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Diabetes

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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Differential Relationships Between Waist Circumference And Cardiorespiratory Fitness Among People With And Without Type 2 Diabetes, Andrew Ortaglia, Samantha M. Mcdonald, Christina Supino, Michael D. Wirth, Xuem Sui, Matteo Bottai Jun 2020

Differential Relationships Between Waist Circumference And Cardiorespiratory Fitness Among People With And Without Type 2 Diabetes, Andrew Ortaglia, Samantha M. Mcdonald, Christina Supino, Michael D. Wirth, Xuem Sui, Matteo Bottai

Faculty Publications

Adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus tend to exhibit an increased level of central adiposity, augmenting their risk of further non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Importantly, consistent evidence demonstrates a significant, negative association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and waist circumference (WC). However, no previous studies have investigated differences in these CRF-related reductions in WC between adults with and without diabetes.

This study used data from the Aerobic Center for Longitudinal Studies, conducted between 1970 and 2006 among predominately Non-Hispanic White, middle-to-upper class adults in Texas. Quantile regression models were used to estimate CRF-related differences in WC between persons with and without diabetes ...


Improving Diabetes Self-Management Developing A Patient Decision Aid To Improve Patient Education, Morgan Baker May 2020

Improving Diabetes Self-Management Developing A Patient Decision Aid To Improve Patient Education, Morgan Baker

Honors Theses

Type 2 diabetes is a complex disease that affects a large population of people. It is imperative that efforts are made to develop more effective and inclusive treatment strategies for patients with this condition. A promising approach being studied is the utilization of community pharmacists to individualize and implement diabetes self-management training and education. The objective of this study is to develop a preliminary version of a patient decision aid (PDA) designed to evaluate patient knowledge and behavior towards diabetes self-management for use in the community pharmacy setting. The study design used to achieve this objective was a cross-sectional survey ...


The Effects Of Elevated Pre-Operative Hemoglobin A1c On Post-Surgical Infection Risk, Emily Koska Rn May 2020

The Effects Of Elevated Pre-Operative Hemoglobin A1c On Post-Surgical Infection Risk, Emily Koska Rn

Nursing Capstones

No abstract provided.


Optimal Perioperative Blood Glucose Management And Its Effect On Patient Outcomes, Hilary Narum May 2020

Optimal Perioperative Blood Glucose Management And Its Effect On Patient Outcomes, Hilary Narum

Nursing Capstones

No abstract provided.


Supporting Positive Lifestyle Changes Among Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, Alison Tynan May 2020

Supporting Positive Lifestyle Changes Among Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, Alison Tynan

Nursing | Senior Theses

The following thesis is a compilation of literature reviewed to formulate background research for a pilot study. The literature reviewed pertains to the potential benefit of added case management for patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. A proposed pilot study, based off of this research, aims to identify topics, tools, facts, and changes that can be made to case management to improve not just the biological aspects, like HbA1c levels, but the mental and emotional as well to allow for whole person care.

The primary question being asked is “what types of support do people with diabetes mellitus type 2 ...


A Protocol To Increase Referral Rates To Diabetic Education, David M. Rokser May 2020

A Protocol To Increase Referral Rates To Diabetic Education, David M. Rokser

Evidence-Based Practice Project Reports

In 2015, approximately 30.3 million Americans, including 10.5% of the population of Minnesota, had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (American Diabetes Association, 2019). Increased risk of diabetic complications including neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, cardiovascular disease, and chronic wounds has been associated with an elevated hemoglobin A1C (HgA1C). Formal diabetic education has been shown to be a cost-effective intervention to reduce HgA1C. The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion published an objective within HealthyPeople 2020 that seeks to increase the percentage of diabetics receiving formal diabetic education in the United States from 46.9% of adults to 58.4 ...


Diabetes As It Relates To Stress, Anxiety And Lifestyle Choices, Kayla C. Dedloff May 2020

Diabetes As It Relates To Stress, Anxiety And Lifestyle Choices, Kayla C. Dedloff

2020 Symposium Posters

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that impacts 29 million people in the United States. Diabetes is a disease that develops when one's body becomes resistant to insulin, resulting in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates, and the blood glucose levels are increased. If hyperglycemia is not managed, it will result in complications. Management of stress is significant in diabetic patients because stressing intensifies diabetes. The majority of type 2 diabetes patients are overwhelmed with managing the disease, and when they can’t control their blood glucose, it results in depression and anxiety. There is a link between lifestyle choices ...


Characterizing Statin Use Among Prediabetic Patients With Predictive Analytics, Alexandra Gentile May 2020

Characterizing Statin Use Among Prediabetic Patients With Predictive Analytics, Alexandra Gentile

Industrial Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Diabetes is one of the leading causes of death in the United States and can cause severe impairments to those diagnosed. Prediabetes is a state when a patient has higher fasting plasma glucose levels than a non-diabetic person but is not quite high enough to be considered diabetes. Both diabetic and prediabetic patients are at higher risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which is the leading cause of death in the United States. The primary form for prevention and treatment of CVD is through statin therapy. Statins are a class of medications used to treat and prevent CVD by limiting cholesterol ...


Increasing Accessibility To Key Social Determinants Of Health In Monterey County, Tabitha Vargas May 2020

Increasing Accessibility To Key Social Determinants Of Health In Monterey County, Tabitha Vargas

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

Monterey County Health Department’s Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Unit provides agency-wide support in promoting health equity. Obesity and diabetes rates in Monterey County are too high and there needs to be an increase of accessible data, which may help increase targeted prevention services. A health brief was developed for the purpose of increasing access to county-wide obesity and diabetes data and increasing knowledge of the role of how social determinants of health may affect health outcomes. A survey was conducted to measure the effectiveness of the health brief with results demonstrating that 100% of respondents agreed that the brief ...


The Implementation Of Diabetic Foot Care Into Primary Care, Shelby D. Strong May 2020

The Implementation Of Diabetic Foot Care Into Primary Care, Shelby D. Strong

Evidence-Based Practice Project Reports

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common metabolic diseases worldwide. It can lead to complications in many parts of the body and can increase overall risk of dying prematurely (World Health Organization (WHO), 2016). Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in the feet is one of the most frequent complications of DM (Wang et al., 2017). Other lower extremity complications which can occur as a result of diabetic foot complication (DFC) includes peripheral artery disease (PAD), infection, ulcer and amputation. One of the obstacles for preventing (DFC) is the lack of examinations of the feet in clinical practice (Feitosa et ...


Continuous Glucose Monitors To Decrease Hypoglycemia, Sara B. Woodcock Apr 2020

Continuous Glucose Monitors To Decrease Hypoglycemia, Sara B. Woodcock

MSN Capstone Projects

Diabetes is a disease that affects millions of people from children to older adults. There is no cure, although it can be managed to prevent complications. Education of student nurses is where they are born and raised to become nurses who save and change lives. Teaching student nurses in depth about diabetes as a disease and the treatments that best fit their specific needs is where educating patients begins. Learning about a secondary option for blood glucose checks can make all the difference for several patients. Multiple finger sticks daily has been the leading way to check blood sugar for ...


Cultural Influences On Dietary Self-Management Of Type 2 Diabetes In East Asian Americans: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review, Tony Li-Geng, Jessica Kilham, Katherine M. Mcleod Mar 2020

Cultural Influences On Dietary Self-Management Of Type 2 Diabetes In East Asian Americans: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review, Tony Li-Geng, Jessica Kilham, Katherine M. Mcleod

Open Access Articles

Purpose: Many East Asian Americans (EAAs) (populations originating from China, Korea, Japan, and Taiwan) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) experience unique challenges in managing their disease, including language barriers and traditional cultural beliefs, particularly among first-generation immigrants. The purpose of this mixed-methods systematic review was to examine cultural perspectives of EAAs that influence dietary self-management of T2DM and identify education interventions and their approaches to enhance EAAs' dietary self-management of diabetes.

Methods: A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted to examine EAAs' perspectives from qualitative studies and to identify education interventions and their approaches from quantitative studies. A literature search ...


Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Is Associated With Increased Tumor Expression Of Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (Pd-L1) In Surgically Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - A Matched Case-Control Study, Christopher A. Febres-Aldana, Robert Poppiti, John M. Varlotto, Rick Voland, Michael Zaleski, Setareh Sharzehi, Negar Rassaei Mar 2020

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Is Associated With Increased Tumor Expression Of Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (Pd-L1) In Surgically Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - A Matched Case-Control Study, Christopher A. Febres-Aldana, Robert Poppiti, John M. Varlotto, Rick Voland, Michael Zaleski, Setareh Sharzehi, Negar Rassaei

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVES: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression is a biomarker for cancer immunotherapy. Diabetes mellitus type-2 is a comorbid disease associated with adverse outcomes in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to investigate the differences in PD-L1 expression in diabetics.

METHODS: A matched case-control cohort of surgically-resected NSCLC was assembled from an early multicenter study (PMID: 19152440). PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (Clone 22C3) was graded by a tumor positive score (TPS) system (TPS0: no staining; TPS1: < 1%; TPS2: 1-49%; TPS3: > /=50%). Variables showing significance at univariate survival analysis were fit in a Cox regression survival model.

RESULTS: Diabetics (n=40) and nondiabetics (n=39) showed no ...


Detection Of P2x3 In Drg Using An Automated Approach To Immunoblotting, Jess, Junghoon Lee, Audrey J. Stone, Michelle L. Harrison Feb 2020

Detection Of P2x3 In Drg Using An Automated Approach To Immunoblotting, Jess, Junghoon Lee, Audrey J. Stone, Michelle L. Harrison

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Exaggerated cardiovascular (CV) responses to exercise can lead to adverse CV events. Previous studies have reported that P2X3 receptors, found on the peripheral endings of afferents, contribute to an exaggerated exercise pressor reflex in individuals with CV-related diseases. One way to investigate the role played by these receptors in CV pathophysiology is through immunoblotting. The Jess (Protein Simple) provides an automated option for the protein separation and immunoblotting of the traditional Western Blot and allows for total protein staining, an improvement over the use of loading controls to normalize for sample loading variability. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study ...


The Effect Of Acute And Chronic Thermotherapy On Type 2 Diabetic Skeletal Muscle Cell Viability And Gene Expression: Pilot Study, Louay Bachnak, Jean Sparks, Xavier F. Gonzales, Daniel Newmire, Felix Omoruyi Feb 2020

The Effect Of Acute And Chronic Thermotherapy On Type 2 Diabetic Skeletal Muscle Cell Viability And Gene Expression: Pilot Study, Louay Bachnak, Jean Sparks, Xavier F. Gonzales, Daniel Newmire, Felix Omoruyi

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease affecting millions of people globally. Type 2 diabetes is associated with insulin resistance or a defective secretion of insulin from the pancreas. The skeletal muscle system accounts for 80% of glucose uptake and is a vital player in healthy aging and muscle mass maintenance. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thermotherapy on gene expression and cell viability in Type 2 Diabetic skeletal muscle. METHODS: Human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) and Diabetic Type 2 human skeletal muscle myoblast (D-HSMM) (Lonza Inc, Walkersville, MD) were cultured until 90% confluency was ...


Plasma Lipid, Glucose, And Immune Responses To Consumption Of Nutritive And Nonnutritive Sweeteners And Exercise, Jarrett Walbolt, Yunsuk Koh Feb 2020

Plasma Lipid, Glucose, And Immune Responses To Consumption Of Nutritive And Nonnutritive Sweeteners And Exercise, Jarrett Walbolt, Yunsuk Koh

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Although nonnutritive sweeteners are widely used as substitutes for nutritive sweeteners, it is currently uncertain how these commonly available sweeteners affect plasma glucose and lipid metabolism. PURPOSE: To examine how nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners influence plasma lipid profiles, complete blood counts, and plasma glucose content at rest and during exercise. METHODS: This randomized, double-blinded, cross-over design study included 9 healthy, college aged, individuals (4 females and 5 males). In four separate visits, participants consumed 8 oz of sweetened drink in random order with either 445mg of stevia, 507mg of aspartame, 169mg of sucralose, or 110,000mg of sucrose mixed into ...


Hypertension And Diabetes Treatment Affordability And Government Expenditures Following Changes In Patient Cost Sharing In The "Farmacia Popular" Program In Brazil: An Interrupted Time Series Study, Isabel Cristina Martins Emmerick, Monica Rodrigues Campos, Rondineli Mendes. Da Silva, Luisa Arueira Chaves, Andrea Damaso Bertoldi, Dennis Ross-Degnan, Vera Lucia Luiza Jan 2020

Hypertension And Diabetes Treatment Affordability And Government Expenditures Following Changes In Patient Cost Sharing In The "Farmacia Popular" Program In Brazil: An Interrupted Time Series Study, Isabel Cristina Martins Emmerick, Monica Rodrigues Campos, Rondineli Mendes. Da Silva, Luisa Arueira Chaves, Andrea Damaso Bertoldi, Dennis Ross-Degnan, Vera Lucia Luiza

Surgery Publications

BACKGROUND: Increasing medicines availability and affordability is a key goal of Brazilian health policies. "Farmacia Popular" (FP) Program is one of the government's key strategies to achieve this goal. Under FP, antihypertension (HTN) and antiglycemic (DM) medicines have been provided at subsidized prices in private retail settings since 2006, and free of charge since 2011. We aim to assess the impact of sequential changes in FP benefits on patient affordability and government expenditures for HTN and DM treatment under the FP, and examine their implications for public financing mechanisms and program sustainability.

METHODS: Longitudinal, retrospective study using interrupted time ...


Preoperative Maximization To Reduce Complications In Spinal Surgery, Sukanta Maitra, Christopher Mikhail, Samuel K. Cho, Michael D. Daubs Jan 2020

Preoperative Maximization To Reduce Complications In Spinal Surgery, Sukanta Maitra, Christopher Mikhail, Samuel K. Cho, Michael D. Daubs

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Study design: Invited narrative review. Objectives: The aim of this review was to summarize current literature regarding risk factors that surgeons can optimize in the preoperative setting in the spinal surgery patient, in order to reduce complications and improve patient-reported outcomes. Methods: Review of the relevant literature by the authors. Results: Modifiable risk factors identified relative to the patient include obesity, malnutrition/nutrient deficiency, diabetes/hyperglycemia, preoperative anemia, vitamin D/DEXA (dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry), nicotine use/smoking, and opioid use/psychosocial factors. Conclusion: By maximizing a patient's physiological and psychological status prior to elective spine surgery, we may move ...


Prediction Of Neonatal Birthweight Associated With Maternal Obesity And Diabetes, Laura Gleason, Rebekah Mccurdy, Md, Mph Jan 2020

Prediction Of Neonatal Birthweight Associated With Maternal Obesity And Diabetes, Laura Gleason, Rebekah Mccurdy, Md, Mph

Phase 1

Introduction: To design a model that will predict neonatal birth weight within obese mothers by diabetic status.

Methods: A secondary data analysis of an RCT (NCT 02909582) was utilized to create a neonatal birth weight prediction model. Women (n=325) with a BMI > 35 kg/m2 from a tertiary academic institution, 2016 – 2019, were included to estimate the risk of large for gestational age (LGA) infants and neonatal birth weight based on maternal prepregnancy BMI and diabetic status. LGA was defined as an infant birth weight > 90th percentile. Analysis included Chi-square, t-test, multivariate logistic and linear regression.

Results: Mean birthweight ...


Addressing Exercise Accessibility In Winter Conditions In Milton, Vermont, Liam Du Preez Jan 2020

Addressing Exercise Accessibility In Winter Conditions In Milton, Vermont, Liam Du Preez

Family Medicine Clerkship Student Projects

Exercise is a critical aspect of health maintenance, especially in the context of chronic medical problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and obesity. Weather and climate conditions in Vermont directly impact Vermonters' ability to exercise, and this results in negative impacts in their health maintenance and healthcare costs nationally and locally. This project explores the direct and indirect impact of decreased exercise and explore a modality for informing patients on how to stay active safely in the winter.


Nighttime Melatonin Administration And Insulin Sensitivity, Albert Mchugh, Cynthia Cheng, Md, Phd Jan 2020

Nighttime Melatonin Administration And Insulin Sensitivity, Albert Mchugh, Cynthia Cheng, Md, Phd

Phase 1

Introduction: Previous studies have shown melatonin effects on insulin sensitivity, but with conflicting results. The inconsistency between these studies may be due to differences in melatonin dosage and subject age. Low melatonin dosages, generally <5 mg, have been used in prior research. We studied the effect of melatonin 9 mg for 6 weeks on insulin resistance, peripheral microvascular function, and sleep in non-diabetic, non-hypertensive middle-aged and geriatric patients.

Methods: Subjects with a history of hypertension or diabetes were excluded from the study. The geriatric cohort included 5 subjects 60-80 years old while the younger cohort was comprised of 14 subjects age 27-45 years old. Fifteen subjects were randomized to the melatonin treatment group and took 9 mg of controlled-release melatonin by mouth 30 minutes before bedtime for 6 weeks; the four subjects in the ...


The Effect Of Intrapartum Glycemic Control On The Incidence Of Neonatal Hypoglycemia, Signe Caksa, Amanda Roman, Md Jan 2020

The Effect Of Intrapartum Glycemic Control On The Incidence Of Neonatal Hypoglycemia, Signe Caksa, Amanda Roman, Md

Phase 1

Introduction: 1-2% and 6-9% of pregnancies are complicated by type I/II and gestational diabetes mellitus (DM), respectively, leading to increased risk of adverse neonatal outcomes. Women with DM require glucose monitoring and glycemic control at the time of delivery; however, it remains unclear how variations in intrapartum glucose impact neonatal hypoglycemia.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of women with singleton pregnancies, diagnosed with DM, who delivered >36 weeks gestation after attempting induction of labor at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital between 01/01/2017 and 01/01/2018. Intrapartum DM management included hourly capillary glucose (CG) monitoring until ...


Effects Of Medications On Cognitive Function And Falls In Older African Americans With Diabetes, Diana Alnemri, Robin J. Casten Jan 2020

Effects Of Medications On Cognitive Function And Falls In Older African Americans With Diabetes, Diana Alnemri, Robin J. Casten

Phase 1

Introduction: Potentially-inappropriate medications (PIMs) are medications that have increased rates of adverse drug events in older adults. Medications with anticholinergic activity are classified as PIMs since they can lead to cognitive dysfunction and increased fall risk. PIM use is higher among African Americans (AA) than Whites.

Methods: This study explored relationships among cognitive function, falls, and PIMs in AAs with diabetes. This study recruited AAs with diabetes (n=99, age ≥60yrs) who were seen in the Emergency Department (ED), and were enrolled in a trial of a behavioral intervention to improve diabetes management. PIMs were based on the Beer’s ...


Exercise And Physical Activity In Individuals With Type 1 Diabetes, Shelby Fisher Jan 2020

Exercise And Physical Activity In Individuals With Type 1 Diabetes, Shelby Fisher

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This paper will investigate, describe, and discuss the challenges that youth and adult athletes with Type 1 Diabetes face in order to successfully perform in sports while maintaining their health treatment goals. This paper will also describe how these challenges are overcome and this paper will share individual experiences from both adults and youth who have Type 1 Diabetes. This paper will describe meal management with sport, blood glucose monitoring with sport, medication management with sport, and interaction with the healthcare team and the athlete. This paper will also investigate the school personnel’s involvement in regard to assisting the ...


Internal Medicine Consultation For Dentists, Nina Mingioni, Md Jan 2020

Internal Medicine Consultation For Dentists, Nina Mingioni, Md

Clinical Education Teaching Tools

Learning Objectives:

  • Recognize ubiquitous nature of common medical condition in general population
  • Discuss implications of common medical conditions on dental care of patients
  • Identify concerns affecting patients that would necessitate medical consultation prior to dental intervention


Health Literacy And Diabetes Among Refugee Women Residing In Arizona, Aline Nina Indatwa Jan 2020

Health Literacy And Diabetes Among Refugee Women Residing In Arizona, Aline Nina Indatwa

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

There is limited research available linking health literacy and diabetes knowledge to poor health outcomes among refugees. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of health literacy and diabetes knowledge and examine whether different factors (age, education, employment status, number of years lived with diabetes and length of stay since resettlement) are associated with health literacy and diabetes knowledge. A cross-sectional study was performed among 82 refugee women with a known diagnosis of diabetes and residing in Maricopa County, Arizona. A modified two part questionnaire (self-reported health literacy extracted from the European Health Literacy Questionnaire [HLS-EU-Q16] and ...


Revisions Of A Clinical Practice Guideline For Diabetes Management Protocol, Daniel O. Huston Jan 2020

Revisions Of A Clinical Practice Guideline For Diabetes Management Protocol, Daniel O. Huston

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is essential from cost and treatment perspectives. In 2017, costs associated with diabetes management in the United States amounted to approximately $327 billion. The treatment of T2DM has been in a dynamic state for the past several years with the arrival of new classes of medications and new data supporting the use of diabetes medications to reduce risks from cardiovascular disease and slow the decline of renal function. This project explored the current evidence on treatment of T2DM to support changing either the flow of the current protocol algorithm or the medications identified ...


Treatment Plans For Diabetes Management During Hurricane Maria In Puerto Rico, Joel De La Cruz Oller Jan 2020

Treatment Plans For Diabetes Management During Hurricane Maria In Puerto Rico, Joel De La Cruz Oller

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health outcomes of diabetic patients in Puerto Rico, before, during, and after Hurricane Maria, in 2017. The Department of Health in Puerto Rico provided the secondary data for the variables low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), mortality, and consumer price index (CPI). The inclusion criteria were participants for whom electronic data were available before, during, and after Hurricane Maria; the sample size was 450. The theoretical framework for this investigation was the health outcomes and impact assessment. The data were analyzed by univariate and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare ...


Comparison Of Low Carbohydrate Diets On Renal And Glucose Function In Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Garrett A. Couch Jan 2020

Comparison Of Low Carbohydrate Diets On Renal And Glucose Function In Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Garrett A. Couch

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Background - Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a growing crisis that can lead to more problems if left untreated. One of these problems includes diabetic nephropathy or Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). While there have been many advances in the field of treating CKD with medication, there are currently no medications with the capability of stopping the progression of or reversing diabetic nephropathy; however, recent studies have shown that diabetic nephropathy can be stopped and even reversed through dietary interventions. One of these studies went through the effects of a low protein diet on diabetic nephropathy and found very promising results ...


Nhe1 And Tau Pathology: Tragically Tangled Together?, Caitlin Rae Wessel Jan 2020

Nhe1 And Tau Pathology: Tragically Tangled Together?, Caitlin Rae Wessel

Lewis Honors College Capstone Collection

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease that poses a large public health challenge due to its complex, mixed pathology. One hallmark characteristic of AD is the development of toxic neurofibrillary tau tangles (NFT), which have been associated with the neurodegenerative component of AD. There is also compelling evidence that cerebrovascular disease puts individuals at a greater risk for experiencing the cognitive decline characteristic of dementias like AD. Past research has shown that individuals suffering from cerebrovascular disease and AD (not necessarily simultaneously) display an increased expression of the sodium-hydrogen antiporter-1 (NHE1), a plasma membrane protein ubiquitously expressed ...