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Masters Theses

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Effects Of Different Recovery Methods On Hangboard Performance In Rock Climbers: A Pilot Study, Daniel Tyler Ehrich May 2021

Effects Of Different Recovery Methods On Hangboard Performance In Rock Climbers: A Pilot Study, Daniel Tyler Ehrich

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine whether static stretching, dynamic shakes, or repeated contractions would promote the greatest retention in performance in hangboard training within a given period of time. Five volunteer intermediate climbers from the Liberty University rock climbing team were instructed to suspend themselves from a 20mm ledge on a hangboard until voluntary failure while time was recorded. After failure, subjects performed one of three different recovery methods and a control in randomized order for two minutes in alternating fifteen-second intervals. Upon finishing recovery, subjects would hang from the same ledge and have their time recorded ...


Tight Trip Vs. Loose Grip On Russian Kettlebell Swing Work Capacity, Austin Deshner, Abigail Mccarty, Jerrell C. Campbell, Andrew Fields, Will W. Peveler May 2021

Tight Trip Vs. Loose Grip On Russian Kettlebell Swing Work Capacity, Austin Deshner, Abigail Mccarty, Jerrell C. Campbell, Andrew Fields, Will W. Peveler

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a tight grip(TG) and a loose grip(LG) on work capacity while performing Russian kettlebell swings(KBS). It was hypothesized that LG would result in an ability to perform more work. Thirty fit adults (16 male; 14 female) were tested. Two (TG and LG) separate counterbalanced trials for each subject were collected, counting the number of repetitions completed until volitional exhaustion. RPE for forearms and overall exhaustion were collected post-trial. SPSS was used to run a paired samples t-test. There was a significant difference between the two grips ...


Best Practice In Dementia Communication: Determining The Effectiveness Of Pre-Recorded, Presentation-Based Learning For Cnas Working In Residential Care Facilities, Mary Kate Hoeve Apr 2021

Best Practice In Dementia Communication: Determining The Effectiveness Of Pre-Recorded, Presentation-Based Learning For Cnas Working In Residential Care Facilities, Mary Kate Hoeve

Masters Theses

The dramatic increase in the aging population and predicted rise in individuals diagnosed with a dementia-related disorder in the next 30 years has sparked an increase in the exploration of gerontology and best practice in dementia care (Curyto & Vriesman, 2016). Additionally, each person living with dementia spends less than two percent of their day engaging in social communication with a care worker (Ward et al, 2005). With a significant increase in the development of dementia-related disorders and minimal social interaction, understanding the manifestations of dementia and methods of effective communication between individuals with dementia-related disorders and direct care workers will ...


Mitigation Of Teratogenic Agents: Is There Promise In Ion Modulating Drugs?, Aastha Pokharel Dec 2020

Mitigation Of Teratogenic Agents: Is There Promise In Ion Modulating Drugs?, Aastha Pokharel

Masters Theses

As reported by the CDC, birth defects remain a common occurrence in the United States, with malformations originating in many places in the developing organism. Furthermore, the etiology of many of these defects remain unknown, with some factors consisting of genetics, environmental pollutants and teratogens. In our study, we examined whether insults by teratogenic agents, ethanol in particular, can be mitigated by hyperpolarizing agents acting to restore the cell’s potential. We first evaluated whether three hyperpolarizing drugs (Lamotrigine, Gabapentin, and Ivermectin) induced teratogenic effects on CD-1 mice and found that Ivermectin induced craniofacial malformations, and exposure to Lamotrigine and ...


Validity Parameters For Step Counting Wearable Technologies During Treadmill Walking In Young People 6-20 Years Of Age, Zachary Gould Dec 2020

Validity Parameters For Step Counting Wearable Technologies During Treadmill Walking In Young People 6-20 Years Of Age, Zachary Gould

Masters Theses

Introduction: Wearable technologies play an important contemporary role in the measurement of physical activity (PA) and promotion of human health across the lifespan, including for young people (i.e., children, adolescents, and young adults). As new objective wearable technologies continue to develop, standardized approaches to documenting validation parameters (i.e., measures of accuracy, precision, and bias) are needed to ensure confidence and comparability in step-defined PA. Purpose: To produce validity parameters for step counting wearable technologies during treadmill walking in young people 6-20 years of age Methods: 120 participants completed 5-minute treadmill bouts from13.4 to 134.1 m·min ...


How Do Food Shopping Behaviors Differ Between High-Income And Low-Income Shoppers In The Grand Rapids Metropolitan Area?, Alison M. Cooney Dec 2020

How Do Food Shopping Behaviors Differ Between High-Income And Low-Income Shoppers In The Grand Rapids Metropolitan Area?, Alison M. Cooney

Masters Theses

Background: The social determinants of health and health equity are influenced by access, environment, and socioeconomic status (SES). Health inequities are preventable and can be avoided with systemic policy change surrounding the distribution of wealth and resources. Few studies have researched the differences in different income levels and the influence income has on food shopping behaviors.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in food shopping behaviors between high-income and low-income shoppers living in the same zip code. Subjects Sixty-eight individuals who live in the 49341 zip code which represents a small city in Kent County ...


Voluntary Hypoventilation At Low Lung Volume (Vhl) During Strength And Conditioning Training Increases Anaerobic Performance: A Pilot Study, Zachary Taylor Hundley Dec 2020

Voluntary Hypoventilation At Low Lung Volume (Vhl) During Strength And Conditioning Training Increases Anaerobic Performance: A Pilot Study, Zachary Taylor Hundley

Masters Theses

To determine whether a VHL protocol implemented into an already existing strength and conditioning program could improve anaerobic conditioning more efficiently within the military population. Six active duty males completed a seven-week training cycle with VHL protocols implemented on each training day (2-4 days/week). Before (Pre) and after (Post) protocol implementation, the participants performed a multi-stage 20-m shuttle run test (MSRT). After incorporating VHL, participants significantly improved their MRST scores by an average of 50.3%. Additionally, Body Oxygen Level Test (BOLT) scores were improved across the duration of the study. This study showed employing VHL can improve anaerobic ...


From The Dinner Pot To Smoking Pot; How A Better Understanding Of Cannabidiol In Crayfish Could Alleviate Anxiety And Modulate Hunger, Christopher Michael Timmer Aug 2020

From The Dinner Pot To Smoking Pot; How A Better Understanding Of Cannabidiol In Crayfish Could Alleviate Anxiety And Modulate Hunger, Christopher Michael Timmer

Masters Theses

Anxiety affects approximately 1/3 of the US population and presents in many different forms, ranging from social to panic disorders. It also presents with high comorbidity for other mental disorders. One treatment is Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) which allow for increased activation of serotonin (5-HT) receptors. SSRIs come with an extensive list of side effects, which can fail to maintain quality of life. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a cannabis derived compound which has been shown to decrease anxiety by activation of multiple subtype 5-HT amine receptors. CBD has few side effects, is not psychoactive, and exhibits anti-psychotic properties. The ...


Sperm Mitochondrial Dna Biomarkers As A Measure Of Male Fecundity And Overall Sperm Quality, Allyson Rosati Jul 2020

Sperm Mitochondrial Dna Biomarkers As A Measure Of Male Fecundity And Overall Sperm Quality, Allyson Rosati

Masters Theses

Introduction. Sperm parameter analysis is the standard method of male fecundity testing; however, minimal evidence supports associations between individual sperm parameters and reproductive outcomes. Our previous work shows strong associations between sperm mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and time-to-pregnancy (TTP) in general populations, and between mtDNAcn and fertilization outcomes in clinical populations. Thus it is possible for sperm mtDNA biomarkers to act as summary measures of semen quality. In this study, we developed a sperm quality index (SQI) from semen parameters and compared its ability to measure fecundity to sperm mtDNAcn.

Methods. We received 384 semen samples from the Longitudinal ...


Head-Trunk Coordination And Coordination Variability During Anticipated And Unanticipated Sidestepping, Sam Zeff Jul 2020

Head-Trunk Coordination And Coordination Variability During Anticipated And Unanticipated Sidestepping, Sam Zeff

Masters Theses

INTRODUCTION: Sensory systems within the head provide us with rich perceptual information and may require complex control of the head during locomotion when changing direction. Head position in space is maintained by head on trunk motion as well as lower extremity kinematic modifications, such as increased knee flexion and increased stance time in order to facilitate shock attenuation and reduce vertical CoM displacement. It has been established that the body organizes its degrees of freedom of the trunk, pelvis and lower extremities differently during anticipated and unanticipated sidestepping, which raises the question of how these modifications affect head control during ...


Sexual Experiences And Association With Depression And Anxiety Among Sexual Minority Women, Brie Engelbrecht Jul 2020

Sexual Experiences And Association With Depression And Anxiety Among Sexual Minority Women, Brie Engelbrecht

Masters Theses

Depression and anxiety are among the most prevalent forms of mental illness in the U.S, affecting an estimated 18% of the population. Recent studies have shown that sexual minority women may undergo sexual experiences that affect their risk of anxiety and depression. However, prior studies of this association are sparse and have largely been conducted among sexual majorities and have yet to examine differences between vulnerable sexual orientation groups. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between sexual experiences (i.e., sexual assertiveness, sexual self-efficacy, and outness) and anxiety and depression among young sexual minority women in a cross-sectional study (N ...


The Association Between Dengue Virus Infection And Liver And Kidney Function Among Cambodian Children, Ashley Moineau Jul 2020

The Association Between Dengue Virus Infection And Liver And Kidney Function Among Cambodian Children, Ashley Moineau

Masters Theses

Severe liver and kidney dysfunction are prevalent in 10%-30% of the Southeast Asian population. Dengue virus infection has been reported as a modifiable risk factor for liver and kidney dysfunction, especially among children in Southeast Asia. Epidemiologic studies assessing this relationship are sparse, often failed to include children, and did not adjust for important covariates. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between dengue virus infection and liver and kidney dysfunction among hospitalized children in Cambodia (n=551). Participants with a serologically confirmed dengue virus infection were categorized according to increasing severity of infection (i.e. dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever ...


A Cross-Sectional Study Of Phthalate Exposure And Inflammation Biomarker Levels Among Postmenopausal Women, Avery Trim Jul 2020

A Cross-Sectional Study Of Phthalate Exposure And Inflammation Biomarker Levels Among Postmenopausal Women, Avery Trim

Masters Theses

Phthalates are industrial chemicals added to plastics found in products such as children’s toys, cosmetics, and household items, and some laboratory studies suggest phthalates may increase levels of inflammation. Chronic inflammation is associated with many chronic health conditions, such as diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. Although research is limited, recent studies suggest a strong positive relationship between mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), and monocarboxynonyl phthalate (MCNP) and c-reactive protein (CRP), as well as monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Additionally, this relationship has not been examined among postmenopausal women, a population that is at higher ...


Reproductive Factors And Postmenopausal Fsh Levels, Rebecca Costa Jul 2020

Reproductive Factors And Postmenopausal Fsh Levels, Rebecca Costa

Masters Theses

Recent studies have shown that postmenopausal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels may be predictive of future cardiovascular disease risk. However, little is known about postmenopausal FSH levels, including the level of variation between women and factors associated with this variation. We assessed the relationship of multiple reproductive factors with FSH levels among 588 postmenopausal women in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Participants were aged 53 to 73 years and not using hormone therapy at baseline (1998-2001). Reproductive factors were assessed at baseline, along with FSH levels. After adjustment for sex steroids, adiposity measures, plasma lipids, blood pressure ...


Impact Of Parity On Gait Biomechanics, Bekah P. Stein Jul 2020

Impact Of Parity On Gait Biomechanics, Bekah P. Stein

Masters Theses

Background: Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) is an incurable condition that affects nearly 50% of adults, and women are twice as likely as men to develop OA. Throughout pregnancy, women experience large changes in morphology and gait mechanics, as well as changes in joint loading. It is possible these adaptations could cause lasting changes postpartum, which may potentially contribute to initiation of OA, thereby increasing the overall risk of OA for women.

Purpose: This exploratory study looked to identify differences between lower limb gait mechanics of healthy nulliparous women and healthy parous women.

Methods: 28 healthy female participants (14 parous, 14 ...


Cadence As An Indicator Of The Walk-To-Run Transition, Colleen Chase Jul 2020

Cadence As An Indicator Of The Walk-To-Run Transition, Colleen Chase

Masters Theses

Humans naturally select a point at which to transition from walking to running when gradually increasing locomotor speed. This point is known as the walk-to-run transition (WRT). The WRT is traditionally expressed in terms of speed and is known to occur within a close range of 2.1 m/s, which is an accepted heuristic (i.e., empirically based, rounded) threshold value. Very little research exists defining the WRT in terms of cadence (steps/min) despite the fact that spatial temporal aspects of gait underlying the WRT include this parameter. Preliminary evidence suggests that the WRT may be associated with ...


Microbial Experience Influences Tumor- Infiltrating T Lymphocytes, Hanna Groeber Jul 2020

Microbial Experience Influences Tumor- Infiltrating T Lymphocytes, Hanna Groeber

Masters Theses

Immune cells, including T cells, have been used for anti-cancer therapy with varying degrees of success. One potential reason for immunotherapy failures in clinical trials may be that typical specific pathogen free (SPF) mice do not accurately replicate human microbial experience, which has important influence on shaping the adaptive immune response. Recently, several previous studies have shown that the immune system of SPF mice more closely resembles newborn human immunity, whereas immune systems from mice exposed to diverse pathogens more closely reflect adult human immunity.

To study the impact of microbial experience on the immune response, we have adopted a ...


Exploring The Impact Of A Breakfast In The Classroom (Bic) Program In An Urban Middle School In Western Massachusetts, Maria O'Donnell May 2020

Exploring The Impact Of A Breakfast In The Classroom (Bic) Program In An Urban Middle School In Western Massachusetts, Maria O'Donnell

Masters Theses

Although breakfast programs in schools have been encouraged in school-aged children due to numerous benefits on physical and academic performance, participation in School Breakfast Programs (SBP) remains lower than the National School Lunch Program in the United States. Some studies have found that lower participation in the SBP are due to barriers and stigmas. Some studies have found that when breakfast programs are taken into the classroom, uptake of the program improves. However, the relationship between breakfast intake and academic outcomes among young adolescents remains inconclusive. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of a newly implemented ...


A Comparison Of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces In Single-Leg Jump Take-Offs And Double-Leg Jump Take-Offs In Indoor Collegiate Volleyball Players, Margaret Elisabeth Latchford, Maggie Mcdermott, Austin Deshner, Moroni De Moors, Will W. Peveler May 2020

A Comparison Of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces In Single-Leg Jump Take-Offs And Double-Leg Jump Take-Offs In Indoor Collegiate Volleyball Players, Margaret Elisabeth Latchford, Maggie Mcdermott, Austin Deshner, Moroni De Moors, Will W. Peveler

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in vertical ground reaction forces (vGRFs) exist between single-leg take-off approaches (SL) and double-leg take-off approaches (DL) and if sex or positional differences existed in vGRFs in SL- or DL-style approaches. It was hypothesized that DL jumps would generate greater vGRFs, males would generate greater vGRFs in both styles, and middle blockers would have higher SL vGRFs while pin hitters would have higher DL vGRFs. Nine collegiate volleyball players (4 female; 5 male) (age: 20.44 ± 1.42 years; height: 186.02 ± 6.44 cm; body mass: 78.21 ± 10 ...


Utilization Of Emulsion Chemistries For Delivery And Antiviral Application Of Carvacrol, Hao-Yuan Hsu Apr 2020

Utilization Of Emulsion Chemistries For Delivery And Antiviral Application Of Carvacrol, Hao-Yuan Hsu

Masters Theses

Human norovirus (HuNoVs) are the most common enteric pathogen around the world that cause ~50% of foodborne illness of disease outbreaks annually. HuNoVs are the member of the Caliciviridae family, which consist of small (38 nm), unenveloped, single stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses. Norovirus are divided into 5 genogroup (GI, GII, GIII, GIV, GV, GVI and GVII). The GI, GII, and GIV cause human illness, in addition, GII.4 genotype cause the most human disease. Due to HuNoVs are difficult cultured in vitro, the cultivable HuNoVs surrogates have been widely studied. Recently, some studies have been conducted with HuNoVs surrogates, for ...


Therapeutic Dna: Delivery And As A Delivery Vehicle, Natalie J. Holl Jan 2020

Therapeutic Dna: Delivery And As A Delivery Vehicle, Natalie J. Holl

Masters Theses

"A review of gene delivery methods and gene editing methods, as well as original research utilizing DNA as a delivery vehicle is presented in the following thesis. Thousands of diseases have been linked to genes. Gene therapy, either delivering therapeutic genes or editing DNA bases, has arisen as a treatment option with the potential to cure diseases, rather than just ease symptoms. Genes and editing tools need to be delivered to cells for these therapies to be effective and many techniques have been developed to address the issue of delivery. Nonviral and viral methods have been used to deliver nucleic ...


The Application Of Machine Learning Models In The Concussion Diagnosis Process, Sujit Subhash Jan 2020

The Application Of Machine Learning Models In The Concussion Diagnosis Process, Sujit Subhash

Masters Theses

“Concussions represent a growing health concern and are challenging to diagnose and manage. Roughly four million concussions are diagnosed every year in the United States. Although research into the application of advanced metrics such as neuroimages and blood biomarkers has shown promise, they are yet to be implemented at a clinical level due to cost and reliability concerns. Therefore, concussion diagnosis is still reliant on clinical evaluations of symptoms, balance, and neurocognitive status and function. The lack of a universal threshold on these assessments makes the diagnosis process entirely reliant on a physician’s interpretation of these assessment scores. This ...


Single Sport Specialization: Ncaa Di Collegiate Student Athlete Perceptions, Jordyn Blood Jan 2020

Single Sport Specialization: Ncaa Di Collegiate Student Athlete Perceptions, Jordyn Blood

Masters Theses

This study seeks to understand the experience and perception of current, NCAA DI athletes with regard to sport specialization. By learning more about their level of specialization prior to their life as an NCAA DI athlete, as well as their perception on the importance of specialization, this study seeks to contribute to the growing body of literature in sport specialization. Specifically, this study will help inform aspiring athletes, coaches and parents about the role and perceptions of sport specialization in today's elite level athlete. Using paper surveys, the perceptions of 138 current 2019-2020 season NCAA DI athletes at a ...


An Assessment Of Schools' Wellness Policies And Teachers’ Perspectives And Confidence In Teaching Nutrition In Elementary Schools In Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Asma Yahya Jan 2020

An Assessment Of Schools' Wellness Policies And Teachers’ Perspectives And Confidence In Teaching Nutrition In Elementary Schools In Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Asma Yahya

Masters Theses

Nutrition education in school can provide students with the knowledge and skills to improve their eating behavior and overall health. This study aimed to evaluate the content of school wellness policies and understand teacher perspectives about teaching nutrition education at their schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In 2020, electronic surveys were used to evaluate the wellness policies in 11 elementary all-female government schools and teachers’ perspectives about the nutrition education offered in three elementary all-female government schools. Sixty-one teachers and eleven principals participated in this study. Fisher’s exact tests were used to test the differences between teachers’ perspectives and ...


Estimating Age-Specific Contraceptive Use For Spacing Of Childbirth For All Countries In Sub-Saharan Africa From 1985 To 2030 Using A Bayesian Hierarchical Time Series Model, Gregory Guranich Oct 2019

Estimating Age-Specific Contraceptive Use For Spacing Of Childbirth For All Countries In Sub-Saharan Africa From 1985 To 2030 Using A Bayesian Hierarchical Time Series Model, Gregory Guranich

Masters Theses

Contraceptive usage for spacing of childbirth is an important indicator for understanding family planning practices as well as fertility transitions. Fertility transition are especially important in sub-Saharan Africa where fertility remains high in many countries. However, estimates and short-term projections are generally not available for countries in this region. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical time series model to estimate and project usage of contraceptives for spacing by 5-year age groups for all countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the years 1985-2030. Estimating country-age-year specific usage is challenging due to limited data availability. We use Bayesian hierarchical models to share information across ...


Markov Decision Process Approach To Strategize National Breast Cancer Screening Policy In Data-Limited Settings, Vijeta Deshpande Oct 2019

Markov Decision Process Approach To Strategize National Breast Cancer Screening Policy In Data-Limited Settings, Vijeta Deshpande

Masters Theses

Early diagnosis is a promising strategy to reduce premature mortalities and for optimal use of resources. But the absence of mathematical models specific to the data settings in LMIC’s impedes the construction of economic analysis necessary for decision-makers in the development of cancer control programs. This thesis presents a new methodology for parameterizing the natural history model of breast cancer based on data availabilities in low and middle income countries, and formulation of a control optimization problem to find the optimal screening schedule for mammography screening, solved using dynamic programming. As harms and benefits are known to increase with ...


Gestational Weight Gain, Offspring Asthma And Wheeze Phenotypes In Project Viva, Kathryn Wagner Aug 2019

Gestational Weight Gain, Offspring Asthma And Wheeze Phenotypes In Project Viva, Kathryn Wagner

Masters Theses

In the US, 8.4% of children are diagnosed with asthma by age 18, making asthma one of the most common chronic conditions among children. Additionally, 25% of children experience persistent wheezing by age 6, an indicator of childhood asthma. Both childhood asthma and persistent wheezing may be linked to inflammatory and immune mechanisms, which are associated with inadequate and excessive gestational weight gain. Studies investigating the relationship between gestational weight gain and offspring asthma and wheeze phenotypes are limited by self-reported gestational weight gain, early age at asthma and wheeze assessments, limited adjustment for potential confounders and no trimester-specific ...


Assessing The Association Between Physical Activity And Prediabetes Using The National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2014, Mabeline Velez Aug 2019

Assessing The Association Between Physical Activity And Prediabetes Using The National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2014, Mabeline Velez

Masters Theses

Prediabetes, a condition in which glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes, affects approximately 37% of adults in the United States and is a major public health concern. Extensive research has evaluated the association between physical activity (PA) and type 2 diabetes; however, few studies have examined the association between PA and prediabetes. Therefore, we evaluated the association between PA (including leisure time, occupational and total) and prediabetes status among adults, stratified by gender, using multinomial logistic regression models fit to serial cross-sectional 2007-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ...


Exploring Neighborhood Level Variation In Incidence And Secondary Transmission Of Seasonal Influenza, Melissa Freeland Aug 2019

Exploring Neighborhood Level Variation In Incidence And Secondary Transmission Of Seasonal Influenza, Melissa Freeland

Masters Theses

Influenza epidemics in the United States, are major causes of morbidity and mortality, and cause serious economic disruption on an annual basis. Evidence has begun to accumulate linking neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage to higher rates of hospitalization and mortality related to influenza (Cordoba & Aiello, 2016; Jung, Lin, & Viswanath, 2013). Some studies suggest that this may be due to lower rates of vaccination, higher rates of comorbidities in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities (Cordoba & Aiello, 2016; Jung, Lin, & Viswanath, 2013; Ross & Mirowsky, 2001). However, few studies have evaluated the effects of neighborhood level socioeconomic disadvantage and structural features on influenza incidence in a manner that controls for vaccination status and comorbidities due to a lack of robust surveillance for influenza incidence at the community level.

Through secondary analysis of influenza cases collected from the ...


Impact Of Footwear On Mechanisms Of Knee Osteoarthritis Progression, Ethan Steiner Jul 2019

Impact Of Footwear On Mechanisms Of Knee Osteoarthritis Progression, Ethan Steiner

Masters Theses

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease affecting the entire knee joint by inducing pathological changes to the cartilage and menisci. Currently, the etiology of OA is not completely understood. However, altered gait mechanics, specifically increased joint loading, of OA patients have a clear association with both symptomatic and structural OA progression. Non-surgical intervention tools, such as variable stiffness shoes (VSS), have been developed as a way to decrease loading within the knee joint. However, with external moments being surrogate measures for knee loading, it is unclear if changes in knee moments with the footwear are sufficient to result in ...