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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Implementation Of The Cognitive Apprenticeship Model For Enhancement Of Advanced Searching Skills In A Pharmacy Academia Rotation: Appendices 1-4, Hilary Jasmin Msis, Kenneth Hohmeier Pharmd, Christina Spivey Pharmd, Phd Apr 2021

Implementation Of The Cognitive Apprenticeship Model For Enhancement Of Advanced Searching Skills In A Pharmacy Academia Rotation: Appendices 1-4, Hilary Jasmin Msis, Kenneth Hohmeier Pharmd, Christina Spivey Pharmd, Phd

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Facility Attractiveness And Social Vulnerability Impacts On Spatial Accessibility To Opioid Treatment Programs In South Carolina, Parisa Bozorgi, Jan M. Eberth, Jeannie P. Eidson, Dwayne E. Porter Apr 2021

Facility Attractiveness And Social Vulnerability Impacts On Spatial Accessibility To Opioid Treatment Programs In South Carolina, Parisa Bozorgi, Jan M. Eberth, Jeannie P. Eidson, Dwayne E. Porter

Faculty Publications

Opioid dependence and opioid-related mortality have been increasing in recent years in the United States. Available and accessible treatments may result in a reduction of opioid-related mortality. This work describes the geographic variation of spatial accessibility to opioid treatment programs (OTPs) and identifies areas with poor access to care in South Carolina. The study develops a new index of access that builds on the two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method, and has three dimensions: a facility attractiveness index, defined by services rendered incorporated into the Huff Model; a facility catchment area, defined as a function of facility attractiveness to account ...


Implications Of The Quantum Dna Model For Information Sciences, F. Matthew Mihelic Apr 2021

Implications Of The Quantum Dna Model For Information Sciences, F. Matthew Mihelic

Faculty Publications

The DNA molecule can be modeled as a quantum logic processor, and this model has been supported by pilot research that experimentally demonstrated non-local communication between cells in separated cell cultures. This modeling and pilot research have important implications for information sciences, providing a potential architecture for quantum computing that operates at room temperature and is scalable to millions of qubits, and including the potential for an entanglement communication system based upon the quantum DNA architecture. Such a system could be used to provide non-local quantum key distribution that could not be blocked by any shielding or water depth, would ...


Magnetic Vector Potential Manipulation Of Majorana Fermions In Dna Quantum Logic, F. Matthew Mihelic Apr 2021

Magnetic Vector Potential Manipulation Of Majorana Fermions In Dna Quantum Logic, F. Matthew Mihelic

Faculty Publications

In the quantum logic of the DNA molecule, electrons are held and conducted coherently as spinless Cooper pairs and are shielded from electromagnetic energy by a Faraday cage effect of the double lipid bilayer of the nuclear membrane. The magnetic vector potential generated by cellular depolarization can synchronize logical activity in portions of the DNA molecule by affecting spin directions of appropriately oriented spinless electrons via the Aharonov-Bohm effect, but is not blocked by that Faraday cage effect. Within the logically and thermodynamically reversible chiral enantiomeric symmetry of the deoxyribose moieties the decoherent transition of Cooper pair to Dirac pair ...


A Framework For Estimating The United States Depression Burden Attributable To Indoor Fine Particulate Matter Exposure, William L. Taylor, Steven J. Schuldt, Justin D. Delorit, Christopher M. Chini, Teodor T. Postolache, Christopher A. Lowry, Lisa A. Brenner, Andrew J. Hoisington Feb 2021

A Framework For Estimating The United States Depression Burden Attributable To Indoor Fine Particulate Matter Exposure, William L. Taylor, Steven J. Schuldt, Justin D. Delorit, Christopher M. Chini, Teodor T. Postolache, Christopher A. Lowry, Lisa A. Brenner, Andrew J. Hoisington

Faculty Publications

Recently published exploratory studies based on exposure to outdoor fine particulates, defined as particles with a nominal mean diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) indicate that the pollutant may play a role in mental health conditions, such as major depressive disorder. This paper details a model that can estimate the United States (US) major depressive disorder burden attributable to indoor PM2.5 exposure, locally modifiable through input parameter calibrations. By utilizing concentration values in an exposure-response function, along with relative risk values derived from epidemiological studies, the model estimated the prevalence of expected ...


Propranolol Sensitizes Vascular Sarcoma Cells To Doxorubicin By Altering Lysosomal Drug Sequestration And Drug Efflux, Jhuma Saha, Jong Hyuk Kim, Clarissa N. Amaya, Caleb M. Witcher, Ali Khammanivong, Derek M. Korpela, David R. Brown, Josephine Taylor, Brad A. Bryan, Erin B. Dickerson Jan 2021

Propranolol Sensitizes Vascular Sarcoma Cells To Doxorubicin By Altering Lysosomal Drug Sequestration And Drug Efflux, Jhuma Saha, Jong Hyuk Kim, Clarissa N. Amaya, Caleb M. Witcher, Ali Khammanivong, Derek M. Korpela, David R. Brown, Josephine Taylor, Brad A. Bryan, Erin B. Dickerson

Faculty Publications

Angiosarcoma is a rare cancer of blood vessel–forming cells with a high patient mortality and few treatment options. Although chemotherapy often produces initial clinical responses, outcomes remain poor, largely due to the development of drug resistance. We previously identified a subset of doxorubicin-resistant cells in human angiosarcoma and canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines that exhibit high lysosomal accumulation of doxorubicin. Hydrophobic, weak base chemotherapeutics, like doxorubicin, are known to sequester within lysosomes, promoting resistance by limiting drug accessibility to cellular targets. Drug synergy between the beta adrenergic receptor (β-AR) antagonist, propranolol, and multiple chemotherapeutics has been documented in vitro, and ...


Effects Of Moderate Sleep Restriction During 8-Week Calorie Restriction On Lipoprotein Particles And Glucose Metabolism, Joshua R. Sparks, Ryan R. Porter, Shawn D. Youngstedt, Kimberly P. Bowyer, J. Larry Durstine, Xuewen Wang Jan 2021

Effects Of Moderate Sleep Restriction During 8-Week Calorie Restriction On Lipoprotein Particles And Glucose Metabolism, Joshua R. Sparks, Ryan R. Porter, Shawn D. Youngstedt, Kimberly P. Bowyer, J. Larry Durstine, Xuewen Wang

Faculty Publications

Study Objectives

This study examined how glucose, glucose regulatory hormones, insulin sensitivity, and lipoprotein subclass particle concentrations and sizes change with sleep restriction during weight loss elicited by calorie restriction.

Methods

Overweight or obese adults were randomized into an 8-week calorie restriction intervention alone (CR, n = 12; 75% female; body mass index = 31.4 ± 2.9 kg/m2) or combined with sleep restriction (CR+SR, n = 16; 75% female; body mass index = 34.5 ± 3.1 kg/m2). Participants in both groups were given the same instructions to reduce calorie intake. Those in the CR+SR group were instructed to ...


文理人 (Wenliren: Humanities, Science, Human), Lui Lam Jan 2021

文理人 (Wenliren: Humanities, Science, Human), Lui Lam

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Acute Effects Of 5 Fluorouracil On Skeletal Muscle Resident And Infiltrating Immune Cells In Mice, Brandon N. Vanderveen, Alexander T. Sougiannis, Kandy T. Velazquez, James A. Carson, Daping Fan, E. Angela Murphy Dec 2020

The Acute Effects Of 5 Fluorouracil On Skeletal Muscle Resident And Infiltrating Immune Cells In Mice, Brandon N. Vanderveen, Alexander T. Sougiannis, Kandy T. Velazquez, James A. Carson, Daping Fan, E. Angela Murphy

Faculty Publications

5 fluorouracil (5FU) has been a first-choice chemotherapy drug for several cancer types (e.g., colon, breast, head, and neck); however, its efficacy is diminished by patient acquired resistance and pervasive side effects. Leukopenia is a hallmark of 5FU; however, the impact of 5FU-induced leukopenia on healthy tissue is only becoming unearthed. Recently, skeletal muscle has been shown to be impacted by 5FU in clinical and preclinical settings and weakness and fatigue remain among the most consistent complaints in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Monocytes, or more specifically macrophages, are the predominate immune cell in skeletal muscle which regulate turnover and ...


Parkindex: Validation And Application Of A Pragmatic Measure Of Park Access And Use, Andrew T. Kaczynski, S. Morgan Hughey, Ellen W. Stowe, Marilyn E. Wende, J. Aaron Hipp, Elizabeth L. Oliphant, Jasper Schipperijn Dec 2020

Parkindex: Validation And Application Of A Pragmatic Measure Of Park Access And Use, Andrew T. Kaczynski, S. Morgan Hughey, Ellen W. Stowe, Marilyn E. Wende, J. Aaron Hipp, Elizabeth L. Oliphant, Jasper Schipperijn

Faculty Publications

Composite metrics integrating park availability, features, and quality for a given address or neighborhood are lacking. The purposes of this study were to describe the validation, application, and demonstration of ParkIndex in four diverse communities. This study occurred in Fall 2018 in 128 census block groups within Seattle(WA), Brooklyn(NY), Raleigh(NC), and Greenville County(SC). All parks within a half-mile buffer were audited to calculate a composite park quality score, and select households provided data about use of proximal parks via an online, map-based survey. For each household, the number of parks, total park acreage, and average park ...


Locked, Loaded, And Ready For School: The Association Of Safety Concerns With Weapon-Carrying Behavior Among Adolescents In The United States, Soumyadeep Mukherjee, Ziyad Ben Taleb, Philip Baiden Nov 2020

Locked, Loaded, And Ready For School: The Association Of Safety Concerns With Weapon-Carrying Behavior Among Adolescents In The United States, Soumyadeep Mukherjee, Ziyad Ben Taleb, Philip Baiden

Faculty Publications

There is limited, if any, prior research exploring the potential link between adolescents’ safety concerns and their predisposition to possess weapons has been limited. This study aimed to examine the relationship between high school students’ perceived lack of safety and their weapons carrying behavior in a multiyear nationally representative sample of high school students. Information on self-reported weapons carrying in past month and gun carrying in past year, perceived lack of safety at school or during commute, being bullied and/or threatened, involvement in physical fights, and demographic characteristics were retrieved from Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey data for 1991-2017 ...


Potential Link Between Compromised Air Quality And Transmission Of The Novel Corona Virus (Sars-Cov-2) In Affected Areas, M. G. Manoj, M. K. Satheesh Kumar, K. T. Valsaraj, C. Sivan, Soumya K. Vijayan Nov 2020

Potential Link Between Compromised Air Quality And Transmission Of The Novel Corona Virus (Sars-Cov-2) In Affected Areas, M. G. Manoj, M. K. Satheesh Kumar, K. T. Valsaraj, C. Sivan, Soumya K. Vijayan

Faculty Publications

The emergence of a novel human corona virus disease (COVID-19) has been declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. One of the mechanisms of airborne transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) amid humans is through direct ejection of droplets via sneezing, coughing and vocalizing. Nevertheless, there are ample evidences of the persistence of infectious viruses on inanimate surfaces for several hours to a few days. Through a critical review of the current literature and a preliminary analysis of the link between SARS-CoV-2 transmission and air pollution in the affected regions, we offer a perspective ...


Impact Of Mass Distribution Of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (Llins) In Mozambique, 2011 To 2025: Retrospective And Prospective Modelling Of Child Mortality And Lives Saved, Erica Wetzler, Jorge A. H. Arroz, Chulwoo Park, Marta Chande, Figueiredo Mussambala Nov 2020

Impact Of Mass Distribution Of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (Llins) In Mozambique, 2011 To 2025: Retrospective And Prospective Modelling Of Child Mortality And Lives Saved, Erica Wetzler, Jorge A. H. Arroz, Chulwoo Park, Marta Chande, Figueiredo Mussambala

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Parental Concerns And Uptake Of Childhood Vaccines In Rural Tanzania – A Mixed Methods Study, Lavanya Vasudevan, Joy Noel Baumgartner, Sara Moses, Esther Ngadaya, Sayoki Godfrey Mfinanga, Jan Ostermann Oct 2020

Parental Concerns And Uptake Of Childhood Vaccines In Rural Tanzania – A Mixed Methods Study, Lavanya Vasudevan, Joy Noel Baumgartner, Sara Moses, Esther Ngadaya, Sayoki Godfrey Mfinanga, Jan Ostermann

Faculty Publications

Background

Vaccine hesitancy has been recognized as an important barrier to timely vaccinations around the world, including in sub-Saharan Africa. In Tanzania, 1 in 4 children is not fully vaccinated. The objective of this mixed methods study was to describe and contextualize parental concerns towards vaccines in Tanzania.

Methods

Between 2016 and 2017, we conducted a cross-sectional survey (n = 134) and four focus group discussions (FGDs, n = 38) with mothers of children under 2 years of age residing in Mtwara region in Southern Tanzania. The survey and FGDs assessed vaccination knowledge and concerns and barriers to timely vaccinations. Vaccination information ...


Evaluation Of An Immunomodulatory Probiotic Intervention For Veterans With Co-Occurring Mild Traumatic Brain Injury And Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Pilot Study, Lisa A. Brenner, Jeri E. Forster, Kelly A. Stearns-Yoder, Christopher E. Stamper, Andrew J. Hoisington, Diana P. Brostow, Merideth Mealer, Hal S. Wortzel, Teodor T. Postolache, Christopher A. Lowry Oct 2020

Evaluation Of An Immunomodulatory Probiotic Intervention For Veterans With Co-Occurring Mild Traumatic Brain Injury And Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Pilot Study, Lisa A. Brenner, Jeri E. Forster, Kelly A. Stearns-Yoder, Christopher E. Stamper, Andrew J. Hoisington, Diana P. Brostow, Merideth Mealer, Hal S. Wortzel, Teodor T. Postolache, Christopher A. Lowry

Faculty Publications

Background: US military Veterans returned from Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) with symptoms associated with mild traumatic brain injury [mTBI; i.e., persistent post-concussive (PPC) symptoms] and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Interventions aimed at addressing symptoms associated with both physical and psychological stressors (e.g., PPC and PTSD symptoms) are needed. This study was conducted to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and safety of a probiotic intervention, as well as to begin the process of evaluating potential biological outcomes.


Framework For A Community Health Observing System For The Gulf Of Mexico Region: Preparing For Future Disasters, Paul Sandifer, Landon Knapp, Maureen Lichtveld, Ruth Manley, David Abramson, Rex Caffey, David Cochran, Tracy Collier, Kristie Ebi, Lawrence Engel, John Farrington, Melissa Finucane, Christine Hale, David Halpern, Emily Harville, Leslie Hart, Yulin Hswen, Barbara Kirkpatrick, Bruce Mcewen, Glenn Morris, Raymond Orbach, Lawrence Palinkas, Melissa Partyka, Dwayne Porter, Aric A. Prather, Teresa Rowles, Geoffrey Scott, Teresa Seeman, Helena Solo-Gabriele, Erik Svendsen, Terry Tincher, Juli Trtanj, Ann Hayward Walker Oct 2020

Framework For A Community Health Observing System For The Gulf Of Mexico Region: Preparing For Future Disasters, Paul Sandifer, Landon Knapp, Maureen Lichtveld, Ruth Manley, David Abramson, Rex Caffey, David Cochran, Tracy Collier, Kristie Ebi, Lawrence Engel, John Farrington, Melissa Finucane, Christine Hale, David Halpern, Emily Harville, Leslie Hart, Yulin Hswen, Barbara Kirkpatrick, Bruce Mcewen, Glenn Morris, Raymond Orbach, Lawrence Palinkas, Melissa Partyka, Dwayne Porter, Aric A. Prather, Teresa Rowles, Geoffrey Scott, Teresa Seeman, Helena Solo-Gabriele, Erik Svendsen, Terry Tincher, Juli Trtanj, Ann Hayward Walker

Faculty Publications

© Copyright © 2020 Sandifer, Knapp, Lichtveld, Manley, Abramson, Caffey, Cochran, Collier, Ebi, Engel, Farrington, Finucane, Hale, Halpern, Harville, Hart, Hswen, Kirkpatrick, McEwen, Morris, Orbach, Palinkas, Partyka, Porter, Prather, Rowles, Scott, Seeman, Solo-Gabriele, Svendsen, Tincher, Trtanj, Walker, Yehuda, Yip, Yoskowitz and Singer. The Gulf of Mexico (GoM) region is prone to disasters, including recurrent oil spills, hurricanes, floods, industrial accidents, harmful algal blooms, and the current COVID-19 pandemic. The GoM and other regions of the U.S. lack sufficient baseline health information to identify, attribute, mitigate, and facilitate prevention of major health effects of disasters. Developing capacity to assess adverse human health ...


Elementary Classroom Teachers’ Self-Reported Use Of Movement Integration Products And Perceived Facilitators And Barriers Related To Product Use, Roddrick Dugger, Aaron Rafferty, Ethan Hunt, Michael W. Beets, Collin Andrew Webster, Brian Chen, Jeffrey Michael Rehling, Robert Glenn Weaver Sep 2020

Elementary Classroom Teachers’ Self-Reported Use Of Movement Integration Products And Perceived Facilitators And Barriers Related To Product Use, Roddrick Dugger, Aaron Rafferty, Ethan Hunt, Michael W. Beets, Collin Andrew Webster, Brian Chen, Jeffrey Michael Rehling, Robert Glenn Weaver

Faculty Publications

Movement integration (MI) products are designed to provide children with physical activity during general education classroom time. The purpose of this study was to examine elementary classroom teachers’ self-reported use of MI products and subsequent perceptions of the facilitators of and barriers to MI product use. This study utilized a mixed-methods design. Elementary classroom teachers (n = 40) at four schools each tested four of six common MI products in their classroom for one week. Teachers completed a daily diary, documenting duration and frequency of product use. Following each product test, focus groups were conducted with teachers to assess facilitators and ...


Redox-Sensitive Nanocomplex For Targeted Delivery Of Melittin, Bei Cheng, Peisheng Xu Sep 2020

Redox-Sensitive Nanocomplex For Targeted Delivery Of Melittin, Bei Cheng, Peisheng Xu

Faculty Publications

Although peptide therapeutics have been explored for decades, the successful delivery of potent peptides in vitro and in vivo remains challenging due to the poor stability, low cell permeability, and off-target effects. We developed a redox sensitive polymer-based nanocomplex which can efficiently and stably deliver the peptide drug melittin for cancer therapy. The nanocomplex selectively targets cancer cells through lactobionic acid mediated endocytosis and releases melittin intracellularly upon the trigger of elevated redox potential. In vivo study proved that the targeted nanocomplex shows excellent potency in inhibiting tumor growth in a xenograft colon cancer mouse model. Thus, the polymer/melittin ...


Racial Disparities In Air Pollution Burden And Covid-19 Deaths In Louisiana, Usa, In The Context Of Long-Term Changes In Fine Particulate Pollution, Kimberly A. Terrell, Wesley James Sep 2020

Racial Disparities In Air Pollution Burden And Covid-19 Deaths In Louisiana, Usa, In The Context Of Long-Term Changes In Fine Particulate Pollution, Kimberly A. Terrell, Wesley James

Faculty Publications

Black Americans in Louisiana are disproportionately dying from COVID-19, and environmental disparities may be contributing to this injustice. While Black communities in Louisiana's industrialized regions (e.g., Cancer Alley, Calcasieu Parish) have been overburdened with pollution for decades, this disparity has not been evaluated by using recent data. Here, we explore statewide relationships among air pollution burden, race, COVID-19 death rates, and other health/socioeconomic factors. Measures of pollution burden included satellite-derived particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and health risks from toxic air pollution (i.e., respiratory hazard [RH] and immunological hazard [IH], estimated by the Environmental Protection Agency ...


Men’S Vasectomy Knowledge, Attitudes, And Information-Seeking Behaviors In The Southern United States: Results From An Exploratory Survey, Ashley L. White, Rachel E. Davis, Deborah Lynn Billings Phd, Emily S. Mann Aug 2020

Men’S Vasectomy Knowledge, Attitudes, And Information-Seeking Behaviors In The Southern United States: Results From An Exploratory Survey, Ashley L. White, Rachel E. Davis, Deborah Lynn Billings Phd, Emily S. Mann

Faculty Publications

Vasectomy is one of the few options men have to manage their reproductive capacity and take on a more equitable role in pregnancy prevention. While the method is underused throughout the United States, the southern states have a lower prevalence rate compared to the rest of the country. Existing survey research does not assess what men know or think about the procedure as a means of understanding why this is the case. We created and conducted an exploratory survey to assess men’s knowledge, attitudes, and information-seeking behaviors about vasectomy in the Southern United States. We used targeted Facebook advertising ...


Approaching Community Priorities In Youth Sports Injury Prevention Research, Zachary Y. Kerr, Paula Gildner, Aliza K. Nedimyer, Avinash Chandran, Melissa C. Kay, K. Hunter Byrd, Johna K. Register-Mihalik Jul 2020

Approaching Community Priorities In Youth Sports Injury Prevention Research, Zachary Y. Kerr, Paula Gildner, Aliza K. Nedimyer, Avinash Chandran, Melissa C. Kay, K. Hunter Byrd, Johna K. Register-Mihalik

Faculty Publications

© 2020 The Author(s).

Background: Research in youth sports is often complex. As interest in youth sports injury prevention grows, scientists should consider community priorities beyond a specific research study.

Main Text: This commentary discusses the authors’ personal experiences researching concussion prevention in middle school sports, as the overarching community faced multiple challenges. These challenges included a series of weather-related emergencies that resulted in a shift in the community’s priorities, multi-day school closures, and cancellations of sports activities and meetings. We discuss the importance of considering community priorities and providing support as scientists, colleagues, and members of the communities ...


Family Behaviors As Unchanging Obstacles In End-Of-Life Care: 16-Year Comparative Data, Renea L. Beckstrand, Jasmine B. Jenkins, Karlen E. Luthy, Janelle L. B. Macintosh Jul 2020

Family Behaviors As Unchanging Obstacles In End-Of-Life Care: 16-Year Comparative Data, Renea L. Beckstrand, Jasmine B. Jenkins, Karlen E. Luthy, Janelle L. B. Macintosh

Faculty Publications

Background Critical care nurses routinely care for dying patients. Research on obstacles in providing end-of-life care has been conducted for more than 20 years, but change in such obstacles over time has not been examined.

Objective To determine whether the magnitude scores of obstacles and helpful behaviors regarding end-of-life care have changed over time.

Methods In this cross-sectional survey study, questionnaires were sent to 2000 randomly selected members of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. Obstacle and helpful behavior items were analyzed using mean magnitude scores. Current data were compared with data gathered in 1999.

Results Of the 2000 questionnaires ...


Nutrient Timing: A Garage Door Of Opportunity?, Shawn M. Arent, Harry P. Cintineo, Bridget A. Mcfadden, Alexa Jenny Chandler, Michelle Angelique Arent Jun 2020

Nutrient Timing: A Garage Door Of Opportunity?, Shawn M. Arent, Harry P. Cintineo, Bridget A. Mcfadden, Alexa Jenny Chandler, Michelle Angelique Arent

Faculty Publications

Nutrient timing involves manipulation of nutrient consumption at specific times in and around exercise bouts in an effort to improve performance, recovery, and adaptation. Its historical perspective centered on ingestion during exercise and grew to include pre- and post-training periods. As research continued, translational focus remained primarily on the impact and outcomes related to nutrient consumption during one specific time period to the exclusion of all others. Additionally, there seemed to be increasing emphasis on outcomes related to hypertrophy and strength at the expense of other potentially more impactful performance measures. As consumption of nutrients does not occur at only ...


The Association Between Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitors And Colorectal Cancer In A National Cohort Of Patients, S. Scott Sutton, Joseph Magagnoli, Tammy H. Cummings, James W. Hardin Jun 2020

The Association Between Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitors And Colorectal Cancer In A National Cohort Of Patients, S. Scott Sutton, Joseph Magagnoli, Tammy H. Cummings, James W. Hardin

Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: To examine the association between phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor use and incidence of colorectal cancer among patients with erectile dysfunction treated in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using the Veterans Affairs Informatics and Computing Infrastructure was conducted, with data spanning January 2001-December 2016. Patients were followed up from index until (i) the first diagnosis of colorectal cancer, (ii) death, or (iii) the end of study period. Statistical analyses evaluated demographics and baseline characteristics between cohorts (PDE-5 exposed or not) and the effect of additional dosages of each specific PDE-5 inhibitor using adjusted multivariate Cox ...


Differential Relationships Between Waist Circumference And Cardiorespiratory Fitness Among People With And Without Type 2 Diabetes, Andrew Ortaglia, Samantha M. Mcdonald, Christina Supino, Michael D. Wirth, Xuem Sui, Matteo Bottai Jun 2020

Differential Relationships Between Waist Circumference And Cardiorespiratory Fitness Among People With And Without Type 2 Diabetes, Andrew Ortaglia, Samantha M. Mcdonald, Christina Supino, Michael D. Wirth, Xuem Sui, Matteo Bottai

Faculty Publications

Adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus tend to exhibit an increased level of central adiposity, augmenting their risk of further non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Importantly, consistent evidence demonstrates a significant, negative association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and waist circumference (WC). However, no previous studies have investigated differences in these CRF-related reductions in WC between adults with and without diabetes.

This study used data from the Aerobic Center for Longitudinal Studies, conducted between 1970 and 2006 among predominately Non-Hispanic White, middle-to-upper class adults in Texas. Quantile regression models were used to estimate CRF-related differences in WC between persons with and without diabetes ...


Rethinking Covid-19 Vulnerability: A Call For Lgbtq+ Im/Migrant Health Equity In The U.S. During And After A Pandemic, Nolan Kline May 2020

Rethinking Covid-19 Vulnerability: A Call For Lgbtq+ Im/Migrant Health Equity In The U.S. During And After A Pandemic, Nolan Kline

Faculty Publications

Public health responses to the COVID-19 pandemic have emphasized older adults’ vulnerability, but this obfuscates the social and political root causes of health inequity. To advance health equity during a novel communicable disease outbreak, public health practitioners must continue to be attentive to social and political circumstances that inform poor health. Such efforts are especially needed for populations who are exposed to numerous social and political factors that structure health inequity, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or otherwise-queer identifying (LGBTQ+) populations and im/migrant populations. The COVID-19 outbreak is therefore a critical time to emphasize root causes of health ...


Objective Church Environment Audits And Attendee Perceptions Of Healthy Eating And Physical Activity Supports Within The Church Setting, Marilyn E. Wende, Andrew T. Kaczynski, John A. Bernhart, Caroline G. Dunn, Sarah Wilcox May 2020

Objective Church Environment Audits And Attendee Perceptions Of Healthy Eating And Physical Activity Supports Within The Church Setting, Marilyn E. Wende, Andrew T. Kaczynski, John A. Bernhart, Caroline G. Dunn, Sarah Wilcox

Faculty Publications

Interventions in faith-based settings are increasingly popular, due to their effectiveness for improving attendee health outcomes and behaviors. Little past research has examined the important role of the church environment in individual-level outcomes using objective environmental audits. This study examined associations between the objectively measured physical church environment and attendees’ perceptions of physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE) supports within the church environment, self-efficacy for PA and HE, and self-reported PA and HE behaviors. Data were collected via church audits and church attendee surveys in 54 churches in a rural, medically underserved county in South Carolina. Multi-level regression was ...


Measuring Learning And Engagement During Debriefing: A New Instrument, Shelly Jensen Reed May 2020

Measuring Learning And Engagement During Debriefing: A New Instrument, Shelly Jensen Reed

Faculty Publications

Background: Debriefing is considered to be where the bulk of learning takes place. Examination of debriefing is needed to help determine if facilitation methods effectively contribute to the learning process. More instruments are needed to evaluate all key debriefing elements, and no tools exist that evaluate participant engagement in the learning process.

Method: Kolb’s experiential learning theory was used to inform tool development. The focus of the new instrument is behaviors that indicate engagement with the learning process as the learner moves through Kolb’s learning cycle. A qualitative study of debriefing facilitators was performed, and a behaviorally anchored ...


Multicenter, Observational Cohort Study Evaluating Third-Generation Cephalosporin Therapy For Bloodstream Infections Secondary To Enterobacter, Serratia, And Citrobacter Species, Caroline Derrick, P. Brandon Bookstaver, Zhiqiang K. Lu, Christopher M. Bland, S. Travis King, Kayla R. Stover, Kathey Rumley, Shawn H. Macvane, Jenna Swindler, Scott Kincaid, Trisha Branan, David Cluck, Benjamin Britt, Kelly E. Pillinger, Bruce M. Jones, Virginia Fleming, V. Paul Dimondi, Sandy Estrada, Brad Crane, Brian Odle, Majdi N. Al-Hasan, Julie Ann Justo May 2020

Multicenter, Observational Cohort Study Evaluating Third-Generation Cephalosporin Therapy For Bloodstream Infections Secondary To Enterobacter, Serratia, And Citrobacter Species, Caroline Derrick, P. Brandon Bookstaver, Zhiqiang K. Lu, Christopher M. Bland, S. Travis King, Kayla R. Stover, Kathey Rumley, Shawn H. Macvane, Jenna Swindler, Scott Kincaid, Trisha Branan, David Cluck, Benjamin Britt, Kelly E. Pillinger, Bruce M. Jones, Virginia Fleming, V. Paul Dimondi, Sandy Estrada, Brad Crane, Brian Odle, Majdi N. Al-Hasan, Julie Ann Justo

Faculty Publications

Objectives: There is debate on whether the use of third-generation cephalosporins (3GC) increases the risk of clinical failure in bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by chromosomally-mediated AmpC-producing Enterobacterales (CAE). This study evaluates the impact of definitive 3GC therapy versus other antibiotics on clinical outcomes in BSIs due to Enterobacter, Serratia, or Citrobacter species. Methods: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study evaluated adult hospitalized patients with BSIs secondary to Enterobacter, Serratia, or Citrobacter species from 1 January 2006 to 1 September 2014. Definitive 3GC therapy was compared to definitive therapy with other non-3GC antibiotics. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression evaluated the impact of ...


Addressing The Social Vulnerability Of Mississippi Gulf Coast Vietnamese Community Through The Development Of Community Health Advisors, Susan Mayfield-Johnson, Danielle Fastring, Daniel Le, Jane Nguyen May 2020

Addressing The Social Vulnerability Of Mississippi Gulf Coast Vietnamese Community Through The Development Of Community Health Advisors, Susan Mayfield-Johnson, Danielle Fastring, Daniel Le, Jane Nguyen

Faculty Publications

Background:Resiliency is the ability to prepare for, recover from, and adapt to stressors from adverse events. Social vulnerabilities (limited access to resources, political power, and representation; lack of social capital; aspects of the built environment; health inequities; and being in certain demographic categories) can impact resiliency. The Vietnamese population living along the Mississippi Gulf Coast is a community that has unique social vulnerabilities that impact their ability to be resilient to adverse events. Objectives: The purpose of this project was to address social vulnerability by implementing and evaluating a volunteer Community Health Advisor (CHA) project to enhance community resiliency ...