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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Accessing Healthcare In The Era Of Covid-19 For Youth Experiencing Homelessness, Ray Mak Jan 2022

Accessing Healthcare In The Era Of Covid-19 For Youth Experiencing Homelessness, Ray Mak

Family Medicine Clerkship Student Projects

Youth experiencing homelessness face multifactorial challenges in obtaining adequate health literacy. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the need for healthcare as well as heightened confusion with the spread of health misinformation. This project aims to provide a step-by-step guide for when youth should seek medical treatment for COVID-19 to avoid unnecessary medical costs.


Making Room: Addressing The Counter-Therapeutic Nature Of Psychiatric Hospitalization Through Containment- Based Group Expressive Therapy, Max Sandor Copans May 2021

Making Room: Addressing The Counter-Therapeutic Nature Of Psychiatric Hospitalization Through Containment- Based Group Expressive Therapy, Max Sandor Copans

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

The process of hospitalization and the environment of a typical psychiatric hospital is often counter-therapeutic. To challenge this problem, clinicians may introduce the concept of psychological containment. To elaborate, being hospitalized anywhere can be disorienting, frightening and even traumatic. This problem is only further exacerbated in psychiatric hospitals where patients may be disorganized, manic, or struggling with psychosis. Furthermore, psychological containment is essentially the ability for psychiatric patients to prevent their intense emotions from effecting others negatively, and to act with resiliency when other patients are unable to contain their own disruptive behaviors. This paper utilizes both an initial literature ...


Get America Talking: Implementing Advanced Care Planning In Primary Care, Sasha Recht May 2021

Get America Talking: Implementing Advanced Care Planning In Primary Care, Sasha Recht

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

Advanced Care Planning (ACP) is an essential part of providing adequate care in the primary care setting. Discussing end of life with patients can be a tedious and uncomfortable conversation for many providers, however, its continued avoidance contributes to the stigma of end of life care and may also result in significant healthcare cost expenditure with the use of unwanted invasive treatments. All providers should engage in consistent advanced care planning in order to improve patient and provider communication, improve patient satisfaction, increase advanced directives on file, reduce the stigma of the topic, and improve quality of life.


Treatment Anxiety Education For Pediatric Cardiac Neurodevelopmental Patients, An Evidence Based Project, Mary Nagel May 2021

Treatment Anxiety Education For Pediatric Cardiac Neurodevelopmental Patients, An Evidence Based Project, Mary Nagel

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

Abstract

Background

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect and affects almost 1% of all live births. Treatment anxiety is common among children with CHD who undergo multiple procedures early in their lifetime. Dramatically increased life spans for this cardiac population has led to a shift from focusing on survival to their long-term health outcomes.

Methods:

Administration of the Peds QL Cardiac Module 3.0 assesses health related quality of life (HRQOL) during annual visits to a Cardiac Neurodevelopmental (ND) Clinic by evaluating the level of Treatment Anxiety a patient experiences during healthcare appointments. The questionnaire scores ...


Achieving Advance Care Planning In Diverse Populations Via Teleconferencing With Skilled Nursing Facility Residents, Tania Huezo May 2021

Achieving Advance Care Planning In Diverse Populations Via Teleconferencing With Skilled Nursing Facility Residents, Tania Huezo

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

Background: Advance care planning (ACP) has always been a priority in healthcare, and even more crucial during the COVID-19 pandemic. It has been extremely challenging for ACP to occur in the skilled nursing facility (SNF) population once social distancing restrictions were put in place to protect residents and staff.

Purpose: The purpose of this evidence-based project was to assess the effectiveness of ACP via teleconferencing with skilled nursing facility (SNF) residents in the hope of increasing completion of high-quality Physician’s Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) forms.

Methods: The San Diego Coalition for Compassionate Care developed an ACP community outreach ...


Standardized Education On Physician Orders For Life Sustaining Treatment (Polst) Conversations, Venessa Oteniya May 2021

Standardized Education On Physician Orders For Life Sustaining Treatment (Polst) Conversations, Venessa Oteniya

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

According to research literature, 15% of Medicare beneficiaries spend more than 7 days in the intensive care unit before they die. These Medicare beneficiaries receive aggressive, life-prolonging medical treatments that might not be in agreement with their wishes. Approximately 13% of SNF residents have improperly completed POLST forms that can result in intensive treatments that patients did not want. One barrier to the lack of POLST completion in SNFs is staff difficulty with understanding and explaining the form, a result of inadequate education.

In August 2020, the San Diego Coalition for Compassionate Care formed an education program to provide virtual ...


A Guide To Vaccine Policy Change At A National Level, Janelle Bird May 2021

A Guide To Vaccine Policy Change At A National Level, Janelle Bird

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

Abstract

Health policy is in a near constant state of improvement. In order to solidify those improvements, health policy requires assistance from the upcoming generations of healthcare workers to push for those changes. Due to the outdated vaccination policy in the American Nurses Association (ANA), many states continued to issue exemptions based upon unsupported religious preferences. This helped to worsen the outbreak of measles in 2018-2019. The Previous ANA Policy on Vaccinations as of July 21, 2015 stated the ANA supports immunization exemptions only for the following reasons: Medical contraindications and Religious beliefs. Educate and train future health care professionals ...


Improving Vaccination Uptake In The Latinx Community Through Standardized Outreach, Vanessa M. Arteaga May 2021

Improving Vaccination Uptake In The Latinx Community Through Standardized Outreach, Vanessa M. Arteaga

Master's Projects and Capstones

Vaccine hesitancy during the COVID-19 pandemic has been an issue in the Latinx and Black community since the initial discussions of the emergency use of the experimental Moderna and Pfizer vaccines. The aim of this project is to standardize the patient outreach process to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake. Patients at a community clinic in Oakland have expressed hesitance of the COVID-19 vaccine. They also exhibited increased frustration with the staff who are contacting them to schedule vaccine appointments and provide information. This resulted in refusal of the vaccine and less than desirable number of vaccine appointments. The objective of this ...


Providing High Reliability Care For Picu Patients With Pulmonary Hypertension: A Quality Improvement Project, Anjali Subbaswamy, Nicholas Tan, Iric Guthrie, Kelsey Fath, Cole Linzmeyer, Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez May 2021

Providing High Reliability Care For Picu Patients With Pulmonary Hypertension: A Quality Improvement Project, Anjali Subbaswamy, Nicholas Tan, Iric Guthrie, Kelsey Fath, Cole Linzmeyer, Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez

Quality Improvement/Patient Safety Symposium

Providing High Reliability Care for PICU Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension: A Quality Improvement Project

Anjali Subbaswamy, MD; Nicholas Tan, DO; Iric Guthrie, MD; Kelsey Fath, MD; Cole Linzmeyer, DO; Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez, PhD, RDN, LD

Purpose: Pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension (PHTN) are a high acuity, low frequency population, and are often admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). To mitigate the risk of precipitating a potentially life-threatening pulmonary hypertensive crisis, health care staff need to take specific precautions. This quality improvement (QI) project aims to increase the number of inpatient PHTN patients for whom PHTN precautions are applied ...


Biomedical Ethics In The Medical School Curriculum: Lessons Learned From The Holocaust, Emma Flanagan May 2021

Biomedical Ethics In The Medical School Curriculum: Lessons Learned From The Holocaust, Emma Flanagan

College Honors Program

The Holocaust, the murder of 6 million Jews, is the only medically-santioned genocide. This thesis explores the roles of Nazi doctors in the planning, organizing, and implementation of the organized mass murder of European Jewry. Given the German medical community’s complicity, it is imperative that physicians today are well informed about their profession’s history of involvement in the Holocaust. In addition, and by way of contrast, a study of the moral challenges faced by doctors imprisoned in concentration camps or in the ghettos of Nazi-occupied Europe might serve to better prepare physicians for future ethical dilemmas. In a ...


Impactful Interactions With Medical Interpretation, Alyssa L. Reinschmidt May 2021

Impactful Interactions With Medical Interpretation, Alyssa L. Reinschmidt

Honors Thesis

The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of healthcare that one can receive when the language barrier is a factor, looking specifically at the collaboration of interpreters and physicians in the delivery of care. To carry out this study, I have analyzed the presence of the language barrier in South Dakota, the current methods of interpretation in clinical settings, and how physicians and interpreters work together to provide care to Limited English Proficiency (LEP) patients. Data has been collected from scholarly articles, journals, presentations, and videos.

Ultimately, with my committee’s help, I have created a physician-interpreter ...


Continuing Education Preferences Amongst Crnas, Jamie Nichting May 2021

Continuing Education Preferences Amongst Crnas, Jamie Nichting

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects

The Illinois Association of Nurse Anesthetists (IANA) is a professional organization representing Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs). To ensure compliance with high standards of care in the profession, CRNAs are required to obtain continuing education units (CEUs) for each 4-year certification period. The IANA offers conferences in both fall and spring, however, a loss in attendance and revenue at state meetings concerns the board members as to how state members are complying with the educational requirements to remain certified. It was imperative that the IANA needed to implement new educational opportunities that actively engaged CRNAs resulting in an increase in ...


Service-Learning And Case-Based Learning’S Impact On Student’S Clinical Reasoning : A Repeated Measures Design Study, Gordon B. Tsubira May 2021

Service-Learning And Case-Based Learning’S Impact On Student’S Clinical Reasoning : A Repeated Measures Design Study, Gordon B. Tsubira

Occupational Therapy Capstone Presentations

Clinical reasoning is crucial for the occupational therapy profession to thrive in an ever-changing healthcare environment but is seldom isolated for explicit instruction and outcome measurement in course curricula. A single-factor repeated measures design study was conducted to compare the impact of didactic case-based learning and experiential service-learning on the development of the clinical reasoning of students at a midwestern public university’s entry-level master of occupational therapy program. The participants were sixteen graduate occupational therapy students who had completed their foundation-level courses.

Participants explored modes of clinical reasoning in occupational therapy for eight weeks (the first half of the ...


Correlation Between Servant Leadership And Organizational Commitment Within An Academic Health Center, Cheryl Bellamy May 2021

Correlation Between Servant Leadership And Organizational Commitment Within An Academic Health Center, Cheryl Bellamy

Servant Leadership: Theory & Practice

Correlation Between Servant Leadership and Organizational Commitment

Abstract

This paper presents an overview of a study of the relationship between servant leadership and organizational commitment. The study included a convenience sample of 84 full and part-time employees of a health professions education unit within an academic health center. Participants were surveyed using the Executive Servant Leadership Scale (ESLS) to assess servant leadership and the Klein Unidimensional Target-free (KUT) instrument to assess organizational commitment. Data analysis was conducted using Kendall’s tau-b and Spearman’s rho. Results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between servant leadership and organizational commitment ...


Menstrual Dysfunction As The Leading Clinical Marker For The Future Development Of The Female Athlete Triad: A Meta-Analysis, Sydney Hotz May 2021

Menstrual Dysfunction As The Leading Clinical Marker For The Future Development Of The Female Athlete Triad: A Meta-Analysis, Sydney Hotz

Health and Kinesiology Theses

The Female Athlete Triad is a diagnosable medical condition that is under researched and very prevalent in female sports today. The development of the Female Athlete Triad, or any of its components, can negatively impact many aspects of a female athlete’s life. If clinical markers could be identified that indicate future development of the Triad, it could potentially help prevent occurrence of the condition and greatly reduce the number of female’s that have to suffer from it. Menstrual dysfunction could be the leading clinical marker for the future development of the Triad. This meta-analysis seeks to explore the ...


Dnp Final Report: Reducing The Rate Of Falls With A Stuctured Fall Program, Elanda L. Douglas May 2021

Dnp Final Report: Reducing The Rate Of Falls With A Stuctured Fall Program, Elanda L. Douglas

DNP Final Reports

Background: Fall rates continue to be a significant problem in health care facilities despite all the research and tool kits created to prevent falls. Hospitals that have successfully reduced fall rates find it challenging to sustain a reduction in the fall rates. During hospitalizations, 3%-20% of patients fall, with 30%-50% resulting in injury (Joint Commission, [JC], 2015).

Internal Evidence: Despite Medical City Alliance (MCA) having an evidence-based fall program, the fall rate has not decreased. Falls are one of the quality measures identified at the division level that needs improvement.

PICOT: In adult patients in a progressive care ...


A Pilot Study Comparing Over And Under Triage Systems At A Center Pursuing Trauma Accreditation, Caitlyn N. Balsay Bs, Mr, Bree A. Harrison Bsn, Rn, Tcrn, Joseph J. Stirparo Md, Michael T. Crowley Md, Nicholas P. Johnson Do, Bryan G. Kane Md, Kathleen E. Kane Md May 2021

A Pilot Study Comparing Over And Under Triage Systems At A Center Pursuing Trauma Accreditation, Caitlyn N. Balsay Bs, Mr, Bree A. Harrison Bsn, Rn, Tcrn, Joseph J. Stirparo Md, Michael T. Crowley Md, Nicholas P. Johnson Do, Bryan G. Kane Md, Kathleen E. Kane Md

USF-LVHN SELECT

No abstract provided.


Emergency Medicine Resident Identification Of Medication Safety Issues, Natalie E. Ebeling-Koning Do, Charles A. Soares Md, Gillian A. Beauchamp Md, Gavin C. Barr Jr. Md, Terrence E. Goyke Do, Shawn M. Quinn Do, Kevin Weaver D.O.,Facoep, Dawn M. Yenser C-Tagme, Bryan G. Kane Md May 2021

Emergency Medicine Resident Identification Of Medication Safety Issues, Natalie E. Ebeling-Koning Do, Charles A. Soares Md, Gillian A. Beauchamp Md, Gavin C. Barr Jr. Md, Terrence E. Goyke Do, Shawn M. Quinn Do, Kevin Weaver D.O.,Facoep, Dawn M. Yenser C-Tagme, Bryan G. Kane Md

Department of Emergency Medicine

No abstract provided.


Preserving Safety While Upholding The Integrity Of Medical Education And Practical Skills: The Impact Of Covid-19 On Teaching Human Anatomy, Anna Cowan May 2021

Preserving Safety While Upholding The Integrity Of Medical Education And Practical Skills: The Impact Of Covid-19 On Teaching Human Anatomy, Anna Cowan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The global pandemic caused by COVID-19 placed constraints on several aspects of normal life, especially those of higher level education. While many programs moved to teaching in a strictly online format, there are some courses in which this structure was not appropriate. This study observed the outcome of the adapted course structure employed at Quillen College of Medicine during their Gross Human Anatomy course. Through a voluntary survey and multiple independent t-tests, it was demonstrated that the students who took the adapted course performed, on average, 2 points lower on each exam than previous classes. Also, this study showed that ...


May 2021, Swosu Bulldog Wellness Committee May 2021

May 2021, Swosu Bulldog Wellness Committee

SWOSU BULLDOG WELLNESS

National Osteoporosis Month

About 54 million Americans have osteoporosis and low bone mass, placing them at increased risk for osteoporosis.

American Stroke Awareness Month

Stroke is dangerous and deadly, but you can control and treat several risk factors for it.


Exposure To Weight Management Counseling Among Students At 8 U.S. Medical Schools, Karen M. Ashe, Alan C. Geller, Jyothi A. Pendharkar, Lori Pbert, Sybil L. Crawford, Melissa A. Clark, Christine F. Frisard, Cassie A. Eno, Jamie Faro, Judith K. Ockene May 2021

Exposure To Weight Management Counseling Among Students At 8 U.S. Medical Schools, Karen M. Ashe, Alan C. Geller, Jyothi A. Pendharkar, Lori Pbert, Sybil L. Crawford, Melissa A. Clark, Christine F. Frisard, Cassie A. Eno, Jamie Faro, Judith K. Ockene

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: Clinical guidelines support physician intervention consistent with the Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange framework for adults who have obesity. However, weight management counseling curricula vary across medical schools. It is unknown how frequently students receive experiences in weight management counseling, such as instruction, observation, and direct experience.

METHODS: A cross-sectional survey, conducted in 2017, of 730 third-year medical students in 8 U.S. medical schools assessed the frequency of direct patient, observational, and instructional weight management counseling experiences that were reported as summed scores with a range of 018. Analysis was completed in 2017.

RESULTS: Students reported the least ...


Mr. Watson, Come Here-I Want To See You: One Rural Residency Program’S Rapid Pivot To Telemedicine During The Pandemic, William J. Crump, Diana M. Nims, Douglas J. Hatler Apr 2021

Mr. Watson, Come Here-I Want To See You: One Rural Residency Program’S Rapid Pivot To Telemedicine During The Pandemic, William J. Crump, Diana M. Nims, Douglas J. Hatler

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Telemedicine has been used for over a generation, but application has been limited in rural areas by lack of payment, licensure issues, cumbersome video equipment, and challenges with digital communications. Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, our rural family medicine residency made a rapid shift to all telemedicine services for our patients.

We collected data on a 4-week period in April 2020 as we transitioned to 100% telemedicine consultations. We compare that to a 4-week period prior to mid-March when activities were normal for us. We collected detailed visit summaries, patient feedback, and physician feedback and compared these two periods.

Early ...


Medical Education During Covid-19 Pandemic: The Experience Of Faculty Of Medicine, Beirut Arab University (Bau): Challenges, Successes And Lessons Learned, Naglaa Mashaal, Hala Ahmadieh Apr 2021

Medical Education During Covid-19 Pandemic: The Experience Of Faculty Of Medicine, Beirut Arab University (Bau): Challenges, Successes And Lessons Learned, Naglaa Mashaal, Hala Ahmadieh

BAU Journal - Health and Wellbeing

Background: The novel Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has significantly disrupted and challenged medical education at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. In this article, the experience at Beirut Arab University Faculty of Medicine (BAUFM), during the COVID-19 pandemic, is being shared with its challenges, successes and lessons learned. The program of BAUFM is divided into three phases: Pre-Clerkship (Semesters 1 to 6), Clerkship (Semesters 7 to 10), and Pre-internship (Semesters 11 and 12), it extends over six years duration, followed by one year of Internship. The curriculum is developed to be outcomes-based, and is composed from Phases and Modules. Methodology: In this ...


Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among Dentists, Darine Al Bakri, Mohammad Itani, Mirna Fawaz Apr 2021

Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among Dentists, Darine Al Bakri, Mohammad Itani, Mirna Fawaz

BAU Journal - Health and Wellbeing

Dentists are at high risk for contracting Hepatitis B virus (HBV), which leads to severe liver disease. Proper infection control measures are supposed to be in place to avoid transmission, especially with the exposure to blood that dentists are at risk of. A cross-sectional study with quantitative method using a valid research questionnaire. A convenience sample of 101 dentists from around Lebanon participated in the study. The results showed that 83% of the participating dentists were vaccinated yet only 21% received the required dose for prevention against HBV. The dentists had moderate to high knowledge of HBV infection control measures ...


To Care When There Is No Cure: Chronic Illness And Medicine, Skylar Nash, Skylar Nash Apr 2021

To Care When There Is No Cure: Chronic Illness And Medicine, Skylar Nash, Skylar Nash

Honors Theses

Millions of people worldwide are suffering from chronic illness at this very moment. Just in the United States, a little less than half of the entire population has been diagnosed with a chronic illness, and a large portion of those patients have been diagnosed with multiple chronic diseases. Those stricken by incurable illness are forced to face and manage their unique illness experience along with the side-effects of the disease itself. For this subset of the population, everyday normal activity can become relatively impossible to work through. There are financial, psychological, social, and physical obstacles to overcome every day that ...


Holding Traction During Ct: Simple Tricks To Maintain Reduction In The Lower Extremity, Garrhett G. Via, David A. Brueggeman, Alexander Chase, Jennifer L. Jerele, Kyle S. Mobley Apr 2021

Holding Traction During Ct: Simple Tricks To Maintain Reduction In The Lower Extremity, Garrhett G. Via, David A. Brueggeman, Alexander Chase, Jennifer L. Jerele, Kyle S. Mobley

Medical Student Research Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Traction is one of the pillars of orthopaedic injury management, as it can provide both temporizing and definitive treatment for anatomic malalignment associated with joint dislocations and fractures. In the realm of modern orthopaedic care, post-traction imaging provides the surgeon with information about resting fracture position and the overall effects of traction that are critical to preoperative planning. However, there are often circumstances in which an orthopaedic surgery provider is faced with the discrepancy between the proper sequence of orthopaedic care and the need for emergent, advanced imaging to evaluate other organ systems. In other words, they are often forced ...


Identifying Factors Underlying The Decision For Genetic Carrier Screening Among Women In Montgomery County, Sowon Kim, Rose A. Maxwell Apr 2021

Identifying Factors Underlying The Decision For Genetic Carrier Screening Among Women In Montgomery County, Sowon Kim, Rose A. Maxwell

Medical Student Research Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Genetic Carrier Screening (GCS) is a genetic test that allows patients to find out if they carry genes for certain genetic disorders. The results of the test enable patients to make changes to their family planning decisions and prenatal care when appropriate and allow them the opportunity to seek further medical and social support. Despite these health benefits and notable clinical utility of GCS, GCS has not been utilized in most nations due to moral and ethical controversy among the public. Previous studies have demonstrated patients’ ethnicity, socio-demographic (age, education) and economic factors were associated with the patient’s intention ...


Efficacy Of Urolift Procedure For Bph By A Single Center Of Excellence Over 5 Years, Joseph Wiedemer, Jennifer Espenschied, Trevor Mckoy, Benjamin Schmeusser, Andrew Drozd, Jeffrey Bierly, Michael Yu Apr 2021

Efficacy Of Urolift Procedure For Bph By A Single Center Of Excellence Over 5 Years, Joseph Wiedemer, Jennifer Espenschied, Trevor Mckoy, Benjamin Schmeusser, Andrew Drozd, Jeffrey Bierly, Michael Yu

Medical Student Research Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Since receiving FDA approval in 2013, the Urolift intervention for BPH has shown to be a promising alternative to the TURP characterized by nearly equal efficacy with markedly reduced recovery time. The 5-year L.I.F.T study is by far the most robust Urolift research published to-date, which reports on a prospective randomized controlled study of 206 subjects. The L.I.F.T study reported stable improvement in the vast majority of patients over 5 years including preserved uroflow improvement from initial post-op evaluation and just 13.6% requiring surgical retreatment. Despite the procedure’s ostensibly high efficacy, more ...


Tb Incidence In Us And Puerto-Rico From 1993 To 2017, Bowranigan Tharmalingam, Amber Todd Apr 2021

Tb Incidence In Us And Puerto-Rico From 1993 To 2017, Bowranigan Tharmalingam, Amber Todd

Medical Student Research Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The objective of this project is to test for possible correlation between the trend of Tuberculosis incidence rate in the US and the Tuberculosis incidence rate in PuertoRico from 1993 to 2017. Data from CDC Wonder-Online Tuberculosis InformationSystem and Pearson Correlation test were used to investigate the relationship. Analysis shows a positive association and a significant correlation between TB incidence rate between both region during the 26-year timeframe. This result has the potential for in-depth future research to identify the common variables and causes for the positive correlation.


Liposomal Bupivacaine Infiltration And Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Versus Standard Of Care For Post Caesarean Pain Control: A Retrospective Chart Review, Ellie Ganz, Darren Adams, Rose A. Maxwell, Theresa Roby, Marilyn Kindig Apr 2021

Liposomal Bupivacaine Infiltration And Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Versus Standard Of Care For Post Caesarean Pain Control: A Retrospective Chart Review, Ellie Ganz, Darren Adams, Rose A. Maxwell, Theresa Roby, Marilyn Kindig

Medical Student Research Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block and wound infiltration with local anesthetics are shown to reduce opiate use and pain scores when compared to controls who received narcotic pain medications. With the current opiate epidemic, finding different ways to control pain without opiates is important,-to prevent unnecessary use of these drugs and reduce the potential for addiction in patients having a Cesarean delivery who often times receive opiate medications on schedule regardless of their reported pain.