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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Evaluating Fitness-To-Drive Among Individuals With Sensory Deficits: A Retrospective Chart Review, Caroline Clark Apr 2020

Evaluating Fitness-To-Drive Among Individuals With Sensory Deficits: A Retrospective Chart Review, Caroline Clark

OTD Capstone Projects

Objective: To explore the diagnostic validity of clinical assessments for sensation in determining fitness-to-drive recommendations in active drivers with sensory deficits.

Methods: Retrospective chart review was conducted using a purposive sampling approach of patients’ medical records from the Vanderbilt Driver Evaluation and Rehabilitation Program in Nashville, Tennessee. Medical records for patients assessed from 12/01/2017 through 12/31/2019, ages 18 or older, with lower extremity sensory deficit(s) identified in the referring and/or treatment diagnoses, medical history, and/or the occupational therapy evaluation problem list were eligible for review. A total of 288 patient medical records were ...


Oral Care Practices Of Adults In Turkey, Merve Koseoglu, Ozge Bal, Hatice Bilge Turkan, Beyza Cetin, Muhammed Nuri Tascioglu, Nurullah Aydin, Ozgur Sancar, Selma Altindis Apr 2020

Oral Care Practices Of Adults In Turkey, Merve Koseoglu, Ozge Bal, Hatice Bilge Turkan, Beyza Cetin, Muhammed Nuri Tascioglu, Nurullah Aydin, Ozgur Sancar, Selma Altindis

Makara Journal of Health Research

Background: Information on oral health practices can play a key role in improving a community’s oral health status. The aim of this study was to determine oral healthcare practices of Turkish individuals.

Methods: A questionnaire was randomly given to 351 individuals, all of them older than 18 years. This cross-sectional study data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods and chi-square test. Statistical significance was evaluated at p < 0.05.

Results: According this study, 62.1% of individuals visited the dentist only when they needed to. Furthermore, 58% of individuals brushed their teeth twice a day; 12.5% of them used miswak ...


The Impact Of Dental Caries On Oral Health Related Quality Of Life Amongst Adult Population In Lahore, Pakistan, Hazik Bin Shahzad, Faiza Awais, Um-E-Rubab Shirazi, Hanna Abdul Majeed, Aqeela Rafique, Maliha Shahbaz Apr 2020

The Impact Of Dental Caries On Oral Health Related Quality Of Life Amongst Adult Population In Lahore, Pakistan, Hazik Bin Shahzad, Faiza Awais, Um-E-Rubab Shirazi, Hanna Abdul Majeed, Aqeela Rafique, Maliha Shahbaz

Makara Journal of Health Research

Background: Dental caries in adults is a public health problem. A comprehensive assessment of the association between caries and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) measures is essential for understanding how it impacts the daily life of people and for assessing their oral health needs.

Methods: The survey was conducted at Rashid Latif Dental Hospital, from March-June 2019. A total of 373 adults aged 18-80 years were randomly enrolled in the study. Dental caries was the main exposure, measured clinically. The OHRQoL was measured through Oral Impacts on Daily performance (OIDP) questionnaire. Caries was dichotomized and the relationship to ...


Effects Of Oral, Smoked, And Vaporized Cannabis On Endocrine Pathways Related To Appetite And Metabolism: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Human Laboratory Study., Mehdi Farokhnia, Gray R Mcdiarmid, Matthew N Newmeyer, Vikas Munjal, Osama A Abulseoud, Marilyn A Huestis, Lorenzo Leggio Feb 2020

Effects Of Oral, Smoked, And Vaporized Cannabis On Endocrine Pathways Related To Appetite And Metabolism: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Human Laboratory Study., Mehdi Farokhnia, Gray R Mcdiarmid, Matthew N Newmeyer, Vikas Munjal, Osama A Abulseoud, Marilyn A Huestis, Lorenzo Leggio

Institute of Emerging Health Professions Faculty Papers

As perspectives on cannabis continue to shift, understanding the physiological and behavioral effects of cannabis use is of paramount importance. Previous data suggest that cannabis use influences food intake, appetite, and metabolism, yet human research in this regard remains scant. The present study investigated the effects of cannabis administration, via different routes, on peripheral concentrations of appetitive and metabolic hormones in a sample of cannabis users. This was a randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Twenty participants underwent four experimental sessions during which oral cannabis, smoked cannabis, vaporized cannabis, or placebo was administered. Active compounds contained 6.9 ± 0.95% (~50 ...


Low-Dose Aspirin For The Prevention Of Preterm Delivery In Nulliparous Women With A Singleton Pregnancy (Aspirin): A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial., Matthew K. Hoffman, Shivaprasad S. Goudar, Bhalachandra S. Kodkany, Mrityunjay Metgud, Manjunath Somannavar, Jean Okitawutshu, Adrien Lokangaka, Antoinette Tshefu, Carl L. Bose, Abigail Mwapule, Musaku Mwenechanya, Elwyn Chomba, Waldemar A. Carlo, Javier Chicuy, Lester Figueroa, Ana Garces, Nancy F. Krebs, Saleem Jessani, Farnaz Zehra, Sarah Saleem, Robert L. Goldenberg, Kunal Kurhe, Prabir Das, Archana Patel, Patricia L. Hibberd, Emmah Achieng, Paul Nyongesa, Fabian Esamai, Edward A. Liechty, Norman Goco, Jennifer Hemingway-Foday, Janet Moore, Tracy L. Nolen, Elizabeth M. Mcclure, Marion Koso-Thomas, Menachem Miodovnik, R. Silver, Richard J. Derman, Aspirin Study Group Jan 2020

Low-Dose Aspirin For The Prevention Of Preterm Delivery In Nulliparous Women With A Singleton Pregnancy (Aspirin): A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial., Matthew K. Hoffman, Shivaprasad S. Goudar, Bhalachandra S. Kodkany, Mrityunjay Metgud, Manjunath Somannavar, Jean Okitawutshu, Adrien Lokangaka, Antoinette Tshefu, Carl L. Bose, Abigail Mwapule, Musaku Mwenechanya, Elwyn Chomba, Waldemar A. Carlo, Javier Chicuy, Lester Figueroa, Ana Garces, Nancy F. Krebs, Saleem Jessani, Farnaz Zehra, Sarah Saleem, Robert L. Goldenberg, Kunal Kurhe, Prabir Das, Archana Patel, Patricia L. Hibberd, Emmah Achieng, Paul Nyongesa, Fabian Esamai, Edward A. Liechty, Norman Goco, Jennifer Hemingway-Foday, Janet Moore, Tracy L. Nolen, Elizabeth M. Mcclure, Marion Koso-Thomas, Menachem Miodovnik, R. Silver, Richard J. Derman, Aspirin Study Group

Global Health Articles

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth remains a common cause of neonatal mortality, with a disproportionately high burden in low-income and middle-income countries. Meta-analyses of low-dose aspirin to prevent pre-eclampsia suggest that the incidence of preterm birth might also be decreased, particularly if initiated before 16 weeks of gestation.

METHODS: ASPIRIN was a randomised, multicountry, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial of low-dose aspirin (81 mg daily) initiated between 6 weeks and 0 days of pregnancy, and 13 weeks and 6 days of pregnancy, in nulliparous women with an ultrasound confirming gestational age and a singleton viable pregnancy. Participants were enrolled at seven community sites in ...


Introducing An Adult Adhd Toolkit For Application In Collaborative Care, C. Jason Mallo Jan 2020

Introducing An Adult Adhd Toolkit For Application In Collaborative Care, C. Jason Mallo

Journal of Maine Medical Center

Introduction: While providers in collaborative care have been challenged to respond to rising patient complaints about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood, institutional guidance has been lacking or insufficient. To address this issue, an Adult ADHD Toolkit was created to be used by providers spanning primary care and psychiatry. This article reviews how the toolkit was developed, its contents, and future directions.

Methods: A workgroup of providers from different backgrounds devised materials for the toolkit by reviewing adult ADHD literature and clinical consensus.

Discussion: The toolkit addresses common dilemmas encountered in the evaluation and management of adult ADHD, and ...


Ador2a C Allele Carriers Exhibit Ergogenic Responses To Caffeine Supplementation, Jozo Grgic, Craig Pickering, David J. Bishop, Juan Del Coso, Brad Schoenfeld, Grant M. Tinsley, Zeljko Pedisic Jan 2020

Ador2a C Allele Carriers Exhibit Ergogenic Responses To Caffeine Supplementation, Jozo Grgic, Craig Pickering, David J. Bishop, Juan Del Coso, Brad Schoenfeld, Grant M. Tinsley, Zeljko Pedisic

ECU Publications Post 2013

Caffeine’s ergogenic effects on exercise performance are generally explained by its ability to bind to adenosine receptors. ADORA2A is the gene that encodes A2A subtypes of adenosine receptors. It has been suggested that ADORA2A gene polymorphisms may be responsible for the inter-individual variations in the effects of caffeine on exercise performance. In the only study that explored the influence of variation in ADORA2A—in this case, a common polymorphism (rs5751876)—on the ergogenic effects of caffeine on exercise performance, C allele carriers were identified as “non-responders” to caffeine. To explore if C allele carriers are true “non-responders” to the ...


Static Stretch And Dynamic Muscle Activity Induce Acute Similar Increase In Corticospinal Excitability, Jules Opplertid, Christos Paizis, Athina Papitsa, Anthony J. Blazevich, Carole Cometti, Nicolas Babault Jan 2020

Static Stretch And Dynamic Muscle Activity Induce Acute Similar Increase In Corticospinal Excitability, Jules Opplertid, Christos Paizis, Athina Papitsa, Anthony J. Blazevich, Carole Cometti, Nicolas Babault

ECU Publications Post 2013

Even though the acute effects of pre-exercise static stretching and dynamic muscle activity on muscular and functional performance have been largely investigated, their effects on the corticospinal pathway are still unclear. For that reason, this study examined the acute effects of 5×20 s of static stretching, dynamic muscle activity and a control condition on spinal excitability, corticospinal excitability and plantar flexor neuromuscular properties. Fifteen volunteers were randomly tested on separate days. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied to investigate corticospinal excitability by recording the amplitude of the motorevoked potential (MEP) and the duration of the cortical silent period (cSP). Peripheral ...


A Head-To-Head Comparison Of The Efficacy And Safety Of Ixekizumab And Adalimumab In Biological-Naïve Patients With Active Psoriatic Arthritis: 24-Week Results Of A Randomised, Open-Label, Blinded-Assessor Trial., Philip Mease, Josef S Smolen, Frank Behrens, Peter Nash, Soyi Liu Leage, Lingnan Li, Hasan Tahir, Melinda Gooderham, Eswar Krishnan, Hong Liu-Seifert, Paul Emery, Sreekumar G Pillai, Philip S Helliwell Jan 2020

A Head-To-Head Comparison Of The Efficacy And Safety Of Ixekizumab And Adalimumab In Biological-Naïve Patients With Active Psoriatic Arthritis: 24-Week Results Of A Randomised, Open-Label, Blinded-Assessor Trial., Philip Mease, Josef S Smolen, Frank Behrens, Peter Nash, Soyi Liu Leage, Lingnan Li, Hasan Tahir, Melinda Gooderham, Eswar Krishnan, Hong Liu-Seifert, Paul Emery, Sreekumar G Pillai, Philip S Helliwell

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

OBJECTIVES: To compare efficacy and safety of ixekizumab (IXE) to adalimumab (ADA) in biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug-naïve patients with both active psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and skin disease and inadequate response to conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (csDMARDs).

METHODS: Patients with active PsA were randomised (1:1) to approved dosing of IXE or ADA in an open-label, head-to-head, blinded assessor clinical trial. The primary objective was to evaluate whether IXE was superior to ADA at week 24 for simultaneous achievement of a ≥50% improvement from baseline in the American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR50) and a 100% improvement from baseline in ...


Lifestyle Management For Vestibular Disorders, Michelle Pock Dec 2019

Lifestyle Management For Vestibular Disorders, Michelle Pock

Student Capstone Projects

Individuals with vestibular disorders have concerns that impact lifestyle including limiting activities of daily living, limiting participation in social events, difficulty driving, and difficulty working (Cohen, 2014). Occupational therapists are able to help individuals with vestibular disorders by task analyzing symptom provoking activities, assessing the impact of symptoms on occupations, providing adaptations, and providing ways to modify environments (Gronski, Neville, Kannenberg, & Cohen, 2017). While occupational therapists are qualified to provide services to sustain and improve the occupational performance of individuals with vestibular disorders, occupational therapy is not well represented in this area particularly in addressing lifestyle components for vestibular disorders ...


Lifestyle Management For Individuals With Vestibular Disorders, Michelle Pock, Becki Cohill, Susan Macdermott Dec 2019

Lifestyle Management For Individuals With Vestibular Disorders, Michelle Pock, Becki Cohill, Susan Macdermott

San Marcos, Fall 2019

Individuals with vestibular disorders have concerns that impact lifestyle including limiting activities of daily living, limiting participation in social events, difficulty driving, and difficulty working (Cohen, 2014). Occupational therapists are able to help individuals with vestibular disorders by task analyzing symptom provoking activities, assessing the impact of symptoms on occupations, providing adaptations, and providing ways to modify environments (Gronski, Neville, Kannenberg, & Cohen, 2017). While occupational therapists are qualified to provide services to sustain and improve the occupational performance of individuals with vestibular disorders, occupational therapy is not well represented in this area particularly in addressing lifestyle components for vestibular disorders ...


Outpatient Facility-Based Order Variation In Combined Imaging., Adam C. Powell, Yan Wang, Gary L. Smith, James W. Long, Uday U. Deshmukh, David P. Friedman, Christopher G. Roth, Baskaran Sundaram Nov 2019

Outpatient Facility-Based Order Variation In Combined Imaging., Adam C. Powell, Yan Wang, Gary L. Smith, James W. Long, Uday U. Deshmukh, David P. Friedman, Christopher G. Roth, Baskaran Sundaram

Department of Radiology Faculty Papers

OBJECTIVE: Combined computed tomography (CT) occurs when one anatomical area is simultaneously imaged both without and with contrast, or two overlapping anatomical areas are imaged concurrently. While this has been studied in a Traditional Medicare population, it has not been studied in other populations subject to prior authorization. This study explores between-facility variation in ordering and receiving orders to render combined CT in a mixed commercial and Medicare Advantage population.

METHODS: Orders for CT abdomen (without/with contrast), CT thorax (without/with contrast), and concurrent CT brain and sinus authorized by a prior authorization company from 2013-2017, pertaining to patients ...


Unconditional Cash Transfers For Reducing Poverty And Vulnerabilities: Effect On Use Of Health Services And Health Outcomes In Low-And Middle-Income Countries, Frank Pega, Sze Yan Liu, Stefan Walter, Roman Pabayo, Ruhi Saith, S L. Lhachimi Nov 2019

Unconditional Cash Transfers For Reducing Poverty And Vulnerabilities: Effect On Use Of Health Services And Health Outcomes In Low-And Middle-Income Countries, Frank Pega, Sze Yan Liu, Stefan Walter, Roman Pabayo, Ruhi Saith, S L. Lhachimi

Sze Yan Liu

Background

Unconditional cash transfers (UCTs; provided without obligation) for reducing poverty and vulnerabilities (e.g. orphanhood, old age or HIV infection) are a type of social protection intervention that addresses a key social determinant of health (income) in low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs). The relative effectiveness of UCTs compared with conditional cash transfers (CCTs; provided so long as the recipient engages in prescribed behaviours such as using a health service or attending school) is unknown.

Objectives

To assess the effects of UCTs for improving health services use and health outcomes in vulnerable children and adults in LMICs. Secondary objectives ...


Gilteritinib Or Chemotherapy For Relapsed Or Refractory Flt3-Mutated Aml, Alexander E. Perl, Giovanni Martinelli, Jorge E. Cortes, Andreas Neubauer, Ellin Berman, Stefania Paolini, Pau Montesinos, Maria R. Baer, Richard A. Larson, Celalettin Ustun, Francesco Fabbiano, Harry P. Erba, Antonio Di Stasi, Robert Stuart, Rebecca Olin, Margaret Kasner, Fabio Ciceri, Wen-Chien Chou, Nikolai Podoltsev, Christian Recher, Hisayuki Yokoyama, Naoko Hosono, Sung-Soo Yoon, Je-Hwan Lee, Timothy Pardee, Amir T. Fathi, Chaofeng Liu, Nahla Hasabou, Xuan Liu, Erkut Bahceci, Mark J. Levis Oct 2019

Gilteritinib Or Chemotherapy For Relapsed Or Refractory Flt3-Mutated Aml, Alexander E. Perl, Giovanni Martinelli, Jorge E. Cortes, Andreas Neubauer, Ellin Berman, Stefania Paolini, Pau Montesinos, Maria R. Baer, Richard A. Larson, Celalettin Ustun, Francesco Fabbiano, Harry P. Erba, Antonio Di Stasi, Robert Stuart, Rebecca Olin, Margaret Kasner, Fabio Ciceri, Wen-Chien Chou, Nikolai Podoltsev, Christian Recher, Hisayuki Yokoyama, Naoko Hosono, Sung-Soo Yoon, Je-Hwan Lee, Timothy Pardee, Amir T. Fathi, Chaofeng Liu, Nahla Hasabou, Xuan Liu, Erkut Bahceci, Mark J. Levis

Department of Medical Oncology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: Patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with mutations in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 gene (FLT3) infrequently have a response to salvage chemotherapy. Gilteritinib is an oral, potent, selective FLT3 inhibitor with single-agent activity in relapsed or refractory FLT3-mutated AML.

METHODS: In a phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned adults with relapsed or refractory FLT3-mutated AML in a 2:1 ratio to receive either gilteritinib (at a dose of 120 mg per day) or salvage chemotherapy. The two primary end points were overall survival and the percentage of patients who had complete remission with ...


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Thoracic Ct Texture Analysis And Machine Learning To Predict Pulmonary Ventilation, Andrew Westcott, Dante P I Capaldi, David G Mccormack, Aaron D Ward, Aaron Fenster, Grace Parraga Oct 2019

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Thoracic Ct Texture Analysis And Machine Learning To Predict Pulmonary Ventilation, Andrew Westcott, Dante P I Capaldi, David G Mccormack, Aaron D Ward, Aaron Fenster, Grace Parraga

Medical Biophysics Publications

Background Fixed airflow limitation and ventilation heterogeneity are common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Conventional noncontrast CT provides airway and parenchymal measurements but cannot be used to directly determine lung function. Purpose To develop, train, and test a CT texture analysis and machine-learning algorithm to predict lung ventilation heterogeneity in participants with COPD. Materials and Methods In this prospective study (


Long-Term Safety And Efficacy Of Subcutaneous Pasireotide In Patients With Cushing's Disease: Interim Results From A Long-Term Real-World Evidence Study., Luca Manetti, Timo Deutschbein, Jochen Schopohl, Kevin C J Yuen, Michael Roughton, Ulrike Kriemler-Krahn, Libuse Tauchmanova, Ricardo Maamari, Carla Giordano Oct 2019

Long-Term Safety And Efficacy Of Subcutaneous Pasireotide In Patients With Cushing's Disease: Interim Results From A Long-Term Real-World Evidence Study., Luca Manetti, Timo Deutschbein, Jochen Schopohl, Kevin C J Yuen, Michael Roughton, Ulrike Kriemler-Krahn, Libuse Tauchmanova, Ricardo Maamari, Carla Giordano

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

PURPOSE: Clinical trials have demonstrated the favorable efficacy/safety profile of pasireotide in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). We report interim long-term results of an ongoing real-world evidence study of subcutaneous pasireotide in patients with CD.

METHODS: Adults with CD receiving pasireotide, initiated before (prior-use) or at study entry (new-use), were monitored for ≤ 3 years during a multicenter observational study ( http://clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02310269). Primary objective was to assess long-term safety of pasireotide alone or with other CD therapies.

RESULTS: At the time of this interim analysis, 127 patients had received pasireotide (new-use, n = 31; prior-use, n = 96 ...


Comparing Record Linkage Software Programs And Algorithms Using Real-World Data., Alan F. Karr, Matthew T. Taylor, Suzanne L. West, Soko Setoguchi, Tzuyung D. Kou, Tobias Gerhard, Daniel B. Horton Sep 2019

Comparing Record Linkage Software Programs And Algorithms Using Real-World Data., Alan F. Karr, Matthew T. Taylor, Suzanne L. West, Soko Setoguchi, Tzuyung D. Kou, Tobias Gerhard, Daniel B. Horton

Student Papers & Posters

Linkage of medical databases, including insurer claims and electronic health records (EHRs), is increasingly common. However, few studies have investigated the behavior and output of linkage software. To determine how linkage quality is affected by different algorithms, blocking variables, methods for string matching and weight determination, and decision rules, we compared the performance of 4 nonproprietary linkage software packages linking patient identifiers from noninteroperable inpatient and outpatient EHRs. We linked datasets using first and last name, gender, and date of birth (DOB). We evaluated DOB and year of birth (YOB) as blocking variables and used exact and inexact matching methods ...


"The Traps Started During My Childhood": The Role Of Substance Abuse In Women's Responses To Adverse Childhood Experiences (Aces), Breanna Boppre, Cassandra Boyer Aug 2019

"The Traps Started During My Childhood": The Role Of Substance Abuse In Women's Responses To Adverse Childhood Experiences (Aces), Breanna Boppre, Cassandra Boyer

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

The gendered pathways perspective seeks to identify the biological, psychological, and social realities that lead to women’s law-breaking behavior. Prior research in this area demonstrates the link between women’s adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and involvement in the criminal justice system later in life. The current study fills an important gap in the literature by providing a phenomenological description of the impacts ACEs had upon 19 community supervised women’s lives. Their stories illuminate the need to consider multiple forms of ACEs, from physical and sexual abuse to the death of a loved one. Interviewees’ most prevalent response to ...


Hyperpolarized Helium 3 Mri In Mild-To-Moderate Asthma: Prediction Of Postbronchodilator Reversibility, Rachel L Eddy, Sarah Svenningsen, Christopher Licskai, David G Mccormack, Grace Parraga Aug 2019

Hyperpolarized Helium 3 Mri In Mild-To-Moderate Asthma: Prediction Of Postbronchodilator Reversibility, Rachel L Eddy, Sarah Svenningsen, Christopher Licskai, David G Mccormack, Grace Parraga

Medical Biophysics Publications

Background: Longitudinal progression to irreversible airflow limitation occurs in approximately 10% of patients with asthma, but it is difficult to identify patients who are at risk for this transition.

Purpose: To investigate 6-year longitudinal changes in hyperpolarized helium 3 (3He) MRI ventilation defects in study participants with mild-to-moderate asthma and identify predictors of longitudinal changes in postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) reversibility

Materials and Methods: Spirometry and hyperpolarized 3He MRI were evaluated in participants with mild-to-moderate asthma in two prospectively planned visits approximately 6 years apart. Participants underwent methacholine challenge at baseline (January 2010 to April 2011 ...


Do Employees From Less-Healthy Communities Use More Care And Cost More? Seeking To Establish A Business Case For Investment In Community Health., Russell K. Mcintire, Martha C. Romney, Greg Alonzo, Jill Hutt, Lauren Bartolome, Greg Wood, Gary Klein, Neil I. Goldfarb Jul 2019

Do Employees From Less-Healthy Communities Use More Care And Cost More? Seeking To Establish A Business Case For Investment In Community Health., Russell K. Mcintire, Martha C. Romney, Greg Alonzo, Jill Hutt, Lauren Bartolome, Greg Wood, Gary Klein, Neil I. Goldfarb

College of Population Health Faculty Papers

INTRODUCTION: Few studies have examined the impact of community health on employers. We explored whether employed adults and their adult dependents living in less-healthy communities in the greater Philadelphia region used more care and incurred higher costs to employers than employees from healthier communities.

METHODS: We used a multi-employer database to identify adult employees and dependents with continuous employment and mapped them to 31 zip code regions. We calculated community health scores at the regional level, by using metrics similar to the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) County Health Rankings but with local data. We used descriptive analyses and multilevel ...


Reducing Aerodynamic Drag By Adopting A Novel Road-Cycling Sprint Position, Paul F. J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspa, Chris R. Abbiss Jul 2019

Reducing Aerodynamic Drag By Adopting A Novel Road-Cycling Sprint Position, Paul F. J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspa, Chris R. Abbiss

ECU Publications Post 2013

Purpose: To assess the influence of seated, standing, and forward-standing cycling sprint positions on aerodynamic drag (CdA) and the reproducibility of a field test of CdA calculated in these different positions. Methods: A total of 11 recreational male road cyclists rode 250 m in 2 directions at around 25, 32, and 40 km·h. Results: A main effect of position showed that the average CdA of the 2 d was lower for the forward-standing position (0.295 [0.059]) compared with both the seated (0.363 [0.071], P = .018) and standing positions (0.372 [0.077], P = .037). Seated ...


Placental Micrornas In Pregnancies With Early Onset Intrauterine Growth Restriction And Preeclampsia: Potential Impact On Gene Expression And Pathophysiology., Zain Awamleh, Gregory B Gloor, Victor K M Han Jun 2019

Placental Micrornas In Pregnancies With Early Onset Intrauterine Growth Restriction And Preeclampsia: Potential Impact On Gene Expression And Pathophysiology., Zain Awamleh, Gregory B Gloor, Victor K M Han

Paediatrics Publications

BACKGROUND:
A normally developed placenta is integral to a successful pregnancy. Preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are two common pregnancy related complications that maybe a result of abnormal placental development. Placental microRNAs (miRNAs) have been investigated as potential biomarkers for these complications, as they may play a role in placental development and pathophysiology by influencing gene expression. The purpose of this study is to utilize next-generation sequencing to determine miRNA and gene expression in human placental (chorionic villous) samples from three distinct patient groups with early-onset (EO) PE, IUGR, or PE + IUGR.

METHODS:
Placental tissues were collected from ...


Asthma In Children And Adults-What Are The Differences And What Can They Tell Us About Asthma, Michelle K. Trivedi, Eve Denton Jun 2019

Asthma In Children And Adults-What Are The Differences And What Can They Tell Us About Asthma, Michelle K. Trivedi, Eve Denton

Open Access Articles

Asthma varies considerably across the life course. Childhood asthma is known for its overall high prevalence with a male predominance prior to puberty, common remission, and rare mortality. Adult asthma is known for its female predominance, uncommon remission, and unusual mortality. Both childhood and adult asthma have variable presentations, which are described herein. Childhood asthma severity is associated with duration of asthma symptoms, medication use, lung function, low socioeconomic status, racial/ethnic minorities, and a neutrophilic phenotype. Adult asthma severity is associated with increased IgE, elevated FeNO, eosinophilia, obesity, smoking, and low socioeconomic status. Adult onset disease is associated with ...


Assessment Of Physical Fitness After Bariatric Surgery And Its Association With Protein Intake And Type Of Cholecalciferol Supplementation, Hendrika J M Smelt, Sjaak Pouwels, Alper Celik, Adarsh Gupta, Johannes F Smulders Jun 2019

Assessment Of Physical Fitness After Bariatric Surgery And Its Association With Protein Intake And Type Of Cholecalciferol Supplementation, Hendrika J M Smelt, Sjaak Pouwels, Alper Celik, Adarsh Gupta, Johannes F Smulders

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Background: Several studies showed that there is a relationship between vitamin and mineral status and muscle strength. In particular this is the case for handgrip strength (HS) and vitamin D deficiency. In bariatric surgery there is a risk of decrease in muscle strength after surgery and also vitamin and mineral deficiencies are not uncommon. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of low vitamin 25 (OH) cholecalciferol levels, high dose cholecalciferol supplementation regime and protein intake on physical fitness, measured using handgrip strength (HS) and the shuttle walk run test (SWRT). Methods: For this retrospective study, 100 ...


An Integrative Cross-Omics Analysis Of Dna Methylation Sites Of Glucose And Insulin Homeostasis, Jun Liu, Elena Carnero-Montoro, Jenny Van Dongen, Samantha Lent, Ivana Nedeljkovic, Symen Ligthart, Pei-Chien Tsai, Tiphaine C. Martin, Pooja R. Mandaviya, Rick Jansen, Marjolein J. Peters, Liesbeth Duijts, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Henning Tiemeier, Janine F. Felix, Gonneke Willemsen, Eco J. C. De Geus, Audrey Y. Chu, Daniel Levy, Shih-Jen Hwang, Jan Bressler, Rahul Gondalia, Elias L. Salfati, Christian Herder, Bertha A. Hidalgo, Toshiko Tanaka, Ann Zenobia Moore, Rozenn N. Lemaitre, Min A. Jhun, Jennifer A. Smith, Donna K. Arnett Jun 2019

An Integrative Cross-Omics Analysis Of Dna Methylation Sites Of Glucose And Insulin Homeostasis, Jun Liu, Elena Carnero-Montoro, Jenny Van Dongen, Samantha Lent, Ivana Nedeljkovic, Symen Ligthart, Pei-Chien Tsai, Tiphaine C. Martin, Pooja R. Mandaviya, Rick Jansen, Marjolein J. Peters, Liesbeth Duijts, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Henning Tiemeier, Janine F. Felix, Gonneke Willemsen, Eco J. C. De Geus, Audrey Y. Chu, Daniel Levy, Shih-Jen Hwang, Jan Bressler, Rahul Gondalia, Elias L. Salfati, Christian Herder, Bertha A. Hidalgo, Toshiko Tanaka, Ann Zenobia Moore, Rozenn N. Lemaitre, Min A. Jhun, Jennifer A. Smith, Donna K. Arnett

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

Despite existing reports on differential DNA methylation in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, our understanding of its functional relevance remains limited. Here we show the effect of differential methylation in the early phases of T2D pathology by a blood-based epigenome-wide association study of 4808 non-diabetic Europeans in the discovery phase and 11,750 individuals in the replication. We identify CpGs in LETM1, RBM20, IRS2, MAN2A2 and the 1q25.3 region associated with fasting insulin, and in FCRL6, SLAMF1, APOBEC3H and the 15q26.1 region with fasting glucose. In silico cross-omics analyses highlight the role of differential methylation in the ...


Local Challenges And Successes Associated With Transitioning To Sustainable Food System Practices For A West Australian Context: Multi-Sector Stakeholder Perceptions, Ros Sambell, Lesley Andrew, Stephanie Godrich, Justin Wolfgang, Dieter Vandenbroeck, Katie Stubley, Nick Rose, Lenore Newman, Pierre Horwitz, Amanda Devine Jun 2019

Local Challenges And Successes Associated With Transitioning To Sustainable Food System Practices For A West Australian Context: Multi-Sector Stakeholder Perceptions, Ros Sambell, Lesley Andrew, Stephanie Godrich, Justin Wolfgang, Dieter Vandenbroeck, Katie Stubley, Nick Rose, Lenore Newman, Pierre Horwitz, Amanda Devine

ECU Publications Post 2013

Large-scale food system practices have diminished soil and water quality and negatively impacted climate change. Yet, numerous opportunities exist to harness food system practices that will ensure better outcomes for human health and ecosystems. The objective of this study was to consider food Production, Processing, Access and Consumption domains, and for each determine the challenges and successes associated with progressing towards a sustainable food system. A workshop engaging 122 participants including producers, consultants, consumers, educators, funders, scientists, media, government and industry representatives, was conducted in Perth, Western Australia. A thematic analysis of statements (Successes (n = 170) or Challenges (n = 360 ...


A High-Throughput Screen Indicates Gemcitabine And Jak Inhibitors May Be Useful For Treating Pediatric Aml, Christina D. Drenberg, Anang Shelat, Jinjun Dang, Anitria Cotton, Shelley J. Orwick, Mengyu Li, Jae Yoon Jeon, Qiang Fu, Daelynn R. Buelow, Marissa Pioso, Shuiying Hu, Hiroto Inaba, Raul C. Ribeiro, Jeffrey E. Rubnitz, Tanja A. Gruber, R. Kiplin Guy, Sharyn D Baker May 2019

A High-Throughput Screen Indicates Gemcitabine And Jak Inhibitors May Be Useful For Treating Pediatric Aml, Christina D. Drenberg, Anang Shelat, Jinjun Dang, Anitria Cotton, Shelley J. Orwick, Mengyu Li, Jae Yoon Jeon, Qiang Fu, Daelynn R. Buelow, Marissa Pioso, Shuiying Hu, Hiroto Inaba, Raul C. Ribeiro, Jeffrey E. Rubnitz, Tanja A. Gruber, R. Kiplin Guy, Sharyn D Baker

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Improvement in survival has been achieved for children and adolescents with AML but is largely attributed to enhanced supportive care as opposed to the development of better treatment regimens. High risk subtypes continue to have poor outcomes with event free survival rates < 40% despite the use of high intensity chemotherapy in combination with hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Here we combine high-throughput screening, intracellular accumulation assays, and in vivo efficacy studies to identify therapeutic strategies for pediatric AML. We report therapeutics not currently used to treat AML, gemcitabine and cabazitaxel, have broad anti-leukemic activity across subtypes and are more effective relative to the AML standard of care, cytarabine, both in vitro and in vivo. JAK inhibitors are selective for acute megakaryoblastic leukemia and significantly prolong survival in multiple preclinical models. Our approach provides advances in the development of treatment strategies for pediatric AML.


Antibody-Based Ticagrelor Reversal Agent In Healthy Volunteers., Deepak L. Bhatt, Charles V. Pollack, Jeffrey I. Weitz, Lisa K. Jennings, Sherry Xu, Susan E. Arnold, Bret R. Umstead, Michael C. Mays, John S. Lee May 2019

Antibody-Based Ticagrelor Reversal Agent In Healthy Volunteers., Deepak L. Bhatt, Charles V. Pollack, Jeffrey I. Weitz, Lisa K. Jennings, Sherry Xu, Susan E. Arnold, Bret R. Umstead, Michael C. Mays, John S. Lee

Department of Emergency Medicine Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: Ticagrelor is an oral P2Y12 inhibitor that is used with aspirin to reduce the risk of ischemic events among patients with acute coronary syndromes or previous myocardial infarction. Spontaneous major bleeding and bleeding associated with urgent invasive procedures are concerns with ticagrelor, as with other antiplatelet drugs. The antiplatelet effects of ticagrelor cannot be reversed with platelet transfusion. A rapid-acting reversal agent would be useful.

METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 trial, we evaluated intravenous PB2452, a monoclonal antibody fragment that binds ticagrelor with high affinity, as a ticagrelor reversal agent. We assessed platelet function in ...


Online Video Instruction On Hand Expression Of Colostrum In Pregnancy Is An Effective Educational Tool, Therese A. O'Sullivan, Joy Cooke, Chris Mccafferty, Roslyn Giglia Apr 2019

Online Video Instruction On Hand Expression Of Colostrum In Pregnancy Is An Effective Educational Tool, Therese A. O'Sullivan, Joy Cooke, Chris Mccafferty, Roslyn Giglia

ECU Publications Post 2013

The use of antenatal colostrum expression in the weeks prior to birth may help improve long-term breastfeeding, but few large-scale studies exist. Typically, antenatal colostrum expression instruction relies on face-to-face education, making large interventions costly. We aimed to determine whether an expert online instructional video can improve knowledge and confidence around antenatal colostrum expressing. Pregnant women were asked to complete a questionnaire pre- and post-watching the instructional video online. Ninety five pregnant women completed both pre- and post-questionnaires. Total antenatal colostrum expression knowledge scores improved after watching the video, from a mean of 3.05 ± 1.70 correct out of ...


The Food Literacy Action Logic Model: A Tertiary Education Sector Innovative Strategy To Support The Charitable Food Sectors Need For Food Literacy Training, Tanya Lawlis, Rosalind Sambell, Amanda Douglas-Watson, Sarah Belton, Amanda Devine Apr 2019

The Food Literacy Action Logic Model: A Tertiary Education Sector Innovative Strategy To Support The Charitable Food Sectors Need For Food Literacy Training, Tanya Lawlis, Rosalind Sambell, Amanda Douglas-Watson, Sarah Belton, Amanda Devine

ECU Publications Post 2013

Food literacy is seen as a key component in improving the increasing levels of food insecurity. While responsibility for providing training falls on the charitable service organizations, they may not have the capacity to adequately reach those in need. This paper proposes a tertiary education - (university or higher education) led model to support the food literacy training needs of the food charity sector. A cross-sectional study comprised of online surveys and discussions investigated food services offered by Western Australia (WA) and Australian Capital Territory (ACT) agencies, food literacy training needs for staff, volunteers and clients, and challenges to delivering food ...