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A Support Program For College Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Functioning Of Participants Versus Non-Participants And The Role Of Program-Sponsored Mentoring, Ayla Raven Mapes Dec 2018

A Support Program For College Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Functioning Of Participants Versus Non-Participants And The Role Of Program-Sponsored Mentoring, Ayla Raven Mapes

Theses and Dissertations

Increasingly more students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are attending college. In response, many colleges are now offering these students the extra support of an Autism Support Program (ASP), many of which include a mentoring component. This study is one of only a handful of attempts to examine these programs empirically. Using a small sample of college students who identified as having ASD, I compared participants and non-participants of a university ASP. An online survey was used to assess demographic characteristics and pre-college academic performance, as well as students’ functioning across the following domains: social, adaptive, academic, emotional, and having ...


An Exploration Of The Quality Of Relationship Between Step-Children And Step-Parents Based On Address Term Usage, Sierra R. Payton Nov 2018

An Exploration Of The Quality Of Relationship Between Step-Children And Step-Parents Based On Address Term Usage, Sierra R. Payton

Theses and Dissertations

This study aimed to examine address term usage as a communicative component of blended/step-families by examining the address terms that step-children use to address their step-parent and whether address term usage can allude to the quality of relationship reported by step-children within the step-child step-parent relationship. Rowan University undergraduate students (n=67) were recruited to complete questionnaires on address term usage and quality of relationship using the Quality of Relationships Inventory (QRI). Address term usage was the independent variable and was measured using three levels: formal, familiar, and familial. Quality of relationship was the dependent variable and was measured ...


Interleukin-17a (Il-17a) Worsens Severe Murine Respiratory Mycoplasma Disease, Maximillion Mize Aug 2018

Interleukin-17a (Il-17a) Worsens Severe Murine Respiratory Mycoplasma Disease, Maximillion Mize

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of these studies was to determine the role of Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) in the immune response to respiratory mycoplasma infection. Serum levels of IL-17A increase in disease-susceptible BALB/c mice, but not disease-resistant C57BL/6 mice, infected with Mycoplasma pulmonis. Increased serum IL-17A was associated with mycoplasma pathology during infection in BALB/c mice, including: the presence of pulmonary neutrophils, progressive weight loss, and the development of inflammatory lung lesions. Neutralizing the function of IL-17A using monoclonal anti-IL-17A antibodies during mycoplasma infection reduced disease severity in disease-susceptible BALB/c mice, but not disease-resistant C57BL/6 mice. Providing daily intra-peritoneal ...


Assessment Of A Nutritional Rehabilitation Model In Two Modern Broilers And Their Jungle Fowl Ancestor: A Model For Better Understanding Childhood Undernutrition, Mikayla Baxter Aug 2018

Assessment Of A Nutritional Rehabilitation Model In Two Modern Broilers And Their Jungle Fowl Ancestor: A Model For Better Understanding Childhood Undernutrition, Mikayla Baxter

Theses and Dissertations

The World Health Organization, estimated that 22.9% of children under the age of 5 are stunted. The etiology of stunting is multifactorial and is associated with poor linear growth, villous atrophy, dysbiosis, and increased intestinal permeability. Inclusion of rye in poultry diets induces nutrient deficiencies and increases intestinal permeability, dysbiosis and decreases growth rates. The objective of this dissertation was to determine if chickens consuming a rye based diet exhibited a similar pathophysiology of stunted children to develop a relevant animal model. Therefore, early or late phase malnutrition was induced determine the effects of malnutrition on performance, bone mineralization ...


Determining The Effect Of Locally Delivered Bioactive Modulators On Macrophage Activation At The Implantation Site Of Different Biomaterials In Rats, Kamel Alkhatib Aug 2018

Determining The Effect Of Locally Delivered Bioactive Modulators On Macrophage Activation At The Implantation Site Of Different Biomaterials In Rats, Kamel Alkhatib

Theses and Dissertations

Altering the foreign body reaction by targeting macrophages has been of interest in the biomaterials field to improve the integration of longevity of implanted biomedical devices. The objective of this dissertation was to study the effect of locally delivered bioactive modulators on macrophage activation at the implantation site of different biomaterials in rats. Iloprost, a prostacyclin analog, was tested for its ability to direct macrophages to their pro-wound healing phenotype after the implantation of microdialysis probe in the subcutaneous space of male Sprague Dawley rats. This study showed that iloprost can shift macrophage activation states in vivo to the pro-wound ...


Dissecting The Mechanism Of Action Of A Novel Antifungal Peptide, Cody Bullock Aug 2018

Dissecting The Mechanism Of Action Of A Novel Antifungal Peptide, Cody Bullock

Theses and Dissertations

There is an urgent need for novel treatments for Candida infections. The utility of antimicrobial peptides for antifungal therapy has garnered interest in recent years. One promising family of peptides is the Histatins, a family of naturally-occurring peptides secreted into the oral cavity that display antimicrobial activity. Histatin 5 is a twenty-four amino acid peptide with strong antifungal activity. Studies from our laboratory have identified a small histatin-derived peptide, KM29, that yields fungicidal activity 10-fold greater than Histatin 5 against multiple Candida species. Our laboratory has focused on understanding the mechanism of action of KM29 to further develop it as ...


A Multimodal Assessment Of Disgust In Response To Traumatic Event Reminders Among Adolescents, Teah-Marie R. Bynion Aug 2018

A Multimodal Assessment Of Disgust In Response To Traumatic Event Reminders Among Adolescents, Teah-Marie R. Bynion

Theses and Dissertations

The majority of youth will report traumatic event exposure by the time they reach adulthood. Research suggests exposure to such events is linked to myriad negative outcomes. Not all traumatic events are alike, however; evidence suggests that, compared to non-interpersonal events, interpersonal events in which another person intentionally perpetrates harm are linked to elevations in the likelihood of negative outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One reason for this discrepancy is that interpersonal traumatic events may elicit greater levels of disgust. However, this is a very under-developed research base, no study has examined this question among youth. The current study ...


Developing Peptide Therapeutics That Inhibit Bacterial Toxins Utilizing A Cholesterol Recognition Amino Acid Consensus (Crac) Motif, Evan Koufos Aug 2018

Developing Peptide Therapeutics That Inhibit Bacterial Toxins Utilizing A Cholesterol Recognition Amino Acid Consensus (Crac) Motif, Evan Koufos

Theses and Dissertations

Treatment of bacterial illnesses has become increasingly difficult as the development of new antibiotics is being outpaced by the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant organisms. This has led us to search for alternative therapeutic approaches to help combat these illnesses. A viable approach in treating these illnesses is to focus on inhibiting protein toxins, which are one of the many virulence factors that bacteria secrete. Many toxins recognize and bind to cholesterol (Chol) on the host cell membrane as an initial step in their mechanism; however, a viable method of inhibiting this interaction has yet to be uncovered.For our model ...


The Relationship Between Mental Health And Ultra-Running: A Case Study, Joshua Justin Cook Aug 2018

The Relationship Between Mental Health And Ultra-Running: A Case Study, Joshua Justin Cook

Theses and Dissertations

This instrumental case study sought to explore the relationship between ultra-running and mental health through the lived experiences of a single participant who self-identifies as an ultra-runner. Three research questions were used to explore this relationship; how did the individual decide to participate in ultra-running, what aspects of ultra-running impact the participant’s mental health, and how has engaging in ultra-running impacted the participant’s mental health? The case study utilized three semi-structured interviews, two participant observations, video documentary review, and journaling to answer these questions. A thematic analysis of the data revealed four essential themes; 1) Development of participation ...


Patient Satisfaction And Oral Health-Related Quality Of Life Outcomes In Edentulous Patients Being Treated With Complete Dentures By Dental Students At The University Of Iowa College Of Dentistry And Dental Clinics, José Miguel García Loera Aug 2018

Patient Satisfaction And Oral Health-Related Quality Of Life Outcomes In Edentulous Patients Being Treated With Complete Dentures By Dental Students At The University Of Iowa College Of Dentistry And Dental Clinics, José Miguel García Loera

Theses and Dissertations

Objectives:

The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of multiple factors in the Oral Health Related Quality of Life of patients being treated with Conventional Complete Dentures, including: a) Level of expertise of the dental provider (third year dental student vs. fourth year dental student); b) Length of time edentulous; c) Number of previous prostheses; d) Race; e) Sex; f) Age; g) Systemic conditions; h) Condition of the bone ridge; i) Economic factor and insurance coverage, in patients at the University of Iowa College of Dentistry (D3 and D4 Clinics).

Materials and methods:

Eighty-one subjects who had ...


Noise Exposure For Bus Drivers In An Iowa City Transit System, Austin Isamu Pierson Aug 2018

Noise Exposure For Bus Drivers In An Iowa City Transit System, Austin Isamu Pierson

Theses and Dissertations

General noise regulations and guidelines protect workers against 8-hour time-weighted average noise exposures > 85-90 dBA that can cause health outcomes and noise induced hearing loss (NIHL), but the bus transportation industry has guidelines limiting lower noise exposures > 75-80 dBA to reduce safety hazards, including distraction and poor communication. These hazards can create dangerous driving conditions, especially for urban bus drivers, potentially causing a collision. Further research was necessary to characterize U.S. urban transit bus driver noise exposures to assess whether they exceeded 75, 80, 85, and 90 dBA, time-weighted, and to identify statistically significant noise exposure risk factors for ...


Assessment Of Regional Fungal Concentrations And Diversity And Their Possible Association With Self-Reported Health Effects Among A National Sample Of Office Building Occupants In The United States, Shawn Arden Messer Aug 2018

Assessment Of Regional Fungal Concentrations And Diversity And Their Possible Association With Self-Reported Health Effects Among A National Sample Of Office Building Occupants In The United States, Shawn Arden Messer

Theses and Dissertations

Data from the Environmental Protection Agency’s Building Assessment and Survey Evaluation (BASE) study was analyzed for culturable fungi detected in air samples collected from 100 office buildings located among ten climate regions in the United States. Fungi identified and quantified in the study were evaluated in indoor and outdoor environments. Evenness of species for both summer and winter, and the diversity and similarity indices of species were calculated between climate region groups in order to observe potential climate-based differences in the fungal microbiome. Respiratory and neurological health symptoms of study building occupants (n = 4,326) were self-reported by questionnaire ...


Fatherhood: Motivations Of Paternal Involvement, David Nguyen Jul 2018

Fatherhood: Motivations Of Paternal Involvement, David Nguyen

Theses and Dissertations

Men’s role in raising their children is changing due to different life circumstances, including an increase in women in the workforce and the positive acceptance of men being involved caregivers in addition as breadwinners. Though inequities in gender roles remain, these new expectations for men in childrearing responsibilities brings to the surface different questions as to what motivates men to engage in parenting behaviors. One theoretical approach to understand men’s intentions to engage in parenting behaviors is Ajzen’s (1991) theory of planned behavior. Grounded in the Theory of Planned Behavior, the purpose of the study was to ...


The Influence Of Therapist-Patient Religious/Spiritual Congruence On Satisfaction With Therapy: A Review Of Research, Tammy E. Henderson May 2018

The Influence Of Therapist-Patient Religious/Spiritual Congruence On Satisfaction With Therapy: A Review Of Research, Tammy E. Henderson

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this review was to examine the relationship between mental health and religion and/or spirituality. Specifically, it was believed that religion and spiritual congruence had a positive influence on satisfaction with therapy. Indeed, the literature reviewed suggests that therapists should be more open to addressing a patient's religious and/or spiritual beliefs as it could lead to more attuned therapeutic sessions. The importance of congruence between patient and therapist is a factor that can impact the therapeutic alliance, based on the literature, this concept appears to hold true for those that are or are not religiously ...


The Phenotype Of Cells Expressing Estrogen Receptor Alpha In The Nucleus Of The Solitary Tract, Christopher L. Horn May 2018

The Phenotype Of Cells Expressing Estrogen Receptor Alpha In The Nucleus Of The Solitary Tract, Christopher L. Horn

Theses and Dissertations

Estrogen protects females from hypertension. The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is a hindbrain site involved in the regulation of blood pressure, however little is known about estrogen receptors within the NTS. The purpose of these studies was to determine the phenotype of the cells expressing estrogen alpha receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarius. Four female Sprague-Dawley rats were transcardially perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde and hindbrains harvested. In coronal sections containing the NTS (40μm thick), immunohistochemistry was performed to determine which type of cells were expressed with estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expressing cells. We used the anti-ERα antibody with an antibody ...


Spectral Properties Of Doxorubicin Doped Rhdl Nanoparticles, Sunil Shah May 2018

Spectral Properties Of Doxorubicin Doped Rhdl Nanoparticles, Sunil Shah

Theses and Dissertations

Doxorubicin, also known as Adriamycin, is an anthracycline antibiotic which first gained clinical prominence in the early 1970’s as an effective antitumor agent. It is still used today to treat a spectrum of cancers like lymphoma, bladder, stomach, lung, breast, ovarian, and several others. Due to its production of free radicals to attack tumor cells, Doxorubicin interferes with mitochondrial phosphorylation and also induces cardiotoxicity. Thus, efficient and biocompatible delivery methods are needed for targeted drug delivery to overcome systemic toxicity. To maintain a high level of growth, tumor cells overexpress Scavenger receptors type B-1 (SR-B1). This cellular characteristic can ...


The Effect Of Diet On Craniofacial Growth In Osteogenesis Imperfecta Mouse Model, Summer H. Ladd May 2018

The Effect Of Diet On Craniofacial Growth In Osteogenesis Imperfecta Mouse Model, Summer H. Ladd

Theses and Dissertations

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI, or “brittle bone disease”) is a rare disorder that is caused by genetic point mutations (COL1A1/COL1A2) that affect type 1 collagen. In OI type III (severe) patients, limb bones are more susceptible to skeletal fractures and the bones of the craniofacial region are underdeveloped. Some OI type III patients also suffer from dental malocclusions or fractures (dentinogenesis imperfecta, DI). The goals of this project are 1) to describe the facial phenotype in an OI mouse model, to see if this model can be used to test potential behavioral and pharmaceutical interventions; and 2) to determine if ...


Analysis Of Patient Recruitment Methods For Clinical Trials Of Different Heart And Lung Diseases, Oghenevovwero Vovwe Sido May 2018

Analysis Of Patient Recruitment Methods For Clinical Trials Of Different Heart And Lung Diseases, Oghenevovwero Vovwe Sido

Theses and Dissertations

Patient recruitment is key to the success of any clinical trial, as clinical trials cannot be conducted without the willful participation of subjects. However, clinical trial recruitment has always been a great challenge in clinical studies. This practicum project conducted over an eight-month period, compares three different methods of subject recruitment into 2 clinical research studies conducted at the Heart & Lung Transplant and Pulmonary Research Department of Baylor Scott & White Research Institute, Dallas. The three recruitment methods are: Physician Referral, EHR Screening and Online Portals. We hypothesize that Physician referral is a more successful method for enrolling patients into clinical ...


Associations Between Media Use, Mental Health, And Risky Sexual Behaviors In Adolescence, Renae A. Merrill May 2018

Associations Between Media Use, Mental Health, And Risky Sexual Behaviors In Adolescence, Renae A. Merrill

Theses and Dissertations

Guided by the ecological “technosystem,” researchers examined data from 10,930 adolescents completing the CDC’s 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) looking for associations between television, social media, depressive symptoms, suicidality, and sexual risk behaviors. Regression results indicate media use is an important factor in adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. Social media use was associated with significantly poorer mental health, while hours spent watching television was linked with significantly higher sexual risks. Findings from this research are important for multi-systemic prevention and intervention efforts aimed at promoting adolescent resiliency, particularly among vulnerable youth who are most susceptible to ...


Disordered Eating Risk And Body Image Dissatisfaction Of Division I Male And Female Cheerleaders, Christopher Blaszka May 2018

Disordered Eating Risk And Body Image Dissatisfaction Of Division I Male And Female Cheerleaders, Christopher Blaszka

Theses and Dissertations

The sport of cheerleading is growing both in the high school and college setting, however there is little research on cheerleaders specifically, both sideline and competitive. It is clear that while this sport does not benefit from being affiliated with the NCAA, the athletes are still at large risk for disordered eating and eating disorders, and are in need of more accurate screening and prevention methods. With the lack of cheerleading studies in general, there is an even larger scarcity of studies that focus on males in cheerleading. The current study aims to fill the gap in the research regarding ...


Behavior Coding Strategies: Population Coupling And The Functional Role Of Excitatory/Inhibitory Balance In Primary Motor Cortex, Patrick Aaron Kells May 2018

Behavior Coding Strategies: Population Coupling And The Functional Role Of Excitatory/Inhibitory Balance In Primary Motor Cortex, Patrick Aaron Kells

Theses and Dissertations

The complexities of an organism’s experience of- and interaction with the world are emergent phenomena produced by large populations of neurons within the cerebral cortex and other brain regions. The network dynamics of these populations have been shown to be sometimes synchronous, with many neurons firing together, and sometimes asynchronous, with neurons firing more independently, leading to a decades-old debate within the neuroscience community. This discrepancy comes from viewing the system at two different scales; at the single cell level, the spiking activity of two neurons within cortex tend to be rather independent, but when the average activity of ...


Pre-Season Vitamin D And Iron Levels As A Predictor Of Musculoskeletal Injury In Division I Athletes, Mariellen Katherine Veach May 2018

Pre-Season Vitamin D And Iron Levels As A Predictor Of Musculoskeletal Injury In Division I Athletes, Mariellen Katherine Veach

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Pre-season testing that includes the analysis of micronutrient serum levels in the blood has become a routine part of pre-participation examinations in collegiate football. Objective: Assess the predictability of vitamin D and iron serum levels as indicators of future injury during a subsequent competitive season for lower extremity sprains, strains, and fractures. Additionally, determine the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation on increasing serum 25(OH)D levels and preventing injury. Design: Cohort Study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football program. Participants: Football athletes (n=349) who underwent pre-participation examinations and participated in at least one of three ...


The Impact Of Implementing Positive Behavioral Interventions And Supports (Pbis) With Direct Care Staff In A Residential Treatment Center, Alexis Bickel Lubar May 2018

The Impact Of Implementing Positive Behavioral Interventions And Supports (Pbis) With Direct Care Staff In A Residential Treatment Center, Alexis Bickel Lubar

Theses and Dissertations

This study compared the ratings of self-efficacy and burnout by traditionally-trained direct care staff in a residential treatment center with ratings by a group of direct care staff that were trained to implement Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) with adults who have intellectual or developmental disabilities. Staff responses on measures of self-efficacy, using the Teacher’s Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) and burnout, using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were compared across the two groups: One group of staff was not exposed to PBIS training (traditional training only), whereas the other group was trained to implement PBIS. A total ...


Defending Wild Dogs: Population Dynamics And Disease In Endangered African Wild Dogs, Elizabeth Claire Arredondo May 2018

Defending Wild Dogs: Population Dynamics And Disease In Endangered African Wild Dogs, Elizabeth Claire Arredondo

Theses and Dissertations

African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are endangered carnivores whose population is decreasing from habitat loss and fragmentation, interspecific competition, and disease. Survival rates are especially low in Kruger National Park (KNP), though it is unclear why. I estimated the abundance in KNP and survival rates over different time spans, six years and nine months, using public photographic survey data. In 2015, there were 298 (SE=12.1) individuals. Using a mark-recapture analysis in program R, I found that the survival rate between 2009-2015 was only 3.2%, and within the 9-month survey period (September 2014 – June 2015), monthly survival rates ...


Synthesis And Cytotoxicity Of Azaheterocyclic Compounds, Keyur M. Pandya May 2018

Synthesis And Cytotoxicity Of Azaheterocyclic Compounds, Keyur M. Pandya

Theses and Dissertations

Multicomponent coupling reactions (MCRs) have been known for a long time and one such reaction that utilizes isocyanides is Passerini reaction. It is a powerful tool to synthesize libraries of different compounds. Azaheterocyclic compounds play an important role in medicinal chemistry. Motifs such as imidazoles, piperazines, pyrazoles, pyridines, triazoles, etc. are routinely observed in several compounds of pharmacological interest. Several natural products also contain these motifs in them. We have undertaken a library synthesis of heterocyclic molecules driven by our group's long-standing interest of synthesizing medicinally relevant small molecules employing green chemistry techniques.

This thesis details our efforts on ...


Survey Of Hydration Knowledge And Behavior In Youth Mountain Bike Teams, Natasha Brand May 2018

Survey Of Hydration Knowledge And Behavior In Youth Mountain Bike Teams, Natasha Brand

Theses and Dissertations

Many youth sports organizations recognize the importance of educating on hydration practices and awareness, although according to recent research current hydration education is not correlating to effective practices. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess and describe the hydration knowledge and behavior of student-athletes participating in competitive junior high and high school mountain bike teams, in order to substantiate further research. METHODS: A total of 133 male and female participants, ranging from 11-18 years were surveyed on their hydration knowledge and behavior. All participants were apparently healthy and were active members of a National Interscholastic Cycling Association (NICA ...


Immunostimulatory Effects Of Antigen-Conjugated Inp/Zns Quantum Dot Nanoparticles In An Avian Model, Christopher Lyle May 2018

Immunostimulatory Effects Of Antigen-Conjugated Inp/Zns Quantum Dot Nanoparticles In An Avian Model, Christopher Lyle

Theses and Dissertations

Due to their unique physicochemical and enhanced immunostimulatory properties, quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles have shown increasing promise in biomedical research applications including bioimaging, drug delivery, and as vaccine adjuvants. Toxicity, however, remains a concern for the use of QD in these applications and thus, there is an increased demand for effective in vitro and in vivo systems to measure the bioactivity of QD. In this study in vitro and in vivo chicken models were used to investigate the effects of QD on innate and adaptive immunity. Chicken macrophage cultures were treated in vitro with QD to measure macrophage activation and ...


Transformational Leadership In Club Sports: An Instrument For Evaluation And Assessment, Nathan Shelby Hutchens May 2018

Transformational Leadership In Club Sports: An Instrument For Evaluation And Assessment, Nathan Shelby Hutchens

Theses and Dissertations

Campus Recreation and its programs can be used as a way to combat the national trends of decreasing enrollment and retention (Weaver, Forte, & McFadden, 2017; Kampf & Teske, 2013). In fact, 62% of students indicate that Campus Recreation programs are a factor when choosing an institution and 67% indicate that recreation programs were a factor when deciding to stay at a particular institution (Forrester, 2014). As a program within Campus Recreation, Club Sports specifically is perceived to have the greatest health and wellbeing benefits out of all Campus Recreation programming (Lower, Turner, & Petersen, 2013). Due to the voluntary nature of Club Sports, Transformational ...


Examining Food Insecurity Among High School Students: A Risks And Resources Model, Jill Niemeier May 2018

Examining Food Insecurity Among High School Students: A Risks And Resources Model, Jill Niemeier

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the relationships between food insecurity, risks, and resources among adolescents attending a large high school in Northwest Arkansas. In a sample of 1,493 students, in which the majority are Hispanic/Latino and receive free and reduced lunch, food insecurity relationships were first assessed controlling for a number of sociodemographic variables, such as ethnicity, gender, and social class. In addition, a number of risk and resource variables were identified at four ecological levels: individual, family, school/peer, and community. These risks and resources were analyzed using a three-step ordinal regression model in order to examine how sociodemographic ...


Associations Between Fluoride Intakes, Bone Outcomes And Dental Fluorosis, Reem Oweis May 2018

Associations Between Fluoride Intakes, Bone Outcomes And Dental Fluorosis, Reem Oweis

Theses and Dissertations

These PhD projects represent secondary analyses of data from the ongoing Iowa Fluoride Study (IFS)/Iowa Bone Development Study (IBDS). The aim of this dissertation was to explore the associations between period-specific and cumulative fluoride intakes from birth to age 17, and from birth to age 19 years and bone measures of participants. Also, this dissertation looked into the associations between the clinical presence of dental fluorosis and bone outcomes.

Participants have been participating in the IBDS that grew out of the IFS, which is a longitudinal investigation of dietary and non-dietary fluoride exposures, dental fluorosis and dental caries. IFS ...