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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Understanding Community Health Volunteer Incentive Preferences In Kenya, Frontline Health Project, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School Of Public Health Oct 2021

Understanding Community Health Volunteer Incentive Preferences In Kenya, Frontline Health Project, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School Of Public Health

Reproductive Health

In Kenya, community health services are implemented through community health units. Community health volunteers (CHVs) who serve these units are chosen by the community and trained by community health extension workers. This brief summarizes qualitative and quantitative findings from the Frontline Health project’s discrete choice experiment study in Kenya, which aimed to understand incentive preferences of CHVs with the aim of improving motivation, performance, and retention of CHVs.


Identifying Factors That Support Community Health Worker Motivation, Job Satisfaction, And Retention In Haiti, Frontline Health Project, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School Of Public Health Oct 2021

Identifying Factors That Support Community Health Worker Motivation, Job Satisfaction, And Retention In Haiti, Frontline Health Project, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School Of Public Health

Reproductive Health

Community health workers (CHWs) play a critical role in Haiti’s health system, by connecting communities—particularly rural and hard-to-reach populations—to healthcare services. The Frontline Health project conducted a study to better understand the types of incentive structures that can best support the CHWs in Haiti and this brief summarizes those findings.


Frontline Health Achievements In Harmonizing Measurement And Generating Evidence On Community Health System Performance, Frontline Health Project Oct 2021

Frontline Health Achievements In Harmonizing Measurement And Generating Evidence On Community Health System Performance, Frontline Health Project

Reproductive Health

As the global health community demonstrates an increasing commitment to investing in community health workers (CHWs) to achieve universal health coverage in lower- and middle-income countries, the need to effectively measure community health system performance is paramount. Embedded in the Integrating Community Health partnership (2017–2021), with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Population Council and Last Mile Health co-led the Frontline Health (FLH) project, a four-year research, policy, and advocacy initiative aimed at developing core metrics and CHW reform processes, advancing their adoption, and promoting institutionalization of robust community health policies. This brief describes the Population Council ...


Women's Perceptions On The Effects Of Covid-19 On Access And Use Of Private Sector Family Planning Services In Nigeria: The Integrate Project, The Integrate Project Aug 2021

Women's Perceptions On The Effects Of Covid-19 On Access And Use Of Private Sector Family Planning Services In Nigeria: The Integrate Project, The Integrate Project

Reproductive Health

In Nigeria, Community Pharmacists (CPs) and Patent and Proprietary Medicine Vendors (PPMVs) are the first point of care for many common illnesses. Although CPs and PPMVs are not formally recognized as family planning (FP) service providers, 22% of modern contraceptive users report receiving their last method from a PPMV and 12% from a private pharmacy. PPMVs are popular for FP because of their widespread availability, consistent drug stocks, extended hours, personable interactions, and lack of separate fees for consultations. As in many places, the COVID-19 pandemic poses unprecedented challenges to health services in Nigeria. By limiting person-to-person contact, especially during ...


Integrate Project Results: Family Planning Knowledge And Quality Of Care Received From Community Pharmacists And Patent And Proprietary Medicine Vendors, The Integrate Project Aug 2021

Integrate Project Results: Family Planning Knowledge And Quality Of Care Received From Community Pharmacists And Patent And Proprietary Medicine Vendors, The Integrate Project

Reproductive Health

In Nigeria, Community Pharmacists (CPs) and Patent and Proprietary Medicine Vendors (PPMVs) are the first point of care for many common illnesses. Although CPs and PPMVs are not formally recognized as family planning (FP) service providers, 22% of modern contraceptive users report receiving their last method from a PPMV and 12% from a private pharmacy. PPMVs are popular for FP because of their widespread availability, consistent drug stocks, extended hours, personable interactions, and lack of separate fees for consultations. As the Federal Ministry of Health explores expanding its task sharing policy to include CPs and PPMVs, evidence is needed on ...


More Than Brides Alliance—Marriage: No Child’S Play, Endline Evaluation Brief, Population Council Jul 2021

More Than Brides Alliance—Marriage: No Child’S Play, Endline Evaluation Brief, Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This brief summarizes key results from the endline evaluation of the More than Brides Alliance (MTBA) project “Marriage: No Child’s Play” (MNCP) in India, Malawi, Mali, and Niger. The MTBA consists of partners Save the Children Netherlands, Simavi, Oxfam Novib, and the Population Council, along with 25 local implementing partners. The MNCP project—which took place from 2016 to 2020—aimed at being holistic and targeting pathways to child marriage on multiple levels simultaneously, treating communities as either having the full MNCP package or no intervention. The Population Council’s MNCP evaluation was designed to estimate program impact and ...


Using Social Listening To Inform Integrated Social And Behavior Change Programs In Burkina Faso, Nrupa Jani, Leanne Dougherty, Martha Silva Jul 2021

Using Social Listening To Inform Integrated Social And Behavior Change Programs In Burkina Faso, Nrupa Jani, Leanne Dougherty, Martha Silva

Reproductive Health

No abstract provided.


Health And Ideations Of Married Female Adolescents, Breakthrough Research Jul 2021

Health And Ideations Of Married Female Adolescents, Breakthrough Research

Reproductive Health

This brief provides rigorous evidence-based insights to implementers and researchers of social and behavior change (SBC) programs that seek to improve knowledge, attitudes, norms, and behaviors of married female adolescents. The brief focuses on married adolescents’ uptake of services and health knowledge in Kebbi, Sokoto, and Zamfara states in northwestern Nigeria using a subset of data from a household survey of married women ages 15–49 years. It is one of a series of briefs that present findings from a Breakthrough RESEARCH study that uniquely captures data on a wide range of psychosocial drivers of behavioral outcomes in the areas ...


Preferred Incentives For Improving Community Health Worker Satisfaction And Retention In Bangladesh, Frontline Health Project, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School Of Public Health Jul 2021

Preferred Incentives For Improving Community Health Worker Satisfaction And Retention In Bangladesh, Frontline Health Project, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School Of Public Health

Reproductive Health

Community health workers (CHWs) are critical actors within community health systems, providing a range of reproductive, maternal, child, and primary health information, counseling, and services. To better understand factors that influence CHWs’ work motivation and satisfaction in Bangladesh, the Frontline Health project, implemented with collaborators from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and supported by the government of Bangladesh’s Directorate General of Health Services and the Directorate General of Family Planning, conducted a discrete choice experiment (DCE) study. This brief presents key qualitative findings from the DCE study in Bangladesh and implications for program and policy stakeholders.


Effectiveness Of Interventions Designed To Prevent Or Respond To Female Genital Mutilation: Evidence Brief, Dennis Matanda, Melanie Croce-Galis, Jill Gay, Karen Hardee Jun 2021

Effectiveness Of Interventions Designed To Prevent Or Respond To Female Genital Mutilation: Evidence Brief, Dennis Matanda, Melanie Croce-Galis, Jill Gay, Karen Hardee

Reproductive Health

Despite intensified efforts to conduct research globally that informs strategies to address female genital mutilation (FGM), there has been limited rigorous high-quality evidence on interventions that are effective in ending the practice. As we begin the final decade of acceleration toward zero new cases of FGM by 2030, increasing the rigor, relevance, and utility of research for programming, policy development, and resource allocation is critical. This brief highlights key findings from an evidence review that synthesized and assessed the quality and strength of existing evidence on FGM interventions from 2008 to 2020. A number of studies have collated evidence on ...


Effectiveness Of Interventions Designed To Prevent Or Respond To Female Genital Mutilation: A Review Of Evidence, Dennis Matanda, Melanie Croce-Galis, Jill Gay, Karen Hardee Jun 2021

Effectiveness Of Interventions Designed To Prevent Or Respond To Female Genital Mutilation: A Review Of Evidence, Dennis Matanda, Melanie Croce-Galis, Jill Gay, Karen Hardee

Reproductive Health

Girls are one-third less likely to be subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM) today than 30 years ago. However, rapid population growth in some of the world’s poorest countries, where FGM persists, threatens to roll back progress. In 2020 alone, an estimated 4.1 million girls were at risk of being subjected to FGM. Without concerted and accelerated actions to end the practice, an estimated 68 million additional girls will have been subjected to FGM by 2030. Despite intensified global research efforts to inform strategies to address FGM, there has been little synergy between evidence generation and the implementation ...


Inclusion Of Family Planning Within The National Health Insurance Benefits Package In Ghana: A Health Facility Assessment, Population Council, Ministry Of Health, Ghana Health Service, National Health Insurance Authority, Marie Stopes International Ghana Jun 2021

Inclusion Of Family Planning Within The National Health Insurance Benefits Package In Ghana: A Health Facility Assessment, Population Council, Ministry Of Health, Ghana Health Service, National Health Insurance Authority, Marie Stopes International Ghana

Reproductive Health

In Ghana, National Health Insurance Act 852 of 2012 ensures that health-care benefits include family planning (FP) services, however people continue to pay for FP services because the policy is yet to be implemented in practice. Under the leadership of the Ministry of Health, the National Health Insurance Authority in collaboration with the Ghana Health Service, Marie Stopes International-Ghana and the Population Council implemented a pilot project to remove FP service out-of-pocket costs. All modern clinical FP methods were added to national health insurance and expensed by health facilities through the national health insurance claims process. The intervention significantly increased ...


Issues For Consideration In The Scale-Up Of The Inclusion Of Family Planning In The National Health Insurance Benefits Package In Ghana, Kamil Fuseini, Augustine Ankomah Jun 2021

Issues For Consideration In The Scale-Up Of The Inclusion Of Family Planning In The National Health Insurance Benefits Package In Ghana, Kamil Fuseini, Augustine Ankomah

Reproductive Health

Ghana is working toward achieving universal health coverage (UHC). This is driven, in part, by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), specifically SDG 3—Good Health and Well-Being, which seeks to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. Achieving this feat will improve equity of access as people, especially the poor can access quality health services without financial hardships. Ensuring equitable access to family planning (FP) is essential to securing the well-being of women and supporting the health and development of communities. One pathway to ensuring equity is the inclusion of FP in affordable insurance. While the ...


Chipatala Cha Pa Foni, Malawi's 'Health Center By Phone,' Improving Information Given About Pregnancy-Related Symptoms, Breakthrough Research, Villagereach May 2021

Chipatala Cha Pa Foni, Malawi's 'Health Center By Phone,' Improving Information Given About Pregnancy-Related Symptoms, Breakthrough Research, Villagereach

Reproductive Health

The Health Center by Phone, or "Chipatala cha pa Foni" (CCPF), was developed by Malawi’s Ministry of Health and VillageReach as a community-based hotline in the Balaka district of Malawi. CCPF was identified as an existing national health strategy with potential for providing Malawi’s women and their families important postpartum hemorrhage information. Because CCPF archives de-identified audio recordings of all calls, 28 telephone transcripts were qualitatively examined to assess whether women experiencing pregnancy-related complications such as postpartum bleeding call CCPF, and how hotline workers respond to them.


Diet Diversity Among Pregnant Women And Young Children—Insights For Improving Malaria, Family Planning, And Maternal And Child Health Outcomes In Northwestern Nigeria Through Social And Behavior Change Programming, Breakthrough Research May 2021

Diet Diversity Among Pregnant Women And Young Children—Insights For Improving Malaria, Family Planning, And Maternal And Child Health Outcomes In Northwestern Nigeria Through Social And Behavior Change Programming, Breakthrough Research

Reproductive Health

This research brief provides rigorous, evidence-based insights to policy-makers, implementers, and researchers of social and behavior change (SBC) programs on maternal and child nutrition during the 1,000-day period between a woman’s pregnancy and her child’s second birthday. It is one of a series of briefs presenting findings from a Breakthrough RESEARCH study that uniquely captures data on a wide range of psychosocial drivers of behavioral outcomes in family planning, malaria, and maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition (MNCH+N) in the three northwestern states of Nigeria.


Approaches To Research Utilization And Capacity Strengthening, Project Soar Apr 2021

Approaches To Research Utilization And Capacity Strengthening, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

Research plays a critical role in strengthening programming and policymaking. Donors and other stakeholders are increasingly focused on ensuring that their research investments yield positive health and development outcomes. Yet, there are many challenges in ensuring study findings are used by relevant decisionmakers to inform policies and programs. Recognizing the need to invest in research uptake efforts beyond dissemination of final findings, Project SOAR utilized an active approach to facilitating research utilization (RU) to fulfil the commitment of implementation science to promote the systematic uptake of research finding into routine practice. Project SOAR assembled and implemented a systematic and proactive ...


Improving Patient Outcomes Through Innovative, Community-Based Hiv Treatment Strategies, Project Soar Apr 2021

Improving Patient Outcomes Through Innovative, Community-Based Hiv Treatment Strategies, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

Despite the availability of life-saving treatment for HIV, several barriers prevent patient access to high-quality services. HIV program managers and policymakers have shown increasing interest in understanding how best to deliver HIV treatment to different populations and maximize health-system resources at facility and community levels. Project SOAR recognizes the key role that treatment services play in achieving UNAIDS’ 90-90-90 goals for controlling the HIV epidemic through testing, treatment, and viral suppression by 2020. Project SOAR has contributed to the evidence base and catalyzed research use by assessing innovative strategies for antiretroviral treatment (ART) delivery that support different populations in remaining ...


Optimizing Delivery Of Hiv Testing Services To Strengthen The Continuum Of Care, Project Soar Apr 2021

Optimizing Delivery Of Hiv Testing Services To Strengthen The Continuum Of Care, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

HIV testing is a critical entry point to life-saving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for those diagnosed with HIV and to prevention services for those at high risk of acquiring HIV. Despite advances in testing, there remain a variety of social and programmatic challenges that prevent access to HIV testing services, particularly for men and key populations. HIV program managers and policymakers are increasingly invested in understanding how best to deliver HIV testing services to different populations and to maximize health system resources at facility and community levels. Project SOAR has contributed to the evidence base and catalyzed research use by examining ...


Improving Data Access And Use For Hiv Biomedical Prevention Interventions, Project Soar Apr 2021

Improving Data Access And Use For Hiv Biomedical Prevention Interventions, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

Over the past decade, biomedical prevention interventions—including voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)—have resulted in substantial gains in controlling the global HIV epidemic. Despite the inclusion of these highly effective interventions in multinational strategies and global prevention toolkits, their effective implementation rests upon context-specific, data-driven delivery to priority populations and geographies. Project SOAR has contributed to the evidence base by increasing access to and use of data through user-friendly interfaces and dissemination strategies, advancing VMMC and PrEP as vital prevention interventions in the global discourse. SOAR’s biomedical prevention portfolio has supported data-driven planning ...


Advances In Conceptualizing And Measuring Stigma Among People Living With Hiv, Project Soar Apr 2021

Advances In Conceptualizing And Measuring Stigma Among People Living With Hiv, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

Stigma, defined as the co-occurrence of labeling, stereotyping, separation, status loss, and discrimination in a context in which power is exercised, has a negative impact on the health of people living with HIV (PLHIV), contributing to psychosocial stress, coercion and violence, job loss, and social exclusion. Widely recognized as a barrier to accessing HIV care, it is paramount that programs and policies are designed to mitigate HIV-related stigma to achieve the UNAIDS’ 90-90-90 goals. Project SOAR recognizes the importance of addressing stigma to control the HIV epidemic through testing, treatment, and viral suppression. Project SOAR has contributed to the evidence ...


Exploring Community Health Worker Roles, Support, And Experiences In The Context Of The Covid-19 Pandemic In Kenya, Frontline Health Project Apr 2021

Exploring Community Health Worker Roles, Support, And Experiences In The Context Of The Covid-19 Pandemic In Kenya, Frontline Health Project

Reproductive Health

This brief presents quantitative results from a mixed-methods study conducted by Population Council Kenya which explores the experiences and roles of community health workers (CHWs) during COVID-19. The results indicate that CHWs are carrying out their routine work at higher levels, with increased responsibilities due to COVID-19.


Advancements In Postpartum Hemorrhage Care (Apphc): Overview Of Portfolio Development And Research Studies In Madagascar, Breakthrough Research, Usaid's Health Evaluation And Applied Research Development Feb 2021

Advancements In Postpartum Hemorrhage Care (Apphc): Overview Of Portfolio Development And Research Studies In Madagascar, Breakthrough Research, Usaid's Health Evaluation And Applied Research Development

Reproductive Health

Advancements in Postpartum Hemorrhage Care (APPHC) is a catalytic investment by USAID in Malawi and Madagascar to accelerate reductions in maternal deaths. This program brief presents APPHC’s portfolio of research activities in Madagascar.


Advancements In Postpartum Hemorrhage Care (Apphc): Overview Of Portfolio Development And Research Studies In Malawi, Breakthrough Research, Usaid's Health Evaluation And Applied Research Development Feb 2021

Advancements In Postpartum Hemorrhage Care (Apphc): Overview Of Portfolio Development And Research Studies In Malawi, Breakthrough Research, Usaid's Health Evaluation And Applied Research Development

Reproductive Health

Advancements in Postpartum Hemorrhage Care (APPHC) is a catalytic investment by USAID to accelerate reductions in maternal deaths in Madagascar and Malawi. This brief outlines the portfolio of research activities in Malawi.


Costing Social And Behavior Change Programming: The Role Of The Denominator, Breakthrough Research Feb 2021

Costing Social And Behavior Change Programming: The Role Of The Denominator, Breakthrough Research

Reproductive Health

This is the first in a series of brief reports intended to complement Breakthrough RESEARCH's Costing Guidelines and support a social and behavior change community of practice by discussing important issues and practices for social and behavior change costing. Breakthrough RESEARCH is gathering, analyzing, and sharing evidence on the costs and impact of social and behavior change interventions to support social and behavior change investments, which are crucial for improving health and advancing development. A review of costing literature identified 147 studies on social and behavior change costs, methodological shortcomings, and knowledge gaps that can be addressed in new ...


Advancing Postpartum Hemorrhage Care (Apphc): Partnership Approach And Portfolio Overview, Breakthrough Research, Usaid's Health Evaluation And Applied Research Development Feb 2021

Advancing Postpartum Hemorrhage Care (Apphc): Partnership Approach And Portfolio Overview, Breakthrough Research, Usaid's Health Evaluation And Applied Research Development

Reproductive Health

USAID has reinforced its longstanding efforts to accelerate reductions in maternal deaths with a catalytic investment in Malawi and Madagascar, Advancing Postpartum Hemorrhage Care (APPHC). This brief presents APPHC investment partnership, its approach, and expected results. The APPHC Partnership’s agenda and portfolio intensify the two major health system bilateral projects funded by USAID: Organized Network of Services for Everyone (ONSE) in Malawi and Accessible Continuum of Care and Essential Services Sustained (ACCESS) in Madagascar. These large implementation investments, with existing collaborations with ministries of Health and other key figures, offer optimal opportunities for embedding APPHC activities. The APPHC Partnership ...


Considerations And Guidance For Using Routine And Program Monitoring Data For Social And Behavior Change Evaluation, Breakthrough Research Feb 2021

Considerations And Guidance For Using Routine And Program Monitoring Data For Social And Behavior Change Evaluation, Breakthrough Research

Reproductive Health

This brief is intended for global, regional, and national social and behavior change program implementers, evaluators, and monitoring and evaluation teams who want to document their program impacts through routinely collected data. Use of routine and program monitoring data for evaluation presents many opportunities for evaluating program impacts on priority health outcomes, with advantages that include their greater frequency, broader geographic range, longer duration, and lower cost of acquisition. Routine and program monitoring data may not be under direct control of evaluators and thus may not always be appropriate for evaluation. Careful consideration of the appropriateness of routine data for ...


Integrating Depression Management Into Hiv Care In Lilongwe, Malawi: Feasibility And Impact, Brian Wells Pence, Michael Udedi, Kazione Kulisewa, Mina C. Hosseinipour, Steven M. Mphonda, Melissa A. Stockton, Bradley N. Gaynes Feb 2021

Integrating Depression Management Into Hiv Care In Lilongwe, Malawi: Feasibility And Impact, Brian Wells Pence, Michael Udedi, Kazione Kulisewa, Mina C. Hosseinipour, Steven M. Mphonda, Melissa A. Stockton, Bradley N. Gaynes

HIV and AIDS

In Malawi, as in other sub-Saharan countries, mental health care infrastructure and resources are limited. Accordingly, there is a clear need to shift the provision of mental health treatment to the primary care level. The Malawi Ministry of Health, in partnership with UNC Project-Malawi, designed a program that would integrate depression screening and management into HIV care at two public HIV clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. The purpose of this study, conducted under Project SOAR, was to evaluate the implementation of this program and its impact on HIV and mental health outcomes.


Application Of The Breakthrough Research Social And Behavior Change Costing Guidelines To The Rise Ii Project In Niger, Nicole M. Bellows, Lori Bollinger, Rudolph Chandler Feb 2021

Application Of The Breakthrough Research Social And Behavior Change Costing Guidelines To The Rise Ii Project In Niger, Nicole M. Bellows, Lori Bollinger, Rudolph Chandler

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Breakthrough RESEARCH drafted its Guidelines for Costing Social and Behavior Change Health Interventions, in consultation with affiliate Breakthrough ACTION and other programmers, to promote quality social and behavior change program costing studies for a range of uses including budgeting, planning, economic evaluation, and advocacy. In March 2020, Breakthrough RESEARCH began applying the Guidelines to the Resilience in the Sahel (RISE) II program in Niger for a cost-effectiveness analysis through 2022. This report shares findings from application of the Breakthrough Costing Guidelines and provides an example and guidance for social and behavior change researchers and implementers on how these guidelines can ...


Project Yes! Youth Engaging For Success: A Randomized Controlled Trial Testing A Peer Mentoring Approach Among Hiv-Positive Adolescents And Young Adults In Ndola, Zambia, Julie Denison, Virginia M. Burke, Sam Miti, Bareng A.S. Nonyane, Christiana Frimpong, Katherine G. Merrill, Elizabeth A. Abrams, Jonathan Kaunda Mwansa Feb 2021

Project Yes! Youth Engaging For Success: A Randomized Controlled Trial Testing A Peer Mentoring Approach Among Hiv-Positive Adolescents And Young Adults In Ndola, Zambia, Julie Denison, Virginia M. Burke, Sam Miti, Bareng A.S. Nonyane, Christiana Frimpong, Katherine G. Merrill, Elizabeth A. Abrams, Jonathan Kaunda Mwansa

HIV and AIDS

This research addresses the gaps in knowledge about how to best support adolescents and young adults transitioning to HIV self-management in the context of both child-focused and adult-focused HIV care settings. Johns Hopkins University, in partnership with the Arthur Davison Children’s Hospital, implemented this study through the USAID-funded Project SOAR (led by the Population Council).


Findings From The Merci Mon Héros Social Listening Endline Report, Breakthrough Research Jan 2021

Findings From The Merci Mon Héros Social Listening Endline Report, Breakthrough Research

Reproductive Health

No abstract provided.