


Disrupting The Narrative Of Global South To Global North Immigration: Media Portrayals And The Immigrant Experience, Isabelle Breitfelder Jan 2020

Disrupting The Narrative Of Global South To Global North Immigration: Media Portrayals And The Immigrant Experience, Isabelle Breitfelder

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Immigration studies often focus on immigration from the Global South to the Global North and fail to recognize other patterns of immigration. The purpose of this study is to fill this lacuna of knowledge by quantitatively and qualitatively exploring immigrants’ perceptions and health experiences in their country of immigration—namely, Latin American immigration to the United States mainland, Dominican immigration to Puerto Rico, and Indian immigration to the United Arab Emirates. The primary research question is: What perceptions and health experiences do immigrants have en route to and upon arrival in their destination countries? A sub-question of the broader topic ...


Childhood Blood Lead Levels And Adolescent Crime Rates In The United States, Jude Juiye Soweh Jan 2020

Childhood Blood Lead Levels And Adolescent Crime Rates In The United States, Jude Juiye Soweh

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Juvenile violent crime rates in the United States have been on a continuous decline since 1996. Despite this decrease, youth violence as well as racial differences in crime rates continues to be a public health issue in the United States. Researchers have linked externalization behavior in children to factors including genetics, parental upbringing, abuse, school environment, and media exposure but have not fully considered the relationship between early childhood lead contamination and youth violence. This was an ecologic study of the relationship between early childhood blood lead levels (BLLs; ≥ 10µg/dL before 2012 or ≥ 5µg/dL after 2012) and crime ...


On The Proposed Legalization Of Commercial Surrogacy: I Thought We Had Abolished The Sale Of Human Beings, Phyllis Chesler Jan 2020

On The Proposed Legalization Of Commercial Surrogacy: I Thought We Had Abolished The Sale Of Human Beings, Phyllis Chesler

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Measuring Nurse Competence In The Emergency Department, Matthew Lojo Jan 2020

Measuring Nurse Competence In The Emergency Department, Matthew Lojo

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Background: “Nurses provide essential care to the millions of people who are hospitalized each year as a result of illness or injury” (Smith, 2012, p. 172). The Institute of Medicine reported approximately 44,000-98,000 patients die annually resulting from a medical error, and health care errors ranked among the top 10 for the leading causes of death in the United States (Smith, 2012).

Problem: Nurse competence impacts safe and quality nursing, and several research studies investigated the measurement of nurse competence among nurses in various nursing settings (Flinkman et al., 2016). However, a review of the research revealed limited ...


How Does Access To Healthcare Affect Life Expectancy?, Yara Mahmoud Dec 2019

How Does Access To Healthcare Affect Life Expectancy?, Yara Mahmoud

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-2019

Access to health care is a pressing issue in the United States, whether it be the cost of care or not having enough of it. To emphasize the importance of this topic, this paper assesses the impact of access to health services on life expectancy. A comparison is made between the universal health systems in France and Spain and the mixed system in the United States. Even though the United States spends the most on health care in the world, its statistics fall below those of other developed countries. After addressing other risk factors, it was found that individuals under ...


Brief History Of Spinal Neurosurgical Societies In The United States: Part 1., Sasha Vaziri, Daniel K. Resnick, Christopher P. Ames, James S. Harrop, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Kern Singh, Justin S. Smith, Daniel J. Hoh Dec 2019

Brief History Of Spinal Neurosurgical Societies In The United States: Part 1., Sasha Vaziri, Daniel K. Resnick, Christopher P. Ames, James S. Harrop, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Kern Singh, Justin S. Smith, Daniel J. Hoh

Department of Neurosurgery Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Ptsd, Tbi, And Oth Discharges: A Case Study Of A Young Service Member, Patricia E. Roberts Sep 2019

Ptsd, Tbi, And Oth Discharges: A Case Study Of A Young Service Member, Patricia E. Roberts

Patricia E. Roberts

No abstract provided.


Using Shared Decision Making And Team-Based Care To Overcome Socioeconomic And Cultural Barriers To Colorectal Cancer Screenings, Amanda Powell, Debra Pyle, Kristin Rowse, Misty Weeman, Rachel Kidder, Internal Medicine/Pediatric Clinic, Ruth Hanselman, Suneela Nayak, Stephen Tyzik, Amy Sparks Jul 2019

Using Shared Decision Making And Team-Based Care To Overcome Socioeconomic And Cultural Barriers To Colorectal Cancer Screenings, Amanda Powell, Debra Pyle, Kristin Rowse, Misty Weeman, Rachel Kidder, Internal Medicine/Pediatric Clinic, Ruth Hanselman, Suneela Nayak, Stephen Tyzik, Amy Sparks

Operational Excellence

Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. It disproportionally affects minorities and those in lower socioeconomic groups. The use of fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) is a low barrier, low cost and low risk screening tool as compared to the traditional colonoscopy exam. The use of FIT offers the opportunity to overcome barriers such as cultural, economic and low health literacy.

As part of a large health care system, an internal medicine clinic wanted to increase the use and return of FIT in their clinic patients. A team developed a plan for implementing improvement ...


Nicotine Replacement Therapies To Decrease Withdrawal Symptoms And Improve Patient Experience, Cheryl Pawloski, Holly Stewart, Devon Gillis, Dena Whitesell, Donna Chamoff, Maya Bulman, Christopher Racine, Raymond Serrano, Leslie Gatcombe-Hynes, Elizabeth Mullany, Amy Mcauliffe, Jayne Weisberg, Amy Sparks, Suneela Nayak, Stephen Tyzik, Ruth Hanselman Jul 2019

Nicotine Replacement Therapies To Decrease Withdrawal Symptoms And Improve Patient Experience, Cheryl Pawloski, Holly Stewart, Devon Gillis, Dena Whitesell, Donna Chamoff, Maya Bulman, Christopher Racine, Raymond Serrano, Leslie Gatcombe-Hynes, Elizabeth Mullany, Amy Mcauliffe, Jayne Weisberg, Amy Sparks, Suneela Nayak, Stephen Tyzik, Ruth Hanselman

Operational Excellence

Smoking is one the leading causes of preventable death in the United States. Patient centered care revolves around encouraging patients to reduce their chances of preventable disease and death. To that end, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) prescribed within 24 hours of hospital admission increases the chance of quitting and decreases the chance of nicotine withdrawal.

A pilot performance improvement project was initiated on two cardiac units at an academic tertiary medical center. The goal the project was to have NRT ordered within 24 hours of admission 100% of the time. Baseline metrics demonstrated admission NRT orders were below acceptable levels ...


Supporting Marin County Youth Suffering From Anxiety And Depression, Victoria L. Grajeda May 2019

Supporting Marin County Youth Suffering From Anxiety And Depression, Victoria L. Grajeda

Counseling Psychology | Master's Theses

This toolkit was created to help shed light on the impact a stressful high school environment can have on today’s youth, and provide teachers, students, and parents with up-to-date information on what resources are available within the county of Marin. When working with adolescents, it is important to consider environmental threats to their mental health (i.e., lack of sleep) in order to make proper referrals and treatment plans. A study done by Kelley, Lockley, Kelley, & Evans (2017) implemented a 10:00 a.m. start time at an urban school in England. By delaying school start times, Kelley et al., found that absences related to illness were reduced by 50 percent compared to national rates. In general, school systems in the United States are not currently structured to ensure students can function at their maximum potential, and their academics, health, and relationships are deteriorating as a result. More importantly, suicide is becoming more prevalent in high schools within the United States, which means prevention programs need to be reevaluated or implemented to help Marin youth cope with academic and social stress. This guide will provide the community with psychoeducation on depression and anxiety; potential risk factors, how to help, and what treatment options are available.


Prevalence Of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Usa: A Pilot Study, Megan Davenport, Andrew D. Welles, Matina V. Angelopoulou, Cesar D. Gonzalez, Christopher Okunseri, Lori Barbeau, Naveen K. Bansal, Rodney Vergotine, Brian D. Hodgson May 2019

Prevalence Of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Usa: A Pilot Study, Megan Davenport, Andrew D. Welles, Matina V. Angelopoulou, Cesar D. Gonzalez, Christopher Okunseri, Lori Barbeau, Naveen K. Bansal, Rodney Vergotine, Brian D. Hodgson

School of Dentistry Faculty Research and Publications

Purpose: This pilot study investigated the prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) in third-grade school children in Milwaukee Wisconsin, USA.

Methods: A convenience sample of third-grade school children in the Milwaukee Public School System (MPS) participated in the study. Calibrated examiners trained on the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) MIH recommendations examined the children between December 1, 2014 and June 30, 2015. Children were examined at their schools using a flashlight and mirror after receiving consent from parents/caregivers and assent from each child. Findings were recorded onto a standardized form by one of five trained examiners. Summary statistics were ...


Female Genital Mutilation In The United States: Estimating The Number Of Girls At Risk, Phyllis Chesler May 2019

Female Genital Mutilation In The United States: Estimating The Number Of Girls At Risk, Phyllis Chesler

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Female genital mutilation (FGM) destroys the capacity of women to experience sexual pleasure. It causes serious medical complications such as bleeding, painful urination, cysts, dangerous and recurrent bladder and urinary tract infections, the growth of scar tissue that make marital intercourse a nightmare and that turns childbirth into an experience of danger and torture. Due to immigration, FGM now poses a potential health crisis in the West, both in Europe and in the United States. To estimate how many girls who live in the West are at risk, one can measure the prevalence of FGM in the non-Western countries where ...


Beyond The Sentimental Cliche: How Local Communities Impact Residents And Shape Public Opinion, Kate Brunk Apr 2019

Beyond The Sentimental Cliche: How Local Communities Impact Residents And Shape Public Opinion, Kate Brunk

Theses and Dissertations

The Trump administration has recently established a rule that will prohibit abortion services providers from receiving Title X funds for the non-abortion family planning services they provide. Little public opinion research has focused on family planning and reproductive health topics outside of abortion. I find statistically significant experimental evidence that increasing perceptions of local need for a local reproductive health clinic caused subjects to be more supportive of federal reproductive health funding for local clinics. I did not find statistically significant correlational evidence that objective measures of poor reproductive health at the county level influence public opinion on federal reproductive ...


The Economic And Social Impact Of Zika On Women In The United States And Brazil, Kayla Chipongian Apr 2019

The Economic And Social Impact Of Zika On Women In The United States And Brazil, Kayla Chipongian

Languages and Literature Undergraduate Theses

Zika is a disease common in tropical areas that is transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. However, Zika can also be transmitted through sexual intercourse. In 2016, the World Health Organization declared the spread of Zika to be a public health emergency. The year before, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported an unusual increase in cases of microcephaly in the state of Pernambuco, located in the northeast of Brazil, and in 2016 the first outbreak of Zika in the continental United States occurred in Florida. Additionally, there is a causal relationship between prenatal Zika virus infection and microcephaly and other serious ...


What Gun Safety And Access Policies Did Participants Think Would Be Effective In Preventing Accidental Gun Deaths?, Bridget O’Keefe, Stephen White Apr 2019

What Gun Safety And Access Policies Did Participants Think Would Be Effective In Preventing Accidental Gun Deaths?, Bridget O’Keefe, Stephen White

Thinking Matters Symposium Archive

Firearm-related incidents are often highly publicized tragedies that fuel unproductive political debates on gun policies at the local, state, and national levels. Current best practices in safe gun storage suggest that caregivers can protect their children from injury or death from an accidental gun discharge by keeping guns unloaded, locked up, and stored separately from their ammunition (Crifasi, Doucette, McGinty, Webster, & Barry, 2018). Child access prevention mechanisms including trigger locks, lock boxes, gun safes, and safe storage legislation are encouraged by the American Academy of Pediatrics (Dowd & Sege, 2012). This study gathers quantitative responses from 1,021 participants using an ...


Improving Safety On The Road Through Occupational Therapy Intervention, Katherine Uschmann, Zachary Childs Apr 2019

Improving Safety On The Road Through Occupational Therapy Intervention, Katherine Uschmann, Zachary Childs

Thinking Matters Symposium Archive

As the U.S. population ages, increasing the likelihood of impaired fitness-to-drive, the topic of road safety holds strong interest among numerous professionals. The field of occupational therapy (OT) affirms the importance of community mobility in supporting overall health and well-being. OT practitioners who encounter clients with questionable driving ability should refer them to driving specialists. However, the question remains what kind of interventions may help clients with cognitive decline who have the potential to return to safe driving. This project’s evidence search revealed a wide range of interventions that show promise including: classroom education (especially when augmented by ...


Experiences Of Veterans With Ptsd And Sud In An Outpatient Setting, Andrew Breault, Hannah Shifflett-Kohler Apr 2019

Experiences Of Veterans With Ptsd And Sud In An Outpatient Setting, Andrew Breault, Hannah Shifflett-Kohler

Thinking Matters Symposium Archive

In 2014, there were approximately 7.9 million adults in the United States with co-occurring Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Substance Use Disorders (SUD) (SAMHSA, 2014). Of the veterans who served in the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan alone, 30% of those in SUD treatment also meet the criteria for PTSD (Seal et al, 2008, pp. 476). Furthermore, statistics show that about 20 Veterans in the United States complete suicide daily (Spiva, 2019, p. 8). The Department of Veterans Affairs is urgently seeking successful approaches to addressing the high incidence of suicides among all veterans along with the low ...


Perceptions Of Mental Health: Eight Conversations With Mainers From Africa, Teresa Sosa, Emelda Ogweta Apr 2019

Perceptions Of Mental Health: Eight Conversations With Mainers From Africa, Teresa Sosa, Emelda Ogweta

Thinking Matters Symposium Archive

As of 2016, 42 million refugees from around the world had been forced to flee their homes due to war, persecution, or natural disaster (George & Jettner, 2016). Due to these factors, as well as relocation and resettlement, refugees are at a significant risk for trauma and other mental health issues (George & Jettner, 2016). While the literature consistently validates this heightened risk for mental illness in refugees, more research is needed into refugee's perspectives on mental health. Through analysis of semi-structured interviews with eight refugees from Africa, this phenomenological study investigated refugee's perceptions of mental health and mental illness ...


A Comparison Of The United States And Costa Rican Health Care Systems And Their Influence On Immigrant Women's Maternal And Child Health Outcomes, Tamera R. Sullivan Apr 2019

A Comparison Of The United States And Costa Rican Health Care Systems And Their Influence On Immigrant Women's Maternal And Child Health Outcomes, Tamera R. Sullivan

Senior Theses

Health is a fundamental right for all humans, and every nation has a unique system for health care delivery. While the United States and Costa Rica follow two different welfare state models, there is still value in comparing the two countries. This project was inspired by my public health-based study abroad experience in Costa Rica in May 2018, which sparked a desire to learn more about the structures that form the health care system of each country. The United States has a more privatized and fragmented health care system, while Costa Rica has a public, universal health care system. Although ...