Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medicine and Health Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 3232

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Photographic Validation Of Target Versus Nontarget Take Of Brown Treesnake Baits, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Cynthia G. Payne, Francinem M. Chlarson, Craig S. Clark, Stephen M. Mosher May 2020

Photographic Validation Of Target Versus Nontarget Take Of Brown Treesnake Baits, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Cynthia G. Payne, Francinem M. Chlarson, Craig S. Clark, Stephen M. Mosher

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Use of toxic baits or other tools for managing nuisance species must ensure that the species of interest is adequately targeted while exposure to nontarget species is minimized. Nontarget takes of acetaminophen‐laced baits for control of invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam may put those animals at risk of lethal intoxication and render the bait unavailable to the intended target species. We used wildlife cameras to identify species removing toxic and nontoxic baits from brown treesnake bait stations designed to exclude nontarget taxa in 2015 and 2016. Throughout various sites and habitat types, and balanced by season (wet ...


Time Allocation To Resources By Three Species Of Rats (Rattus Spp.) In A Radial Arm Maze, Gary Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Rachael S. Moulton May 2020

Time Allocation To Resources By Three Species Of Rats (Rattus Spp.) In A Radial Arm Maze, Gary Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Rachael S. Moulton

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Context. Introduced rats (Rattus spp.) can pose a serious threat to native flora and fauna, especially on islands where most species have evolved in the absence of terrestrial predators. Effective detection and eradication methods for introduced rats are essential to the maintenance of insular ecosystem integrity. Thus, it is important to better understand the behaviour of rats when they first arrive in a new setting.

Aims. To determine whether rats would find some novel stimuli to be significantly more attractive than other novel stimuli.

Methods. An eight-arm radial maze was used to study the behaviour of three species of Rattus ...


Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck May 2020

Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Medium and large carnivores coexist with people in urban areas globally, occasionally resulting in

negative interactions that prompt questions about how to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Hazing,

i.e., scaring wildlife, is frequently promoted as an important non-lethal means for urbanites to reduce

conflict but there is limited scientific evidence for its efficacy. We used a population of captive coyotes (Canis latrans) to simulate urban human-coyote interactions and subsequent effects of hazing on coyote behavior. Past experiences with humans significantly affected the number of times a coyoteapproached a human to necessitate hazing. coyotes that had been hand fed by adults had ...


Hawaii As A Microcosm: Advancing The Science And Practice Of Managing Introduced And Invasive Species, Liba Pejchar, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Jean E. Fantle-Lepczyk, Steven C. Hess, M. Tracy Johnson, Christina R. Leopold, Michael Marchetti, Katherine M. Mcclure, Aaron B. Shiels May 2020

Hawaii As A Microcosm: Advancing The Science And Practice Of Managing Introduced And Invasive Species, Liba Pejchar, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Jean E. Fantle-Lepczyk, Steven C. Hess, M. Tracy Johnson, Christina R. Leopold, Michael Marchetti, Katherine M. Mcclure, Aaron B. Shiels

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive species are a leading driver of global change, with consequences for biodiversity and society. Because of extraordinary rates of endemism, introduction, and extinction, Hawaii offers a rich platform for exploring the cross-disciplinary challenges of managing invasive species in a dynamic world. We highlight key successes and shortcomings to share lessons learned and inspire innovation and action in and beyond the archipelago. We then discuss thematic challenges and opportunities of broad relevance to invaded ecosystems and human communities. Important research needs and possible actions include eradicating mammals from mainland island sanctuaries, assessing hidden threats from poorly known introduced species, harnessing ...


Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. Devault May 2020

Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. Devault

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Deer-vehicle collisions are a major transportation hazard, but factors affecting deer escape decision-making in response to vehicle approach remain poorly characterized. We made opportunistic observations of deer response to vehicle approach during daylight hours on a restricted- access facility in Ohio, USA (vehicle speeds were ≤64 km/h). We hypothesized that animal proximity to the road, group size, vehicle approach, and ambient conditions would affect perceived risk by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach, as measured by flight-initiation distance (FID). We constructed a priori models for FID, as well as road-crossing behavior. Deer responses were variable and did not ...


Protein Availability And Consumption, And Stunting Rates, For Primary School Children In The Southern Regions Of Ethiopia And Zambia, Megan Wackel May 2020

Protein Availability And Consumption, And Stunting Rates, For Primary School Children In The Southern Regions Of Ethiopia And Zambia, Megan Wackel

NUTR/GLST 498b: Global Research Experiences in Nutrition & Health

•Stunting is common in Sub-Sahara Africa, with millions of children who are short in stature also experiencing poor overall health and development, as well as poor school performance (Semba 2016; Semba, et al., 2016). •As many as 39% of children under 5 years of age in Ethiopia’s Sidama Region (formerly SNNPR) can be classified as stunted (CSA & ICF 2016). By comparison, 29% of under 5’s in Zambia’s Southern Province have short height for age (CSA, MOH, & ICF 2018). •Low protein and essential amino acid intake, among populations of 116 countries, has been suggested as the primary cause of stunting (Semba 2016; Semba, et al., 2016). •Given that Ethiopia and Zambia have high rates of stunting, children are unlikely to be consuming protein on a regular basis. Because data on protein availability and dietary intake are limited, this study was designed to explore availability ...


Smrt Sequencing Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1 Reveals Diverse Methylation Stability In Adenines Targeted By Restriction Modification Systems, Samantha R. Coy, Eric R. Gann, Spiridon E. Papoulis, Michael E. Holder, Nadim J. Ajami, Joseph F. Petrosino, Erik R. Zinser, James L. Van Etten, Steven W. Wilhelm May 2020

Smrt Sequencing Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1 Reveals Diverse Methylation Stability In Adenines Targeted By Restriction Modification Systems, Samantha R. Coy, Eric R. Gann, Spiridon E. Papoulis, Michael E. Holder, Nadim J. Ajami, Joseph F. Petrosino, Erik R. Zinser, James L. Van Etten, Steven W. Wilhelm

James Van Etten Publications

Chloroviruses (family Phycodnaviridae) infect eukaryotic, freshwater, unicellular green algae. A unique feature of these viruses is an abundance of DNA methyltransferases, with isolates dedicating up to 4.5% of their protein coding potential to these genes. This diversity highlights just one of the long-standing values of the chlorovirus model system; where group-wide epigenomic characterization might begin to elucidate the function(s) of DNA methylation in large dsDNA viruses. We characterized DNA modifications in the prototype chlorovirus, PBCV-1, using single-molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing (aka PacBio). Results were compared to total available sites predicted in silico based on DNA sequence alone ...


The Relationship Between The Cervical Microbiome And Cervical Cancer Risk In Sub-Saharan Africa, Cameron Klein Apr 2020

The Relationship Between The Cervical Microbiome And Cervical Cancer Risk In Sub-Saharan Africa, Cameron Klein

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Despite ongoing efforts, sub-Saharan Africa faces a higher cervical cancer burden than anywhere else in the world. Besides HPV infection, definitive factors of cervical cancer are still unclear. Dysbiosis of the cervicovaginal microbiota, particularly involving sexually transmitted infections, is associated with increased cervical cancer risk. Notably, HIV infection, which is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, greatly increases risk of cervicovaginal dysbiosis and cervical cancer. To better understand and address cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, a better understanding of the regional cervicovaginal microbiome is required. In this study, I establish the relationship between cervical cancer, HPV, HIV, cervicovaginal infections, and the cervicovaginal ...


Structure, Function And Metabolism Of Hepatic And Adipose Tissue Lipid Droplets: Implications In Alcoholic Liver Disease, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Karuna Rasineni, Murali Ganesan, Dan Feng, Benita L. Mcvicker, Mark A. Mcniven, Natalia A. Osna, Justin L. Mott, Carol A. Casey, Kusum K. Kharbanda Apr 2020

Structure, Function And Metabolism Of Hepatic And Adipose Tissue Lipid Droplets: Implications In Alcoholic Liver Disease, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Karuna Rasineni, Murali Ganesan, Dan Feng, Benita L. Mcvicker, Mark A. Mcniven, Natalia A. Osna, Justin L. Mott, Carol A. Casey, Kusum K. Kharbanda

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

For more than 30 years, lipid droplets (LDs) were considered as an inert bag of lipid for storage of energy-rich fat molecules. Following a paradigm shift almost a decade ago, LDs are presently considered an active subcellular organelle especially designed for assembling, storing and subsequently supplying lipids for generating energy and membrane synthesis (and in the case of hepatocytes for VLDL secretion). LDs also play a central role in many other cellular functions such as viral assembly and protein degradation. Here, we have explored the structural and functional changes that occur in hepatic and adipose tissue LDs following chronic ethanol ...


Stunting And Infectious Disease In Ethiopian And Zambian Children, Alyssa Arndt Apr 2020

Stunting And Infectious Disease In Ethiopian And Zambian Children, Alyssa Arndt

NUTR/GLST 498b: Global Research Experiences in Nutrition & Health

PURPOSE: To evaluate whether children who are malnourished/stunted are more likely to have experienced infectious disease.

METHODS: 6th and 7th students (n=546) were interviewed about health history and assessed using anthropometry.

RESULTS: Children who are short for their age also have higher rates of stunting. Malaria is the most experienced infectious disease.

CONCLUSIONS: Given that malaria was the most common infectious disease experience listed among middle school children, and that those who have experienced disease are more likely to be stunted, increased malaria prevention methods may improve the long-term health of Ethiopian and Zambian schoolchildren.


Association Between Sulfur-Metabolizing Bacterial Communities In Stool And Risk Of Distal Colorectal Cancer In Men, Long H. Nguyen, Wenjie Ma, Dong D. Wang, Yin Cao, Himel Mallick, Teklu K. Gerbaba, Jason Lloyd-Price, Galeb Abu-Ali, A. Brantley Hall, Daniel Sikavi, David A. Drew, Raaj S. Mehta, Cesar Arze, Amit D. Joshi, Yan Yan, Tobyn Branck, Casey Dulong, Kerry L. Ivey, Shuji Ogino, Eric B. Rimm, Mingyang Song, Wendy S. Garrett, Jacques Izard, Cutis Huttenhower, Andrew T. Chan Apr 2020

Association Between Sulfur-Metabolizing Bacterial Communities In Stool And Risk Of Distal Colorectal Cancer In Men, Long H. Nguyen, Wenjie Ma, Dong D. Wang, Yin Cao, Himel Mallick, Teklu K. Gerbaba, Jason Lloyd-Price, Galeb Abu-Ali, A. Brantley Hall, Daniel Sikavi, David A. Drew, Raaj S. Mehta, Cesar Arze, Amit D. Joshi, Yan Yan, Tobyn Branck, Casey Dulong, Kerry L. Ivey, Shuji Ogino, Eric B. Rimm, Mingyang Song, Wendy S. Garrett, Jacques Izard, Cutis Huttenhower, Andrew T. Chan

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Background & Aims: Sulfur-metabolizing microbes, which convert dietary sources of sulfur into genotoxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S), have been associated with development of colorectal cancer (CRC). We identified a dietary pattern associated with sulfur-metabolizing bacteria in stool and then investigated its association with risk of incident CRC using data from a large prospective study of men.

Methods: We collected data from 51,529 men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study since 1986 to determine the association between sulfur-metabolizing bacteria in stool and risk of CRC over 26 years of follow-up. First, in a subcohort of 307 healthy men, we profiled serial stool metagenomes and metatranscriptomes and assessed diet using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires to identify food groups associated with 43 bacterial species involved in sulfur metabolism. We used these data to develop a sulfur microbial dietary score. We then used Cox proportional hazards modeling to evaluate adherence to this pattern among eligible individuals (n = 48,246) from 1986 through 2012 with risk for incident CRC.

Results: Foods associated with higher sulfur microbial diet scores included increased consumption of processed meats and low-calorie drinks and lower consumption of vegetables and legumes. Increased sulfur microbial diet scores were associated with risk of distal colon and rectal cancers, after adjusting for other risk factors (multivariable relative risk, highest vs lowest quartile, 1.43; 95% confidence interval 1.14–1.81; P-trend = .002). In contrast, sulfur microbial diet scores were not associated with risk of proximal colon cancer (multivariable relative risk 0.86; 95% CI 0.65–1.14; P-trend = .31).

Conclusions: In an analysis of participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we found that long-term adherence to a dietary pattern associated with sulfur-metabolizing bacteria in stool was associated with an increased risk of distal CRC. Further studies are needed to determine how sulfur-metabolizing bacteria might contribute to CRC pathogenesis.


Proceedings 2020, The Nebraska Academy Of Sciences, Nebraska Academy Of Sciences Apr 2020

Proceedings 2020, The Nebraska Academy Of Sciences, Nebraska Academy Of Sciences

Programs and Proceedings: The Nebraska Academy of Sciences

Presengtations include:

INVERSE KINEMATIC ANALYSIS AND CONTROL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT FOR REMORA ROBOTIC ARM • PERFORMANCE METRIC EVALUATION AND PATH PLANNING FOR A 6-DOF 3-LEG PARALLEL ROBOT IN RRRS CONFIGURATION • DRAG REDUCTION/ENHANCEMENT USING FEMTOSECOND LASER SURFACE PROCESSING • USE OF FEMTOSECOND LASER SURFACE PROCESSING TO CREATE HIGH EMISSIVTY SURFACES • USING MULTISPECTRAL DRONE IMAGERY TO MEASURE CHANGES IN VEGETATION COVER IN THE NEBRASKA SANDHILLS: PATTERNS IN SPACE AND TIME • DISRUPTING INTER-LIMB COORDINATION THROUGH AN EXOSKELETON DEVICE • ASSESSING LIMB POSITION PERCEPTION WITH AND WITHOUT TACTILE STIMULATION • EXERCISE AND COLD-INDUCED PGC-1 MRNA ISOFORM-SPECIFIC RESPONSE • DIETARY NITRATE INTAKE IMPROVES VASCULAR FUNCTION AND WALKING • CAPACITY IN PATIENTS ...


Analysis Of The Geographical Distribution Of Primary Care Physicians In Nebraska, Chanhyun Park Apr 2020

Analysis Of The Geographical Distribution Of Primary Care Physicians In Nebraska, Chanhyun Park

Community and Regional Planning Program: Student Projects and Theses

Many articles point out that there is a disparity between rural and urban areas in healthcare service. The disparity is derived from the locational choices of physicians which are influenced by diverse factors such as backgrounds where they grew up or type of facility at which they worked. This study examines physician movements which vary depending on the types of physician and facility in Nebraska. The research dataset are annual practicing records of all primary care physicians and business information of the facilities in Nebraska from 1998 to 2019. The study result shows that there is little difference in physicians ...


Use Of A Novel Whole-Body Imaging Approach To Predict Resting Metabolic Rates In Athletes, Nicole Vencil Apr 2020

Use Of A Novel Whole-Body Imaging Approach To Predict Resting Metabolic Rates In Athletes, Nicole Vencil

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Prediction of energy expenditure allows for calculation of appropriate energy requirements, which is especially important for athletes. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is the greatest contributor to total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and is typically measured via indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry is not always available, which results in the need for predictive equations. Most predictive equations have been developed with participants resembling the general population and have not been found to be appropriate for athletes, as they may incorrectly predict RMR due to the unique differences of body composition between athletes and the general population. The purpose of the present study ...


How Does The Social World Shape The Experience Of A Rare Disease? Social Position And The Development, Progression, And Medical Care For People With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Jennifer A. Andersen Apr 2020

How Does The Social World Shape The Experience Of A Rare Disease? Social Position And The Development, Progression, And Medical Care For People With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Jennifer A. Andersen

Sociology Theses, Dissertations, & Student Research

This dissertation focuses on the implications of social position and life course on the experience of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Using a sociology in medicine frame, I test three theoretical perspectives (fundamental cause theory, social determinants of health, and life course theory) to determine the influence of social conditions on the development and progression of, and medical care for, people with ALS (pALS). Further, I use ALS as an exemplar of the need for a sociology of disease.

Using the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis National Registry, I first assess the association of social position with the reported onset location at the ...


Alexithymia Symptoms Are Not Associated With Childhood Trauma Or Crhr1 Rs110402 Genotype, Emily Wiatr, Grace Sullivan, Scott Stoltenberg Apr 2020

Alexithymia Symptoms Are Not Associated With Childhood Trauma Or Crhr1 Rs110402 Genotype, Emily Wiatr, Grace Sullivan, Scott Stoltenberg

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Alexithymia is associated with difficulties in emotional self-regulation, and alexithymia is specifically associated with an absence of emotional experience and cognition of emotion. Past research has indicated a potential association between alexithymia and the CRHR1 gene . Situational factors may also impact the expression of the CRHR1 gene within an individual. Berenbaum (1996) found associations between PTSD/childhood trauma and alexithymia. This study examined these associations using the Online Alexithymia Questionnaire-G2 (OAQ-G2) as well as DNA samples gathered from 657 participants at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (72% women; 78.6% white; mean age= 20.34; standard deviation of 2.6). It ...


Dgts Production As A Phosphate Starvation Response In The Human Fungal Pathogen Candida Albicans, Caleb Wehling Apr 2020

Dgts Production As A Phosphate Starvation Response In The Human Fungal Pathogen Candida Albicans, Caleb Wehling

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Betaine lipids are a class of membrane lipids with betaine head groups. Three betaine lipids are known - diacylglyceryltrimethylhomoserine (DGTS), diacylglycerylhydroxymethylalanine (DGTA), and diacylglycerylcarboxymethylcholine (DGCC). Betaine lipids are most common in algae, although DGTS, the most common betaine lipid, is also found in many bacteria and fungi. Organisms which produce betaine lipids (especially DGTS) often don’t produce phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), and DGTS structure resembles PtdCho structure without any phosphorous, leading to the hypothesis that betaine lipids may substitute for phospholipids in some organisms. This has been confirmed by discoveries that some organisms are capable of switching their membrane composition from PtdCho ...


Brain Activation For Cochlear Implant Users: A Pilot Fnirs Study, Makayla Gill, Ceceli Bonitto, Bailey Heaton, Yingying Wang Apr 2020

Brain Activation For Cochlear Implant Users: A Pilot Fnirs Study, Makayla Gill, Ceceli Bonitto, Bailey Heaton, Yingying Wang

UCARE Research Products

Cochlear implants (CIs) have become a widespread device for individuals with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) to regain hearing ability and improve quality of life. However, the brain needs to adapt to this bionic device and relearn the function of hearing, especially for speech sounds. Because the auditory inputs through a CI are not the same as those heard by individuals with typical hearing, aural rehabilitation takes time. The goal of this study is to examine neural bases of speech perception in adult CI users using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Two adults with bilateral SNHL and CI(s) were fitted ...


Rural Drug Addiction Research Center, Paige Debrie Apr 2020

Rural Drug Addiction Research Center, Paige Debrie

UCARE Research Products

Our objective over the course of the summer and the school year was to help develop a new branch of the REACH Lab called Rural Drug Addiction Research center. This branch consisted mainly with the usage of drugs across the midwest. It wasn't until 2018 that the drug crisis hit the midwest increasing by 48% bringing attention to rural drug use. We were here to help translate those findings into something the more general public would understand as well as help with spreading awareness to the community.


Elucidating The Regulon Of A Fur-Like Protein In Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis (Map), Fernanda Miyagaki Shoyama, Taveesak Janetanakit, John P. Bannantine, Raul G. Barletta, Srinand Sreevatsan Apr 2020

Elucidating The Regulon Of A Fur-Like Protein In Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis (Map), Fernanda Miyagaki Shoyama, Taveesak Janetanakit, John P. Bannantine, Raul G. Barletta, Srinand Sreevatsan

Virology Papers

Intracellular iron concentration is tightly regulated to maintain cell viability. Iron plays important roles in electron transport, nucleic acid synthesis, and oxidative stress. A Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-specific genomic island carries a putative metal transport operon that includes MAP3773c, which encodes a Fur-like protein. Although well characterized as a global regulator of iron homeostasis in multiple bacteria, the function of Fur (ferric uptake regulator) in MAP is unknown as this organism also carries IdeR (iron dependent regulator), a native iron regulatory protein specific to mycobacteria. Computational analysis using PRODORIC identified 23 different pathways involved in respiration, metabolism, and ...


On The Inadequacy Of Species Distribution Models For Modelling The Spread Of Sars-Cov-2: Response To Araújo And Naimi, Joseph D. Chipperfield, Blas M. Benito, Robert B. O'Hara, Richard J. Telford, Colin J. Carlson Mar 2020

On The Inadequacy Of Species Distribution Models For Modelling The Spread Of Sars-Cov-2: Response To Araújo And Naimi, Joseph D. Chipperfield, Blas M. Benito, Robert B. O'Hara, Richard J. Telford, Colin J. Carlson

Public Health Resources

The ongoing pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing significant damage to public health and economic livelihoods, and is putting significant strains on healthcare services globally. This unfolding emergency has prompted the preparation and dissemination of the article “Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus likely to be constrained by climate” by Araújo and Naimi (2020). The authors present the results of an ensemble forecast made from a suite of species distribution models (SDMs), where they attempt to predict the suitability of the climate for the spread of SARS-CoV-2 over the coming months. They argue that climate is ...


Comparisons Of Muscle Strength, Size, And Neuromuscular Function In Pre- And Post-Pubescent Males And Females, Zachary M. Gillen Mar 2020

Comparisons Of Muscle Strength, Size, And Neuromuscular Function In Pre- And Post-Pubescent Males And Females, Zachary M. Gillen

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

The purpose of this study was to compare measurements of muscle strength, size, and neuromuscular function of the forearm flexors in pre- and post-pubescent males and females. Forty pre-pubescent (mean ± 95% confidence interval, age = 9.79 ± 0.35 yrs, n = 10 males, n = 10 females) and post-pubescent (age = 17.23 ± 0.58 yrs, n = 10 males, n = 10 females) participants completed this study. Biceps brachii muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle volume (MV) were quantified from ultrasound images. Participants completed maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) of the forearm flexors and extensors, and submaximal isometric step muscle actions at 30, 50 ...


Effects Of Inactivated Mycobacterium Bovis Vaccination On Molokai-Origin Wild Pigs Experimentally Infected With Virulent M. Bovis, Pauline Nol, Morgan Wehte, Richard A. Bowen, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Tyler Thacker, Kristina Lantz, Jack Rhyan, Laurie A. Baeten, Ramón A. Juste, Iker A. Sevilla, Christian Gortazar, Joaquín Vicente Mar 2020

Effects Of Inactivated Mycobacterium Bovis Vaccination On Molokai-Origin Wild Pigs Experimentally Infected With Virulent M. Bovis, Pauline Nol, Morgan Wehte, Richard A. Bowen, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Tyler Thacker, Kristina Lantz, Jack Rhyan, Laurie A. Baeten, Ramón A. Juste, Iker A. Sevilla, Christian Gortazar, Joaquín Vicente

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The wild pig population on Molokai, Hawaii, USA is a possible reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and has been implicated in decades past as the source of disease for the island’s domestic cattle. Heat-inactivated vaccines have been effective for reducing disease prevalence in wild boar in Spain and could prove useful for managing M. bovis in Molokai wild pigs. We designed an experiment to test this vaccine in wild pigs of Molokai genetics. Fifteen 3–4-month-old pigs were orally administered 106–107 colony forming units (cfu) of heat-inactivated M. bovis (Vaccinates; n = 8; 0 ...


Economic Estimates Of Invasive Wild Pig Damage To Crops In 12 Us States, Sophie Mckee, Aaron Anderson, Keith Carlisle, Stephanie A. Shwiff Feb 2020

Economic Estimates Of Invasive Wild Pig Damage To Crops In 12 Us States, Sophie Mckee, Aaron Anderson, Keith Carlisle, Stephanie A. Shwiff

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We report the results of a survey on invasive wild pig (Sus scrofa L.) damage and control in 12 US states (Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Texas). The crops chosen for this study represent the “second-tier” in terms of economic importance after the six crops that were the subject of Anderson et al. (2016). The survey was distributed by the USDA National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) in the summer of 2019 to a sample of producers in each of the states (except California) of the following six crops: hay, pecans (Carya ...


Differentiation Of Mannheimia Haemolytica Genotype 1 And 2 Strains By Visible Phenotypic Characteristics On Solid Media, Emily L. Wynn, Gennie Schuller, John D. Loy, Aspen M. Workman, T. G. Mcdaneld, Michael L. Clawson Feb 2020

Differentiation Of Mannheimia Haemolytica Genotype 1 And 2 Strains By Visible Phenotypic Characteristics On Solid Media, Emily L. Wynn, Gennie Schuller, John D. Loy, Aspen M. Workman, T. G. Mcdaneld, Michael L. Clawson

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Genotype 2 Mannheimia haemolytica associate with the lungs of cattle with bovine respiratory disease more frequently than genotype 1 strains. Different colony colors and morphologies were identified between genotype 1 and 2 solid media cultures. Genotype of strains, and frequency differences between them in mixed cultures are discernable by visual inspection.

Supplements attached


Effects Of Deepwater Horizon Oil On Feather Structure And Thermoregulation In Gulls: Does Rehabilitation Work?, Katherine Horak, Nicole L. Barrett, Jeremy W. Ellis, Emma M. Campbell, Nicholas G. Dannemiller, Susan A. Shriner Feb 2020

Effects Of Deepwater Horizon Oil On Feather Structure And Thermoregulation In Gulls: Does Rehabilitation Work?, Katherine Horak, Nicole L. Barrett, Jeremy W. Ellis, Emma M. Campbell, Nicholas G. Dannemiller, Susan A. Shriner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Impacts of large-scale oil spills on avian species are far-reaching.While media attention often focuses on lethal impacts, sub-lethal effects and the impacts of rehabilitation receive less attention. The objective of our study was to characterize effects of moderate external oiling and subsequent rehabilitation on feather structure and thermoregulation in gulls. We captured 30 wild ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) and randomly assigned each individual to an experimental group: 1) controls, 2) rehabilitated birds (externally oiled, rehabilitated by washing), or 3) oiled birds (externally oiled, not rehabilitated). We externally oiled birds with weathered MC252 Deepwater Horizon oil (water for controls) and ...


Brodifacoum Residues In Fish Three Years After An Island-Wide Rat Eradication Attempt In The Tropical Pacific, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Steven F. Volker, Kristen Rex, William C. Pitt Jan 2020

Brodifacoum Residues In Fish Three Years After An Island-Wide Rat Eradication Attempt In The Tropical Pacific, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Steven F. Volker, Kristen Rex, William C. Pitt

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive rats are known to threaten natural resources and human health and safety. Island-wide rat eradication attempts have been increasing in number and scale during the past several decades, as has the frequency of eradication success. The most common method to remove all rats from an island is to broadcast anticoagulant rodenticide bait into every rat’s home range on the island. Broadcast of toxicants can put humans and other nontarget species in marine and terrestrial environments at risk of exposure. The persistence of anticoagulant residues is somewhat unknown, particularly in marine environments. Three years after ~ 18,000 kg of ...


Optimal Bait Density For Delivery Of Acute Toxicants To Vertebrate Pests, Kim M. Pepin, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. Vercauteren Jan 2020

Optimal Bait Density For Delivery Of Acute Toxicants To Vertebrate Pests, Kim M. Pepin, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Oral baiting is a fundamental method for delivering toxicants to pest species. Planning baiting strategies is challenging because bait-consumption rates depend on dynamic processes including space use and demographics of the target species. To determine cost-effective strategies for optimizing baiting, we developed a spatially explicit model of population dynamics using field-based measures of wild-pig (Sus scrofa) space use, bait consumption, and mortality probabilities. The most cost-effective baiting strategy depended strongly on the population reduction objective and initial density. A wide range of baiting strategies were cost-effective when the objective was 80% population reduction. In contrast, only a narrow range of ...


Identification Of The Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Kshv) Surface Glycoprotein Targets Of Human Kshv-Specific Neutralizing Antibody Responses, Yasaman Mortazavi Jan 2020

Identification Of The Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Kshv) Surface Glycoprotein Targets Of Human Kshv-Specific Neutralizing Antibody Responses, Yasaman Mortazavi

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), is the etiological agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), and is also associated with two B cell malignancies, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. The distribution of KSHV varies globally with high prevalence in some areas of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where seroprevalence can be as high as 80%. It is estimated that nearly 44,000 new cases of KS emerge annually globally, with the highest incidents occurring in Africa, where KSHV is endemic. Currently, there is no prophylactic vaccine against KSHV, and efforts to develop prophylactic ...


Evaluation Of Commercial Genomic Tests For Maternal Traits In Crossbred Beef Cattle, Mckay R. Erickson, J.R. Tait, R. A. Funston Jan 2020

Evaluation Of Commercial Genomic Tests For Maternal Traits In Crossbred Beef Cattle, Mckay R. Erickson, J.R. Tait, R. A. Funston

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

DNA samples were collected from beef heifers born at the Gudmundsen Sandhills Laboratory and analyzed with a genomic test. Phenotypic data from these females were compiled and used in a regression analysis to evaluate the utility of these genomic scores as predictors for phenotypic outcomes. Th e genomic score for birth body weight (BW) was signifi cantly associated with animal birth BW. Th e genomic score for heifer pregnancy was not a statistically significant predictor of actual pregnancy. Neither dam age or the genomic score for stayability were significant predictors of actual reproductive longevity.