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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

The Use Of Mindfulness Meditation To Increase The Efficacy Of Mirror Visual Feedback For Reducing Phantom Limb Pain In Amputees, Nicolas Sebastian Mills May 2021

The Use Of Mindfulness Meditation To Increase The Efficacy Of Mirror Visual Feedback For Reducing Phantom Limb Pain In Amputees, Nicolas Sebastian Mills

Doctoral Dissertations

Phantom limb pain is a chronic pain condition that negatively impacts the lives of over half of amputees, and results in considerable morbidity. Currently, there is no gold standard for treatment for phantom limb pain. However, a frequently used intervention is the use of mirror visual feedback, in which the amputee watches the reflection of the adjacent non-amputated limb move and exercise. In the last few decades, mindfulness-based interventions have been increasingly used with individuals living with different types of chronic pain. This study attempts to discover if the addition of a mindfulness-based intervention, such as guided meditation, will augment ...


Observational Measurement Of Attachment In Toddlers With Disruptive Behavior Using The Strange Situation Procedure And Attachment Q-Set, Corey C. Lieneman Jan 2021

Observational Measurement Of Attachment In Toddlers With Disruptive Behavior Using The Strange Situation Procedure And Attachment Q-Set, Corey C. Lieneman

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Child-caregiver attachment is an important factor in healthy child development and is often targeted by early intervention programs. To assess the efficacy of these interventions, attachment must be accurately measured across the toddler years in populations referred for treatment of externalizing behavior problems. The Strange Situation Procedure (SSP; Ainsworth et al., 1978) and Attachment Q-Set (AQS; Waters, 1987) are empirically-validated measures of child-caregiver attachment, each with unique strengths and weaknesses. Previous research has reached mixed conclusions on relations between the observer-report AQS and SSP, depending on sample and study characteristics, and a review of the literature did not produce any ...


Exploration Of Physician Attitudes About Self-Care And Personal Mental Health: Possible Barriers To Physician Well Being, Candich Farrar Jun 2020

Exploration Of Physician Attitudes About Self-Care And Personal Mental Health: Possible Barriers To Physician Well Being, Candich Farrar

Dissertations

The present study was designed to examine physicians’ mental health, attitudes, and behaviors toward self-care and the utilization of mental health services. As the medical field can be very demanding and exhausting, it is believed that many physicians suffer from mental illnesses such as anxiety and depression. However, it was theorized that many physicians do not engage in adequate self-care regimes or seek support and suppress their symptoms, which may further exacerbate their illnesses. A thorough literature review was performed to explore the following: possible barriers to physicians seeking mental health services to address high rates of mental illnesses, physicians ...


Overcoming Challenges In The Assessment And Treatment Of Problem Behavior In Adults With Autism, Julia A. Iannaccone Jun 2020

Overcoming Challenges In The Assessment And Treatment Of Problem Behavior In Adults With Autism, Julia A. Iannaccone

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Problematic behaviors, such as self-injurious behavior or aggression, demonstrated by adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), create many significant life complications, some life-threatening. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is established as an evidence-based approach to treat problem behavior for children with ASD and shows promise as an effective treatment for adults, yet little research has been conducted within the adult population. Assessment and treatment of problem behavior with adults is often challenging due to funding limitations, increased severity and complexity of problem behavior, and underqualified staff. The purpose of the present study was to overcome these challenges by (1) identifying a ...


The Impact Of A Single Session Of Mindfulness Meditation On The Attentional Blink In Non-Meditators, Arielle L. Klopsis Jun 2020

The Impact Of A Single Session Of Mindfulness Meditation On The Attentional Blink In Non-Meditators, Arielle L. Klopsis

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Attentional resources are limited therefore a stimulus can go undetected if it closely follows another target by 200-500ms. This phenomenon is known as the attentional blink. Mindfulness meditation has been shown to be beneficial in target detection and in decreasing the attentional blink. Since there is no standard for the type of meditation or duration of practice that leads to attention benefits, this study compares the two most popular types of meditation in a group of non-meditators: focused attention and open monitoring meditation. This study utilized an attentional blink paradigm to measure if a single session of mindfulness meditation can ...


Mental Health Challenges Among Ethnic Minorities College Students, Fiorella G. Valles, Ruben Gonzalez Jun 2020

Mental Health Challenges Among Ethnic Minorities College Students, Fiorella G. Valles, Ruben Gonzalez

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

This research study explored the challenges of mental health-seeking services of college students of color in the San Bernardino area. College students of different ethnicities have unique needs and challenges that contrast with the general student population. Previous research stated that students of color deal with a greater number of unmet mental health needs and indicates a connection between mental health and attaining a college degree (Arria et al., 2013). To increase the utilization of mental health amongst students of color, this study aimed to identify the influencing factors that prevented students from help-seeking. The research design of this research ...


Mental Health Screening For Low Income Adolescents: An Evidence-Based Project, Allison Bryden May 2020

Mental Health Screening For Low Income Adolescents: An Evidence-Based Project, Allison Bryden

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

Abstract

TITLE: Mental Health Screening For Low-Income Adolescents

BACKGROUND: Nearly 80% of adolescents in the United States will suffer from a mental illness and not receive evaluation or services. Children from low socio-economic backgrounds have an increased risk of mental health disorders which permeate into adulthood, leading to additional negative sequel and lower quality of life. Among adolescent mental health conditions, depression and anxiety are the most common. Literature has suggested provider intuition alone has low sensitivity and specificity for detecting mental illness and that screening tools are indicated.

PURPOSE: The aim of this project is to implement standardized routine ...


Student Wellbeing And Open Studio Process In The School Curriculum, Maria Kim May 2020

Student Wellbeing And Open Studio Process In The School Curriculum, Maria Kim

Expressive Therapies Dissertations

This study aimed to explore whether Open Studio Process (OSP) increased wellbeing of middle and high school students when facilitated by teachers as a part of the regular art curriculum. It was hypothesized that OSP might increase the sense of wellbeing among middle and high school students as well as facilitating teachers. The research was conducted as a mixed methods study in South Korea where students need preventative interventions for their wellbeing. The researcher trained eight teachers to facilitate OSP and five of them implemented it with their classes for seven sessions. Quantitative data (K-YSR; pre- and posttest) were collected ...


Recovery-Oriented Dance Movement Therapy: A Controlled Trial In Mental Health Rehabilitation, Talia Bendel-Rozow May 2020

Recovery-Oriented Dance Movement Therapy: A Controlled Trial In Mental Health Rehabilitation, Talia Bendel-Rozow

Expressive Therapies Dissertations

This dissertation evaluated the appropriateness of using a recovery-oriented dance movement therapy (RODMT) intervention for people who were experiencing severe mental illness. Dance movement therapy (DMT) has been used for decades to support people with psychological and psychiatric symptoms but, before this research, has not been studied in context of the recovery approach to mental health rehabilitation. The theoretical assumption of this study was that movement-based experiential activities could be used as the primary agent to demonstrate and convey specific recovery concepts among participants. The researcher developed a protocol for 13 sessions of group intervention that merged DMT with Illness ...


Rhythm And Safety Of Social Engagement: Polyvagal Theory Informed Dance/Movement Therapy, Suzanne Weare May 2020

Rhythm And Safety Of Social Engagement: Polyvagal Theory Informed Dance/Movement Therapy, Suzanne Weare

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

The polyvagal theory has exerted great influence on the field of clinical therapy since the 1990s by proposing an understanding of the psychological expression seen in clients as a reflection of their physiological state of safety or threat of danger. When affect and psychological states are viewed through the lens of the autonomic nervous system directed by neuroception through bidirectional vagal nerve information, therapeutic presence and somatic therapy practices, such as those utilized in the field of dance/movement therapy, become more conceivable as best practices to treat a variety of psychological conditions to include trauma recovery, autism spectrum disorders ...


Dance/Movement Therapy And Its Implications In A Studio-Based Dance Program: A Community Engagement Project, Akeila Sharp May 2020

Dance/Movement Therapy And Its Implications In A Studio-Based Dance Program: A Community Engagement Project, Akeila Sharp

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Adolescent females often struggle with emotional regulation, developing relationships, and poor body image. Research indicates that taking dance classes or participating in dance movement therapy sessions can be an effective technique to improve in these areas. However, there is limited research on the use of both in one setting. Therefore, this capstone explored the impacts of dance on adolescent females and the implications of dance/movement therapy (DMT) in a studio-based dance program. The objective of this project was to examine how restructuring a dance class using DMT interventions could improve problem areas such as low self-esteem, lack of communication ...


Warming Up To Dance/Movement Therapy Through Humor, Amanda E. Ouimette May 2020

Warming Up To Dance/Movement Therapy Through Humor, Amanda E. Ouimette

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

This thesis examined the effects humor has on a Dance/Movement Therapy (DMT) warm-up intervention in increasing engagement for individuals in a grief setting who are new to DMT practices. Studies have demonstrated the positive effects humor has on individuals’ sense of comfort and there were notable similarities with the benefits of DMT. The healing advantages of humor were thoroughly studied and the comedic principle of the “Rule of Threes” was chosen and translated into a movement warm-up intervention to create a space that allowed for humor and laughter. This humor strategy for the warm-up intervention was used in a ...


How Dance And Music Stimulate Therapeutic Change In A Personal Movement Ritual, Cassidy Bingham May 2020

How Dance And Music Stimulate Therapeutic Change In A Personal Movement Ritual, Cassidy Bingham

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

This thesis investigates the therapeutic effects of the researcher’s own arts practice or personal movement ritual, which is based in her tacit knowledge and intuition. The researcher is also the participant of this study. Her personal movement ritual, which was formalized as the method, was conducted before the literature review in order to prioritize tacit knowledge before introducing the influence of other scholars. In the literature review, Ellen Dissanayake’s and other scholars’ rationale for the emotional and cognitive changes that take place during rituals through music and dance are explained. These rationales, or the five constructs of entrainment ...


Mental Associations And Music Therapy: Including The History Of Associationism And The Neurology Of Associations, Dianna Rose May 2020

Mental Associations And Music Therapy: Including The History Of Associationism And The Neurology Of Associations, Dianna Rose

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Associations are formed in our minds based upon three elements: sensory experience, emotions, and memories. These associations, unique to each individual, dictate thoughts, beliefs, behaviors, and actions. Some are necessary and supportive, while others can be maladaptive. Established associations can be changed, and new associations can be formed, to align with a client’s goals. The literature presents a strong history of associationism, as well as a body of research that demonstrates the neurological processes of how mental associations are formed. There are also studies showing how music activates the brain. However, there is a lack of research which draws ...


What Was Lost: How Dance/Movement Therapy Can Support The Retention And Repair Of Cognitive Abilities In Cancer Patients, A Literature Review, Sarah E. Menser May 2020

What Was Lost: How Dance/Movement Therapy Can Support The Retention And Repair Of Cognitive Abilities In Cancer Patients, A Literature Review, Sarah E. Menser

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

This literature review examines research surrounding the effects of chemotherapy on cognitive abilities alongside methods of increasing cognitive functioning throughout treatment. Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is seen in many patients undergoing chemotherapy yet has had little attention in cancer research. However, research that has been performed shows that by increasing physical activity during chemotherapy often results in improved cognitive abilities as well as increasing individual’s memory, focus, and multi-tasking abilities. With this connection between physical exercise and cognitive functioning, this author is interested in investigating the idea that dance/movement therapy can assist in the recovery and repair of ...


Socioeconomic Status And Symptoms Of Anxiety And Depression In Pregnant Women, Meagan Mandabach May 2020

Socioeconomic Status And Symptoms Of Anxiety And Depression In Pregnant Women, Meagan Mandabach

Honors Theses

Pregnancy is a period of great change in a woman’s body as her baby develops. During this period, women commonly experience symptoms of anxiety (Dennis et al., 2017) and depression (Shidhaye & Giri, 2014). Literature has suggested that socioeconomic status (SES) can contribute to the severity at which pregnant women experience anxiety and depression (Arora & Aeri, 2019; Field et al., 2008; Shagufta & Shams, 2019), and women of low socioeconomic status may be more likely to experience symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy (Field et al., 2008). The present study aimed to assess the relationships between household income and experience of anxiety and depression symptoms, in pregnant women in Mississippi. Specifically, it was hypothesized that lower SES would be associated with increased experience of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants included 557 pregnant women (77.4% white; Mage = 28.42) recruited at an OBGYN clinic in north Mississippi. Demographics questionnaire and several self-report measures including the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; Cox, Holden, Sagovsky, 1987) were completed. Results demonstrated that symptoms of anxiety measured by the DASS-21 were significantly higher in pregnant women earning less than $10,000 per year than all other income brackets (with the exception ...


Discovery Of Distinct Mechanisms Underlying The Relationship Between Drug Taking And Predisposing Behaviors, Tyler A. Roy May 2020

Discovery Of Distinct Mechanisms Underlying The Relationship Between Drug Taking And Predisposing Behaviors, Tyler A. Roy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Drug addiction is a heritable disease characterized by compulsive drug use. The biological mechanisms driving addiction remain largely unknown.1 Previous studies show shared genetic mechanisms underlying addiction risk phenotypes such as anxiety, depression, and novelty/sensation seeking.2,3 Therefore, high-throughput behavioral screening of these traits in single gene knockout mice can allow for the rapid detection of addiction risk candidate genes and mechanisms. Many of these traits are represented in the Knock-Out Mouse Program (KOMP) phenotyping pipeline. Of the initial two hundred twenty-one strains screened in this program, we tested nineteen phenodeviant knock-out mouse strains with C57BL/6NJ ...


Embodied Transformation: A Review Of Play And Dance Movement Therapy For Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Kaiyue Chen May 2020

Embodied Transformation: A Review Of Play And Dance Movement Therapy For Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Kaiyue Chen

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

This thesis explores the potential role of play and playfulness in dance movement therapy (DMT) for the treatment of complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD), which results from exposure to complex trauma. As its name suggests, CPTSD symptoms can be more severe than that of PTSD, and the prevalence of CPTSD is estimated at 3.8% of the U.S. population (Cloitre et al., 2019). Given these factors, this mental health issue warrants further research and treatment support. Towards this end, a critical review of the literature on the topics of complex trauma/CPTSD, play, and DMT has been conducted. Based ...


Co-Leadership In Dance/Movement Therapy: An Art-Based Literature Review, Siyao Li May 2020

Co-Leadership In Dance/Movement Therapy: An Art-Based Literature Review, Siyao Li

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

The co-leadership model is an unseen thread in the current picture of the field of dance movement therapy (DMT). Even if it’s deeply rooted in the development of the field, its significance for the current context of culture-informed and evidence-based practice is still under-investigated. This thesis sheds light on the importance of co-leadership in DMT through a historical review of the development of the field, the rationale of using co-leadership in DMT from neuroscientific, psychological and practical perspectives, and a synthesis of empirical studies on effectiveness of co-leadership in DMT. Co-leadership is a tradition in the field of DMT ...


Association Of Childhood Psychosocial Environment With 30-Year Cardiovascular Disease Incidence And Mortality In Middle Age, Jacob B. Pierce, Kiarri N. Kershaw, Catarina I. Kiefe, David R. Jacobs Jr., Stephen Sidney, Sharon Stein. Merkin, Joe Feinglass May 2020

Association Of Childhood Psychosocial Environment With 30-Year Cardiovascular Disease Incidence And Mortality In Middle Age, Jacob B. Pierce, Kiarri N. Kershaw, Catarina I. Kiefe, David R. Jacobs Jr., Stephen Sidney, Sharon Stein. Merkin, Joe Feinglass

Open Access Articles

Background

Childhood adversity and trauma have been shown to be associated with poorer cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes in adulthood. However, longitudinal studies of this association are rare.

Methods and Results

Our study used the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) Study, a longitudinal cohort that has followed participants from recruitment in 1985-1986 through 2018, to determine how childhood psychosocial environment relates to CVD incidence and all-cause mortality in middle age. Participants (n=3646) completed the Childhood Family Environment (CFE) questionnaire at the year 15 (2000-2001) CARDIA examination and were grouped by high, moderate, or low relative CFE adversity ...


Gaming Intentionally: A Literature Review Of The Viability Of Role-Playing Games As Drama-Therapy-Informed Interventions, Jonathan Mendoza May 2020

Gaming Intentionally: A Literature Review Of The Viability Of Role-Playing Games As Drama-Therapy-Informed Interventions, Jonathan Mendoza

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Tabletop role-playing games (TTRPGS) and live-action role-playing (LARP) games have recently risen in popularity in the cultural zeitgeist with the advent of popular gaming shows like Critical Roll and The Adventure Zone, as well as popular media like Community and Stranger Things. While some literature exists linking the concepts of roleplaying to theater and psychotherapy in the pursuit of deeper game design, little exists that attempts to bridge the gap by examining the potential of role-playing games (RPGs) as therapeutic tools informed by drama therapy practices and theories. This literature review provides a brief overview of basic RPG terminology, styles ...


Collective Imagination, Haley Lynch May 2020

Collective Imagination, Haley Lynch

Psychology

Life is filled with experiences that contribute to who we are, who we will become, and the social connections we make. We are constantly reflecting on past experiences, be it alone or with others, as well as thinking about what is to come and where we see ourselves in the future. Social and cognitive psychology research has focused on the processes behind autobiographical memory and episodic simulation. The link between collective memory and episodic simulation is the focus of the present study. The specific aim is to explore the potential link between reflecting on past experiences and imagining the future ...


Demographic Predictors Of Adult Behaviors In The Pediatric Postoperative Environment, Natasha H. Hikita, Amber Osorno, Carlie Taurosa, Michelle A. Fortier, Zeev N. Kain, Brooke N. Jenkins May 2020

Demographic Predictors Of Adult Behaviors In The Pediatric Postoperative Environment, Natasha H. Hikita, Amber Osorno, Carlie Taurosa, Michelle A. Fortier, Zeev N. Kain, Brooke N. Jenkins

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Over 85% of children experience postoperative pain. If poorly treated, pediatric postoperative pain may lead to various negative health outcomes. Adult behaviors may be associated with child experiences in the postoperative environment. For example, adult behaviors such as distraction, humor, and coping advice divert a child’s attention away from their pain and thus, may significantly reduce child postoperative distress. In contrast, adult behaviors such as empathy, reassurance, and apology direct a child’s attention towards their pain which may increase a child’s overall postoperative distress. Moreover, patient demographic factors, like child ethnicity, may significantly alter the frequency of ...


The Impact Of Stress On Diet, Sleep, And Exercise Amongst College Students, Jessica Rizzo May 2020

The Impact Of Stress On Diet, Sleep, And Exercise Amongst College Students, Jessica Rizzo

Senior Honors Projects

Stress is something that everyone faces in their lifetime and has an everlasting impact on their health. College students face high levels of stress throughout the semester, but how is that impacting their behavior? I conducted a survey alongside Dr. Melanson, a professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, to see just how college students are reacting to stress. The survey was circulated to different departments and classes to achieve a widespread collection of data. The survey remained completely anonymous and posed questions about eating, exercise, and sleep habits, along with questions on demographics and stress levels. Our ...


Searching For Neural Mechanisms Of Social Cognition, Chandler Siemonsma, Cristina Uribe, Louanne Boyd, Aaron Schurger, Deanna Hughes, Tian Lan May 2020

Searching For Neural Mechanisms Of Social Cognition, Chandler Siemonsma, Cristina Uribe, Louanne Boyd, Aaron Schurger, Deanna Hughes, Tian Lan

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Social cognition involves the integration and pruning of perceptual information which leads to the formation of an abstract representation, which is also known as the perceptual gist. This study examined 87 differences in visual perception of Mooney face stimuli of differing sizes and the relationship to gist formation in ten individuals with autism compared to neurotypical controls. Parents of both groups completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2) to assess social functioning in real-world scenarios.


Effects Of Nicotine On Attention: Role Of Orexin-1 Receptors, Stacy Pitcairn May 2020

Effects Of Nicotine On Attention: Role Of Orexin-1 Receptors, Stacy Pitcairn

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The orexin (also called hypocretin) system projects to a wide array of brain regions and is activated by drugs of abuse. The orexin system is best known for its function in wakefulness and arousal, but recent research has suggested that orexins play a vital role in attentional processing. The orexin-1 receptor has been implicated in crucial mechanisms of attention, specifically the transmission of acetylcholine to the cortex. Nicotine is a commonly administered psychoactive drug that has been shown to have cognitive-enhancing effects. Nicotine appears to target the orexin system, suggesting a potential role of the orexin system in mediating the ...


You're Not Forgotten: Effects Of Screening For Postpartum Depression Within A Pediatric Setting, Marrisa S. Culver May 2020

You're Not Forgotten: Effects Of Screening For Postpartum Depression Within A Pediatric Setting, Marrisa S. Culver

Evidence-Based Practice Project Reports

Postpartum depression (PPD) is depression that occurs in women following childbirth occurring during the postpartum period and affects 1 in 7 women (The United States Preventive Services Task Force, 2019). The American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP] (2019), recommends that pediatric healthcare providers utilize their position to screen for PPD. The purpose of this evidence-based practice (EBP) project was to implement a PPD screening intervention within a pediatric healthcare setting using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The Academic Center for Evidence-Based (ACE) Practice Star Model guided this EBP project with evidence-based interventions developed after a comprehensive literature search. Implementation of ...


Physical Inactivity: A Behavioral Disorder In The Physical Therapist’S Scope Of Practice, Matthieu P. Boisgontier, Maura D. Iversen May 2020

Physical Inactivity: A Behavioral Disorder In The Physical Therapist’S Scope Of Practice, Matthieu P. Boisgontier, Maura D. Iversen

SHU Faculty Publications

In health, the gold standard is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being.This state is weakened by physical inactivity, which involves a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, depression, and obesity. Moreover, 6% to 10% of all deaths from non-communicable diseases worldwide can be attributed to physical inactivity. These adverse effects of physical activity provide evidence that physically active individuals are closer to the gold standard of health than inactive individuals. Therefore, physical activity – not inactivity – should be the standard reference behavior. In this framework, physical inactivity is a clinically significant disturbance in an individual ...


The Effect Of Dance Movement Therapy On The Mood Of Hospitalized Psychiatric Adolescents, Amy Chiu May 2020

The Effect Of Dance Movement Therapy On The Mood Of Hospitalized Psychiatric Adolescents, Amy Chiu

Nursing | Senior Theses

Mental illness in children has increased over all aspects throughout the years to right now (CDC, 2019). Many of these children do get treatment for these disorders but there are still a percent that do not receive any treatment or find effective ways to maintain non-pharmaceutical alternatives for mood stabilization. The alternative therapies that are introduced in hospital settings plays a role in allowing for alternative therapies to be apart of the treatment plan for patients. Dance Movement therapy (DMT) is an alternative therapy that uses movement to conduct change in patient’s emotions based on their own choices of ...


The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers May 2020

The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the neural processes that mediate decision making is a relatively new field of investigation in the scientific community. With the ultimate goal of understanding how humans decide between one path and another, simpler models such as Drosophila Melanogaster, the common fruit fly, are often utilized as a way of determining the neural circuits involved in these decision-making processes. One of the most important decisions flies make is the decision of where to lay their eggs (oviposit). Choosing the proper substrate upon which to lay eggs is a crucial decision that can ultimately impact their fecundity. This paper investigates the ...