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Masters Theses

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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

A Comparison Of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces In Single-Leg Jump Take-Offs And Double-Leg Jump Take-Offs In Indoor Collegiate Volleyball Players, Margaret Elisabeth Latchford, Maggie Mcdermott, Austin Deshner, Moroni De Moors, Will W. Peveler May 2020

A Comparison Of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces In Single-Leg Jump Take-Offs And Double-Leg Jump Take-Offs In Indoor Collegiate Volleyball Players, Margaret Elisabeth Latchford, Maggie Mcdermott, Austin Deshner, Moroni De Moors, Will W. Peveler

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in vertical ground reaction forces (vGRFs) exist between single-leg take-off approaches (SL) and double-leg take-off approaches (DL) and if sex or positional differences existed in vGRFs in SL- or DL-style approaches. It was hypothesized that DL jumps would generate greater vGRFs, males would generate greater vGRFs in both styles, and middle blockers would have higher SL vGRFs while pin hitters would have higher DL vGRFs. Nine collegiate volleyball players (4 female; 5 male) (age: 20.44 ± 1.42 years; height: 186.02 ± 6.44 cm; body mass: 78.21 ± 10 ...


Utilization Of Emulsion Chemistries For Delivery And Antiviral Application Of Carvacrol, Hao-Yuan Hsu Apr 2020

Utilization Of Emulsion Chemistries For Delivery And Antiviral Application Of Carvacrol, Hao-Yuan Hsu

Masters Theses

Human norovirus (HuNoVs) are the most common enteric pathogen around the world that cause ~50% of foodborne illness of disease outbreaks annually. HuNoVs are the member of the Caliciviridae family, which consist of small (38 nm), unenveloped, single stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses. Norovirus are divided into 5 genogroup (GI, GII, GIII, GIV, GV, GVI and GVII). The GI, GII, and GIV cause human illness, in addition, GII.4 genotype cause the most human disease. Due to HuNoVs are difficult cultured in vitro, the cultivable HuNoVs surrogates have been widely studied. Recently, some studies have been conducted with HuNoVs surrogates, for ...


Single Sport Specialization: Ncaa Di Collegiate Student Athlete Perceptions, Jordyn Blood Jan 2020

Single Sport Specialization: Ncaa Di Collegiate Student Athlete Perceptions, Jordyn Blood

Masters Theses

This study seeks to understand the experience and perception of current, NCAA DI athletes with regard to sport specialization. By learning more about their level of specialization prior to their life as an NCAA DI athlete, as well as their perception on the importance of specialization, this study seeks to contribute to the growing body of literature in sport specialization. Specifically, this study will help inform aspiring athletes, coaches and parents about the role and perceptions of sport specialization in today's elite level athlete. Using paper surveys, the perceptions of 138 current 2019-2020 season NCAA DI athletes at a ...


Estimating Age-Specific Contraceptive Use For Spacing Of Childbirth For All Countries In Sub-Saharan Africa From 1985 To 2030 Using A Bayesian Hierarchical Time Series Model, Gregory Guranich Oct 2019

Estimating Age-Specific Contraceptive Use For Spacing Of Childbirth For All Countries In Sub-Saharan Africa From 1985 To 2030 Using A Bayesian Hierarchical Time Series Model, Gregory Guranich

Masters Theses

Contraceptive usage for spacing of childbirth is an important indicator for understanding family planning practices as well as fertility transitions. Fertility transition are especially important in sub-Saharan Africa where fertility remains high in many countries. However, estimates and short-term projections are generally not available for countries in this region. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical time series model to estimate and project usage of contraceptives for spacing by 5-year age groups for all countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the years 1985-2030. Estimating country-age-year specific usage is challenging due to limited data availability. We use Bayesian hierarchical models to share information across ...


Markov Decision Process Approach To Strategize National Breast Cancer Screening Policy In Data-Limited Settings, Vijeta Deshpande Oct 2019

Markov Decision Process Approach To Strategize National Breast Cancer Screening Policy In Data-Limited Settings, Vijeta Deshpande

Masters Theses

Early diagnosis is a promising strategy to reduce premature mortalities and for optimal use of resources. But the absence of mathematical models specific to the data settings in LMIC’s impedes the construction of economic analysis necessary for decision-makers in the development of cancer control programs. This thesis presents a new methodology for parameterizing the natural history model of breast cancer based on data availabilities in low and middle income countries, and formulation of a control optimization problem to find the optimal screening schedule for mammography screening, solved using dynamic programming. As harms and benefits are known to increase with ...


Gestational Weight Gain, Offspring Asthma And Wheeze Phenotypes In Project Viva, Kathryn Wagner Aug 2019

Gestational Weight Gain, Offspring Asthma And Wheeze Phenotypes In Project Viva, Kathryn Wagner

Masters Theses

In the US, 8.4% of children are diagnosed with asthma by age 18, making asthma one of the most common chronic conditions among children. Additionally, 25% of children experience persistent wheezing by age 6, an indicator of childhood asthma. Both childhood asthma and persistent wheezing may be linked to inflammatory and immune mechanisms, which are associated with inadequate and excessive gestational weight gain. Studies investigating the relationship between gestational weight gain and offspring asthma and wheeze phenotypes are limited by self-reported gestational weight gain, early age at asthma and wheeze assessments, limited adjustment for potential confounders and no trimester-specific ...


Exploring Neighborhood Level Variation In Incidence And Secondary Transmission Of Seasonal Influenza, Melissa Freeland Aug 2019

Exploring Neighborhood Level Variation In Incidence And Secondary Transmission Of Seasonal Influenza, Melissa Freeland

Masters Theses

Influenza epidemics in the United States, are major causes of morbidity and mortality, and cause serious economic disruption on an annual basis. Evidence has begun to accumulate linking neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage to higher rates of hospitalization and mortality related to influenza (Cordoba & Aiello, 2016; Jung, Lin, & Viswanath, 2013). Some studies suggest that this may be due to lower rates of vaccination, higher rates of comorbidities in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities (Cordoba & Aiello, 2016; Jung, Lin, & Viswanath, 2013; Ross & Mirowsky, 2001). However, few studies have evaluated the effects of neighborhood level socioeconomic disadvantage and structural features on influenza incidence in a manner that controls for vaccination status and comorbidities due to a lack of robust surveillance for influenza incidence at the community level.

Through secondary analysis of influenza cases collected from the ...


Impact Of Footwear On Mechanisms Of Knee Osteoarthritis Progression, Ethan Steiner Jul 2019

Impact Of Footwear On Mechanisms Of Knee Osteoarthritis Progression, Ethan Steiner

Masters Theses

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease affecting the entire knee joint by inducing pathological changes to the cartilage and menisci. Currently, the etiology of OA is not completely understood. However, altered gait mechanics, specifically increased joint loading, of OA patients have a clear association with both symptomatic and structural OA progression. Non-surgical intervention tools, such as variable stiffness shoes (VSS), have been developed as a way to decrease loading within the knee joint. However, with external moments being surrogate measures for knee loading, it is unclear if changes in knee moments with the footwear are sufficient to result in ...


A Computational Simulation Model For Predicting Infectious Disease Spread Using The Evolving Contact Network Algorithm, Buyannemekh Munkhbat Jul 2019

A Computational Simulation Model For Predicting Infectious Disease Spread Using The Evolving Contact Network Algorithm, Buyannemekh Munkhbat

Masters Theses

Commonly used simulation models for predicting outbreaks of re-emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) take an individual-level or a population-level approach to modeling contact dynamics. These approaches are a trade-off between the ability to incorporate individual-level dynamics and computational efficiency. Agent-based network models (ABNM) use an individual-level approach by simulating the entire population and its contact structure, which increases the ability of adding detailed individual-level characteristics. However, as this method is computationally expensive, ABNMs use scaled-down versions of the full population, which are unsuitable for low prevalence diseases as the number of infected cases would become negligible during scaling-down. Compartmental models use ...


Development And Cross-Validation Of A Cadence-Based Metabolic Equation For Walking, Christopher C. Moore Jul 2019

Patient Sex And Physician Adherence To Treatment Guidelines For Non-Purulent Cellulitis, Rebecca Goldberg Jul 2019

Patient Sex And Physician Adherence To Treatment Guidelines For Non-Purulent Cellulitis, Rebecca Goldberg

Masters Theses

In 2015, participating US Emergency Departments (EDs) reported approximately 2.8 million visits related to skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Studies indicate that there may be disparities by patient sex in physician treatment guideline adherence rates as a result of a gender bias during physician-patient interactions; however, only two epidemiologic studies have investigated the role of patient sex in guideline adherence rates for SSTIs. These prior studies were limited in size and covariate assessment. Thus, the magnitude and direction of the effect of patient sex is uncertain, warranting further research. Therefore, we conducted a large prospective study to elucidate ...


Antipsychotic Drug Use And Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk In The Women’S Health Initiative (Whi): A Prospective Cohort Study, Anna George Jul 2019

Antipsychotic Drug Use And Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk In The Women’S Health Initiative (Whi): A Prospective Cohort Study, Anna George

Masters Theses

Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer and the second leading cause of mortality, affecting 1 in 9 women in the United States. Recent studies have shown that antipsychotic drug use is associated with increased prolactin levels, which, in turn, is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. However, studies of the association between antipsychotic drug use and the risk of breast cancer are sparse and have largely been conducted in homogenous populations. Therefore, we evaluated this relationship in postmenopausal women (N = 119 524) in a diverse population of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) cohort. Antipsychotic drug ...


Mechanisms And Mitigation Of Skeletal Muscle Fatigue In Single Fibers From Older Adults, Aurora Foster Jul 2019

Mechanisms And Mitigation Of Skeletal Muscle Fatigue In Single Fibers From Older Adults, Aurora Foster

Masters Theses

Skeletal muscle fatigue is the contraction-induced decline in whole muscle force or power, and can be greater in older versus young adults. Fatigue primarily results from increased metabolism elevating phosphate (Pi) and hydrogen (H+), which alters myosin-actin interactions; however, which steps of the myosin-actin cross-bridge cycle are changed and their reversibility are unclear. PURPOSE: This study sought to: 1) Examine the effects of elevated Pi and H+ on molecular and cellular function, and 2) Test the ability of deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP), an alternative energy to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), to reverse the contractile changes induced with high Pi ...


Dysphagia Management In Schools: A Survey Of Speech-Language Pathologists, Catherine Felicetti Jul 2019

Dysphagia Management In Schools: A Survey Of Speech-Language Pathologists, Catherine Felicetti

Masters Theses

Introduction: To date, few research studies have evaluated pediatric feeding and swallowing practices in school systems across the United States. This study aims to i) understand the factors that impact a speech-language pathologists (SLPs) level of comfort in providing these services, ii) to identify barriers to service provision, iii) develop a concrete understanding of a SLPs role in providing feeding and swallowing services in a school setting, and iv) to identify the types of service suggested by school-based SLPs in response to a fictional case study.

Methods: School-based SLPs and clinical fellows were invited to participate in a 10-15 minute ...


The Acute Effects Of Melatonin On Striatal Dopamine Release: Progressive Electrochemical Analysis In An Ex Vivo Mouse Model Utilizing Fast Scan Cyclic Voltammetry, Kevin D. Hughes Apr 2019

The Acute Effects Of Melatonin On Striatal Dopamine Release: Progressive Electrochemical Analysis In An Ex Vivo Mouse Model Utilizing Fast Scan Cyclic Voltammetry, Kevin D. Hughes

Masters Theses

The caudate putamen is a sub region of the basal ganglia, containing neural tracts important for cognition, reward learning, and voluntary motor function. Dopamine (DA) signaling received from the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta mediate locomotion, degradation of which is the characteristic neuropathology for Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD is an initially neurovegetative motor disorder but can progress to include cognitive impairments as well. Sundowner’s syndrome (SS) has been observed in patient populations with neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by the decline of cognition into evening hours. Due to the circadian influence which the hormone melatonin has on ...


Women & Adhd Functional Impairments: Beyond The Obvious, Noelle Marita Lynn Apr 2019

Women & Adhd Functional Impairments: Beyond The Obvious, Noelle Marita Lynn

Masters Theses

Women with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are an understudied and underserved population. Research on women with ADHD has shown that they are significantly impaired by ADHD and its functional impairments. It also shows that women often internalize their symptoms and impairments. However, no research was found that explores what this internalization does to the women. The researcher chose to begin to address this gap in the literature through this qualitative phenomenological study. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of functional impairments caused by ADHD on the internal lived experiences of women.

The researcher conducted fourteen interviews ...


The Effects Of Parenting Style And Feeding Style On Child Weight Status: A Systematic Review, Rahaf A. Alahmadi Jan 2019

The Effects Of Parenting Style And Feeding Style On Child Weight Status: A Systematic Review, Rahaf A. Alahmadi

Masters Theses

Childhood obesity is a global health concern. According to the World Health, prevalence of obesity decupled in the last four decades, where 124 million children and adolescents are now considered obese (“Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity”, 2019). Organization Interactions between parenting styles and feeding styles play a critical role in the development of a child's lifestyle habits, which may impact their weight status. The purpose of this study was to identify how parenting and feeding styles impact a child’s weight status. A systematic review of the literature, guided by The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Manual ...


Construct Validity Of The Teate Depression Inventory (Tdi) With A Middle Eastern/Arab American Sample, Dalia Bunni Jan 2019

Construct Validity Of The Teate Depression Inventory (Tdi) With A Middle Eastern/Arab American Sample, Dalia Bunni

Masters Theses

The purpose of the study was to examine the construct validity of a newer test used to measure depressive symptoms, the Teate Depression Inventory (TDI). The primary focus of the study was on Middle Eastern/Arab Americans (ME/AA). Previous research has demonstrated that ethnic minority groups may experience and present internalizing disorders, such as depression and anxiety differently than the majority ethnic group, White/Caucasian (W/C) individuals. Further, research suggests that there is a disparity in mental health care among ethnic minority groups, starting with detecting and diagnosing mental health disorders. Inaccurate detection and diagnoses informs inaccurate treatment ...


Waist Circumference And The Relation To Aerobic Exercise And Perception Of Illness In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Bailey J. Huebner Jan 2019

Waist Circumference And The Relation To Aerobic Exercise And Perception Of Illness In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Bailey J. Huebner

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to observe the relationship between waist circumference (WC), amount of aerobic exercise performed weekly and overall Health Belief Model (HBM) score in adults with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Members from a local Midwest adult fitness program (n = 5) who had been diagnosed T2DM participated in this study. Participants ranged in age from 70 to 80 years with an average age of 74 years. Four of the participants were female and one participant was male. The questions included in this study were 1 .) in those with diagnosed T2DM, was a low overall HBM ...


Women's Empowerment And Its Impact On Reproductive Health Outcomes: Evidence From Nepal, Samyukta Ghimire Jan 2019

Women's Empowerment And Its Impact On Reproductive Health Outcomes: Evidence From Nepal, Samyukta Ghimire

Masters Theses

The percentage of women utilizing maternal health care services in Nepal is relatively less than women in other South Asian countries. Moreover, large socio-economic and regional disparities have been the root causes for lower utilization of health care leading to increasing maternal mortality. Using a national representative sample of 9,475 women (2011) and 9,875 women (2016) from Nepal, I examine the impact of women empowerment in relation to prenatal care, place of delivery and postnatal care (3Ps) outcomes. A composite Women’s Empowerment Index (WEI) based upon responses is also constructed to include three empowerment domains namely, attitude ...


The Impact Of School Nutrition Education And Physical Education Programs On Weight Status Of Obese Children Aged 5-12 Years, Lamia Alotaibi Jan 2019

The Impact Of School Nutrition Education And Physical Education Programs On Weight Status Of Obese Children Aged 5-12 Years, Lamia Alotaibi

Masters Theses

Epidemiological studies indicate that 12.5 million children and adolescents are considered obese (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). Obesity is on the rise globally, and while it affects both children and adults, early measures can be taken to reduce the number of children who are obese, and therefore, come into adulthood at a higher risk for obesity-related diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and sleep apnea. There are many studies in which programs are implemented and tested for effectiveness; therefore, a systematic review of these studies that examine which factors play into overall obesity prevention and health improvements ...


Pokemon Go And Mental Health, Nathaniel Ed Jan 2019

Pokemon Go And Mental Health, Nathaniel Ed

Masters Theses

Pokémon GO is a new type of game that emphasizes physical activity and social interaction. In the literature, both physical activity and social interactions have been shown to be positively correlated with mental health. Much research has been conducted on the effects of gaming on mental health, but to date no research has been done on the possible correlations of the game Pokémon GO and mental health. The present study was conducted to determine whether Pokémon GO players scored significantly lower than a control group of traditional garners on scales of depression, anxiety, and pathological gaming, and if they reported ...


Is Tpmt Testing A Predictor Of Duration Of Use Or Long-Term Benefit Of Thiopurine Agents?, Shatoya R. Wilson Dec 2018

Is Tpmt Testing A Predictor Of Duration Of Use Or Long-Term Benefit Of Thiopurine Agents?, Shatoya R. Wilson

Masters Theses

Background: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) affects as many as 1.3 million Americans and includes both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Recent practices have moved towards using immunomodulators early in the course of disease to prevent disease progression. Patients have shown improved outcomes on immunomodulators compared to aminosalicylates, and reduced risk for tachyphylaxis compared to corticosteroid treatment. Thiopurine agents such as azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine are immunomodulators often used to treat IBD. Unfortunately, many patients experience cytotoxicity from thiopurine use. Recent studies have shown that patients deficient in thiopurine-S-methyltransferase (TMPT), produce an overabundance of the therapeutic end product ...


The Relationship Between Feeding Type And Temporomandibular Joint Morphology In Superfamily Musteloidea, Travis L. Garvin Dec 2018

The Relationship Between Feeding Type And Temporomandibular Joint Morphology In Superfamily Musteloidea, Travis L. Garvin

Masters Theses

Many studies have focused on the soft tissue analysis of carnivores and have demonstrated a relationship between feeding biomechanics and feeding types. Herbivores and omnivores rely heavily on anteroposterior and helical movement of the mandible and teeth for the breakdown of fibrous foods resulting in a flat mandibular fossa while the function of the carnivore TMJ is different, as they need a much stable joint for ripping and tearing of the flesh. I aim to look at whether the bony morphology of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can be directly related to feeding type, specifically in the superfamily Musteloidea. I sampled ...


Analysis Of Growth And Prevalence Of Malnutrition During Total Parenteral Nutrition Weaning: A Methodological Demonstration, Lauren Ashley Kane Dec 2018

Analysis Of Growth And Prevalence Of Malnutrition During Total Parenteral Nutrition Weaning: A Methodological Demonstration, Lauren Ashley Kane

Masters Theses

Background: Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) is a life-saving intervention which provides nutrition to premature infants with immature gut functioning. Though essential for nutrition provision in the first days of life, TPN is not without risk. Therefore, it is important to introduce feedings into the gut and to wean off TPN when able. During this weaning phase, calorie and protein deficits have been observed to occur. Very few studies have investigated TPN weaning periods, and there are no studies on malnutrition associated with the TPN weaning period in premature infants.

Methods: This study employed a retrospective chart review, with medical records ...


The Relationship Between Neuroticism, Self-Esteem, And Disordered Eating Attitudes: Examining The Health At Every Size Theory, Liana Cho Dec 2018

The Relationship Between Neuroticism, Self-Esteem, And Disordered Eating Attitudes: Examining The Health At Every Size Theory, Liana Cho

Masters Theses

Background. In the modern day treatment of overweight/obesity, conflicting recommendations regarding treatment have been released by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) and advocates of the Health at Every Size (HAES) movement. While the AND have indicated their support for self-monitoring practices, such as keeping a food diary or tracking calories, HAES advocates have claimed that these restrictive practices may result in increased disordered eating tendencies and poor self-esteem.

Subjects. The participants for this study included 410 students at Grand Valley State University. Almost 80% of participants were female, and just over 85% of participants identified as white ...


Evaluating The Toxicity And Formation Of Halobenzoquinones In Point-Of-Use Chlorinated Drinking Water, Stephanie Hung Oct 2018

Evaluating The Toxicity And Formation Of Halobenzoquinones In Point-Of-Use Chlorinated Drinking Water, Stephanie Hung

Masters Theses

Chlorine has effectively reduced the prevalence of waterborne diseases, however there are secondary consequences to this public health advancement. Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are chemicals formed when chlorine reacts with natural organic matter (NOM) in water. A new class of DBPs, halobenzoquinones (HBQs), has recently been identified and data suggests it could be potentially carcinogenic and up to 1000 times more toxic than some regulated DBPs. So far, in vitro studies have assessed HBQ toxicity without taking into account its transformation in cell media into potentially less toxic compounds. This study evaluated the toxic effects of one HBQ, 2,6-DCBQ, and ...


Real-Time Dengue Forecasting In Thailand: A Comparison Of Penalized Regression Approaches Using Internet Search Data, Caroline Kusiak Oct 2018

Real-Time Dengue Forecasting In Thailand: A Comparison Of Penalized Regression Approaches Using Internet Search Data, Caroline Kusiak

Masters Theses

Dengue fever affects over 390 million people annually worldwide and is of particu- lar concern in Southeast Asia where it is one of the leading causes of hospitalization. Modeling trends in dengue occurrence can provide valuable information to Public Health officials, however many challenges arise depending on the data available. In Thailand, reporting of dengue cases is often delayed by more than 6 weeks, and a small fraction of cases may not be reported until over 11 months after they occurred. This study shows that incorporating data on Google Search trends can improve dis- ease predictions in settings with severely ...


Clpxp-Regulated Proteins Suppress Requirement For Reca In Dam Mutants Of Escherichia Coli K-12, Amie Savakis Oct 2018

Clpxp-Regulated Proteins Suppress Requirement For Reca In Dam Mutants Of Escherichia Coli K-12, Amie Savakis

Masters Theses

Double strand breaks (DSB) are a common source of DNA damage in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. If they are not repaired or are repaired incorrectly, they can lead to cell death (bacteria) or cancer (humans). In Escherichia coli, repair of DSB are typically accomplished via homologous recombination and mediated by RecA. This repair pathway, among others, is associated with activation of the SOS response. DNA adenine methyltransferase (dam) mutants have an increased number of DSB and, therefore, are notorious for being RecA-dependent for viability. Here, we show that the synthetic lethality of Δdam/ΔrecA is suppressed when clpP is removed ...


Searching For The Fulcrum: Can Accountable Care Organizations Lower Spending By Balancing Specialists-To-Primary Care Providers?, Vishal Shetty Oct 2018

Searching For The Fulcrum: Can Accountable Care Organizations Lower Spending By Balancing Specialists-To-Primary Care Providers?, Vishal Shetty

Masters Theses

Background:

While value-based payment models emphasizing care coordination have been widely implemented to improve quality and lower expenditures, supporting empirical evidence is sparse. Our objective was to quantify the impact of specialist-to-primary care physician involvement within accountable care organization (ACO) and its association with lower spending.

Methods:

We conducted a retrospective cohort study of Medicare Shared Savings Program ACOs from 2012-2016 using publicly available data provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services at the ACO level. We examined the association between the proportion of primary care services delivered by specialists versus other types of care providers and ACO ...