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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

A Comparative Study On The Expository Writing Abilities Of Kindergarten Students With And Without Developmental Language Disorder, Kristine Michelle Dayley Andrus Jun 2022

A Comparative Study On The Expository Writing Abilities Of Kindergarten Students With And Without Developmental Language Disorder, Kristine Michelle Dayley Andrus

Theses and Dissertations

State standards require kindergarten students to produce expository writing, but little research has been done regarding their abilities in this area. This study describes expository writing samples of 47 typically developing (TD) kindergarteners and 43 kindergarteners with developmental language disorder (DLD). The Expository Language Measures (ELM) Flow Chart and the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT) software were used to detail the language complexity and text structure features the children in the sample produced. When comparing TD and DLD children's expository written samples, no significant differences in the language and text structure measures were found. It is important to ...


Intolerance Of Uncertainty, Sensory Processing, And Related Correlates In Autistic Children During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Mollie Bradley Jun 2022

Intolerance Of Uncertainty, Sensory Processing, And Related Correlates In Autistic Children During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Mollie Bradley

Theses and Dissertations

The COVID-19 pandemic increased uncertainty and anxiety for most and was especially disruptive to autistic people and their families. Autistic children were particularly vulnerable due to their intolerance for increased uncertainty and disruption to their school and therapy support. This study aimed to investigate the effect that increased uncertainty had on autistic children, specifically their sensory behaviors and stress levels and on the stress levels of their primary caregivers. Parents and guardians of 47 autistic children completed an online survey consisting of questions investigating background and demographic information, their experiences during the first six months of the pandemic, information about ...


The Analysis Of Omission And Substitution Errors In Various Language Tasks In Bilingual Children, Macy Whiting Jun 2022

The Analysis Of Omission And Substitution Errors In Various Language Tasks In Bilingual Children, Macy Whiting

Theses and Dissertations

As the population of Spanish-English bilingual children in the United States steadily grows, the importance of accurately assessing and diagnosing developmental language disorder (DLD) has also grown. Understanding a child's underlying language learning system is critical in this process. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of nonword repetition (NWR) tasks in bilingual children across a wide range of development, however there is little information regarding guidelines for interpretation of NWR performance or analyzing error patterns. This study was conducted to address these gaps in the research. A sample of 26 Spanish-English bilingual school aged children (6;0-9;4) were ...


The Impact Of Background Noise On The Communicative Experience Of People With Mild To Moderate Aphasia: A Qualitative Study, Riley Robertson Hegewald Jun 2022

The Impact Of Background Noise On The Communicative Experience Of People With Mild To Moderate Aphasia: A Qualitative Study, Riley Robertson Hegewald

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined how retelling stories with a variety different background noise conditions affected the communicative experiences of people with aphasia (PWA). Participants included 11 adults with mild to moderate aphasia and 11 age- and gender-matched controls. Participants participated in a semi-structured interview immediately following the experimental measure where they were asked open-ended questions regarding their experience retelling stories and how those experiences related to their everyday lives. Results revealed three themes related to how participants responded to communicating in noise: (a) cognitive reactions, (b) emotional reactions, and (c) social reactions. The findings suggest that PWA exert more effort when ...


Enhancing Vanadium Redox Battery Performance Using Tungsten-Bismuth-Based Oxide Nanostructures As Electrode Modifiers, Taher Al Najjar Jun 2022

Enhancing Vanadium Redox Battery Performance Using Tungsten-Bismuth-Based Oxide Nanostructures As Electrode Modifiers, Taher Al Najjar

Theses and Dissertations

Renewable energy power plants require high efficiency conversion and storage systems that can store high amounts of energy and can be integrated with the electrical grid. Vanadium redox flow batteries are very promising for this application. However, one major drawback of VRFBs is their low power density which means that right now they cannot replace non-renewable energy sources. Different carbon materials are used as electrodes in VRFBs and each carbon material affects the battery’s performance in a different way. Modification of these electrodes can increase the power density of the battery. Some metal oxides like tungsten oxide can enhance ...


Examining The Preliminary Validity Of A Dynamic Assessment Of Narrative Language In Mandarin Chinese, Lok Yee Sarah Cheung Jun 2022

Examining The Preliminary Validity Of A Dynamic Assessment Of Narrative Language In Mandarin Chinese, Lok Yee Sarah Cheung

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this thesis was to examine the preliminary validity of a newly developed dynamic assessment of narrative language in Mandarin Chinese. Two studies are reported in this thesis. Study 1 included 31 second grade participants and Study 2 included 43 first grade participants. All participants were enrolled in a Chinese immersion program in an elementary school in Utah. A dynamic assessment of narrative language was administered to each participant in Mandarin Chinese. A teacher rating was also included in Study 1. Results indicated that the dynamic assessment investigated in this thesis demonstrated some similar characteristics with other valid ...


Comparing Relative And Absolute Reliability Of Short Versus Long Narrative Retells, Jenna Hollis May 2022

Comparing Relative And Absolute Reliability Of Short Versus Long Narrative Retells, Jenna Hollis

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the current study was to examine and compare relative and absolute reliability estimates between brief, linguistically compact narrative retells and longer, more linguistically diffuse narrative retells. The participants included 190 school-age children in firstsixth grade from Utah, Arizona, and Colorado. Participants completed two brief narrative retells using the Narrative Language Measures (NLM) Listening subtest of the CUBED assessment and one longer narrative retell using the wordless picture book Frog, Where Are You? (FWAY). These language samples were then analyzed for language productivity, complexity, and story grammar elements using the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts software program and ...


Comparison Of Abdominal Computed Tomography To Ultrasound In The Diagnosis Of Canine Biliary Disease Manifesting As Acute Abdominal Signs, Shanna Christine Marroquin May 2022

Comparison Of Abdominal Computed Tomography To Ultrasound In The Diagnosis Of Canine Biliary Disease Manifesting As Acute Abdominal Signs, Shanna Christine Marroquin

Theses and Dissertations

Biliary diseases are uncommon, potentially fatal causes of acute abdomen in dogs. Little information is present comparing the performance of computed tomography (CT) to ultrasound in identifying canine biliary pathology. Thirty-five client-owned dogs presenting for acute abdomen signs received an abdominal ultrasound and contrast-enhanced abdominal CT. Two authors reviewed the randomized, anonymized CT and ultrasound studies. Twenty-eight dogs had biliary pathology and seven dogs serving as controls had no evidence of biliary disease. The final diagnoses of patients with biliary pathology included cholelithiasis, gallbladder mucoceles, cholangiohepatitis/cholangitis, extrahepatic biliary obstruction, gallbladder wall edema, gallbladder wall mass, and cystic mucosal hyperplasia ...


A Preliminary Investigation Of Neuroantibody Levels, Prevalence, And Environmental Factors In Patients With Neurological Dysfunction, Jihan Azar May 2022

A Preliminary Investigation Of Neuroantibody Levels, Prevalence, And Environmental Factors In Patients With Neurological Dysfunction, Jihan Azar

Theses and Dissertations

Nervous system damage comprises a large proportion of diseases worldwide. It is also the most difficult to diagnose. Biomarkers for nervous system damage are needed in order to diagnose these diseases early enough to allow for intervention. In this study, we recruited patients from two Egyptian hospitals with MCI, ET and NMS and health references. Serum autoantibody levels against neural proteins and heavy metals were analyzed and compared. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against neurofilament H (NFH), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) and alpha synuclein (a-SYN) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody against neurofilament light (NFL) were among ...


The Effect Of Two Rate Change Approaches On Speech Movement Patterns, Noelle Marie Lewis May 2022

The Effect Of Two Rate Change Approaches On Speech Movement Patterns, Noelle Marie Lewis

Theses and Dissertations

The current study examined the effect of different rate change approaches on speech movement patterns, including increasing and decreasing speaking rate volitionally, as well as with delayed auditory feedback (DAF). There were 10 participants, five male and five female, with a mean age of 25 years. All were typical speakers. Participants spoke the sentence “Don’t fight or pout over a toy car” under slow, fast and DAF speaking conditions. A total of 5 sensors were glued to each participant’s tongue, teeth, and lips. NDI Wave electromagnetic articulography recorded the articulatory movements from these sensors as the participants spoke ...


An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis Of The Lived Experience Of Parental Caregivers For Children With Severe Epidermolysis Bullosa, Michael J. Valentine May 2022

An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis Of The Lived Experience Of Parental Caregivers For Children With Severe Epidermolysis Bullosa, Michael J. Valentine

Theses and Dissertations

Providing care to child with a chronic, rare diseases has been identified as a major life stressor with a myriad of negative physical and mental health consequences. These stresses have previously been found to create burden that may impair caregiving efforts and increase the risk of mortality for both the caregiver and affected child. Many rare diseases affect children. It is not known how caregiver burden and the source of stress varies by disease. Qualitative methods have been used to understand caregiver experience with the rare disease, epidermolysis bullosa (EB), but no such studies have occurred in the United States ...


Use Of Mobile Phones For Hiv Prevention And Testing Information Needs By Emerging Adult Male Population In Rural Kenya. A Qualitative Study, Augustine Boswony Kiplagat May 2022

Use Of Mobile Phones For Hiv Prevention And Testing Information Needs By Emerging Adult Male Population In Rural Kenya. A Qualitative Study, Augustine Boswony Kiplagat

Theses and Dissertations

Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency disease syndrome (AIDS) among young people in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is a serious public health issue which needs urgent cost-effective interventions locally, regionally, and internationally. HIV and AIDS is currently the leading cause of death among young people in SSA, calling for strategic HIV prevention approaches applicable to emerging adults. While most studies have focused on young women, studies focusing on emerging male adults are lacking. The purpose of this dissertation study was to develop an in-depth understanding of the needs, barriers, and facilitators of using mobile phone to access HIV prevention and ...


Stat3 Dysregulation Of Xrcc1 Results On Altered Base Excision Repair, Griffin Wright May 2022

Stat3 Dysregulation Of Xrcc1 Results On Altered Base Excision Repair, Griffin Wright

Theses and Dissertations

Base Excision Repair (BER) is a critical DNA repair pathway, repairing base damage, the spontaneous decay of bases, abasic sites, and single-strand DNA breaks. BER requires the sequential action of multiple proteins, including poly(ADP ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), X-ray cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1), and DNA polymerase beta (POL 𝛽). Expression changes and polymorphisms in BER proteins alter the response of cancer cells to multiple DNA damaging chemotherapeutics, with overexpression of XRCC1 increasing chemoresistance in gastric, gallbladder, and ovarian cancer. However, the transcriptional regulation of XRCC1 remains largely understudied. Here, we identify the signal transducer and activator of transcription ...


The Role Of Nuclear Focal Adhesion Kinase In Tumor And The Tumor Microenvironment, Yelitza Angelica Rodriguez-Rodriguez May 2022

The Role Of Nuclear Focal Adhesion Kinase In Tumor And The Tumor Microenvironment, Yelitza Angelica Rodriguez-Rodriguez

Theses and Dissertations

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a ubiquitous expressed protein tyrosine kinase. In growing cells, FAK localizes to the plasma membrane where it interacts with several components of the focal adhesion complex and coordinates integrin signaling. Early studies using genetic mouse models revealed that deletion or catalytic inactivation of FAK resulted in early embryonic lethality with vascular, cell proliferation, and cell survival defects. As a result, FAK was coined as a vital mediator of cell migration, proliferation, and cell survival and multiple small molecule FAK inhibitors (FAK-I) had been designed to inactivate FAK catalytic functions in multiple pathologies, particularly in cancer ...


Laryngeal Vestibular Closure In Healthy, Non-Dysphagic Adults, Courtney Petersen May 2022

Laryngeal Vestibular Closure In Healthy, Non-Dysphagic Adults, Courtney Petersen

Theses and Dissertations

This retrospective study quantified normal LVC (laryngeal vestibular closure) variance and how influential factors (age category, sex, and swallow task) influence normative ranges. A total of 195 healthy, non-dysphagic participants, including 85 males and 110 females from the ages of 21 to 89 years, participated in a modified barium swallow study. Seven swallow tasks, with varying viscosities and volumes, per participant were analyzed to measure two temporal LVC measures: LVCrt (reaction time) and dLVC (duration). Descriptive and inferential analyses were provided. Significant findings included longer dLVC in older age categories, longer dLVC in females compared to males, only in the ...


Relationship Between Eye Movements During Reading And Severity Of Language Impairment In Persons With Aphasia, Sarah C. Mcwilliams May 2022

Relationship Between Eye Movements During Reading And Severity Of Language Impairment In Persons With Aphasia, Sarah C. Mcwilliams

Theses and Dissertations

Eye movements reflect cognitive-linguistic processing of neurotypical readers. Numerous reading related eye movement measures are associated with language processing, including saccades, fixations, word skipping, and regressions. Eye movements have also been used to examine language processing and reading in disordered populations including persons with aphasia. This study examined whether eye movement measures (i.e., fixation duration, gaze duration, total viewing time, skipping rate, saccade amplitude, regression path duration) obtained from connected text paragraph reading were associated with language severity (WAB-R) and reading comprehension skills (RCBA-2) in persons with various subtypes of aphasia as well as whether those same eye movement ...


Impact Of Telecoaching On The Emergent Literacy Skills Of Four-Year Old Children, De'asia Jackson May 2022

Impact Of Telecoaching On The Emergent Literacy Skills Of Four-Year Old Children, De'asia Jackson

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this project was to examine the impact of a 8-week virtual text-message based parent training program on the emergent literacy skills of four-year-old children. Prior to the training children were screened for typically developing language skills and completed measures of a variety of emergent literacy skills then eight parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to two groups. Each parent was provided specific strategies over 8-weeks to facilitate the development of various emergent literacy skills. Five parents received code-based strategies to facilitate Inside-Out skills such as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness and print concepts, while 3 parent-child dyads received meaning-based ...


Technology Use In Schizotypy Utilizing The Domains Of Technology Use Survey (Dotus), Devin Massaro Apr 2022

Technology Use In Schizotypy Utilizing The Domains Of Technology Use Survey (Dotus), Devin Massaro

Theses and Dissertations

The diathesis stress model for schizophrenia posits that genetics and prenatal factors confer vulnerability (diathesis) for mental illness which then may be activated through exposure to environmental stressors during life. One component of our contemporary environment involves technology use which has demonstrated risk and beneficial capabilities in regards to the schizophrenia spectrum. Using an online and in-person survey, this study aimed to elucidate the manner in which time spent on technology related to schizotypy, problematic technology use (PTU), and health behaviors in 227 undergraduate students (aged 18-30). We hypothesized that levels of schizotypy, as well as time spent on social ...


Effect Of Covid-19 On The Wellbeing Of Healthcare Professionals In Public Isolation Hospitals In Egypt, Shaimaa Sabbah Feb 2022

Effect Of Covid-19 On The Wellbeing Of Healthcare Professionals In Public Isolation Hospitals In Egypt, Shaimaa Sabbah

Theses and Dissertations

One of the most vulnerable groups severely hit by the COVID-19 pandemic has been the Healthcare Professionals (HCPs), especially the physicians, pharmacists, and nurses who work in public Isolation hospitals. The Egyptian medical syndicate declared the death of more than 600 physicians from February 2020 till January 2022. In the meantime, the Egyptian government has worked on different policies for relieving the negative effects of the pandemic on this vulnerable group; however, easing restrictions, no total lockdown implementation, and monitoring bureaucracy has negatively affected the wellbeing of those HCPs. The study aims to figure out recommended policies to protect HCPs ...


A Predictive Model For Geographical Location Using Microbiome Composition And Covid-19 Based Analysis, Ahmed Adel Aboushanab Jan 2022

A Predictive Model For Geographical Location Using Microbiome Composition And Covid-19 Based Analysis, Ahmed Adel Aboushanab

Theses and Dissertations

The human microbiome is a main contributor for the health and welfare of the human body. It is affected by many factors like diet and hygiene. These factors differ between different populations. Testing the population-microbiome differences using healthy samples from different countries is the first objective of this study. This data was then used in training and testing machine learning models (Random Forest and L2-logistic Regression Classifiers) for the prediction of the geographical location based on the microbiome data. Random Forest Classifier had the highest accuracy. Feature importance analysis showed that the data for Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes improved the ...


Selective Small Molecule Targeting Of Mcl-1 In Multiple Myeloma, Omar S. Al Odat Jan 2022

Selective Small Molecule Targeting Of Mcl-1 In Multiple Myeloma, Omar S. Al Odat

Theses and Dissertations

Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a deadly blood malignancy, characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of aberrantly differentiated plasma cells. MM is challenging to diagnose and treat, accounting for approximately 12% of hematologic malignancies. The overexpression of anti-apoptotic group of Bcl-2 family proteins, particularly Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), play a critical role in the pathogenesis of MM. The overexpression of Mcl-1 is associated with drug resistance and overall poor prognosis. Thus, inhibition of the Mcl-1 protein is an attractive therapeutic strategy against myeloma cells. Over the last decade, the development of selective Mcl-1 inhibitors has seen remarkable advancement. In this project ...


Dia.Ries, Katherine A. Doyle Jan 2022

Dia.Ries, Katherine A. Doyle

Theses and Dissertations

dia.ries is a pilot episode of an episodic series that offers insight into the lives of a few of the 500 million people around the world with diabetes—otherwise normal, everyday people who happen to be living each day with an “invisible illness.” Produced through video diaries and other user-generated content, the series tells stories from first-person points of view along thematic lines, using a collaborative approach rooted in Third Cinema.


What Does It Mean To Be Black And A Woman? An Investigation Of Recollected Racial Socialization Messages And Racial Identity Development On Subjective Gender Role Stress, April Berry Jan 2022

What Does It Mean To Be Black And A Woman? An Investigation Of Recollected Racial Socialization Messages And Racial Identity Development On Subjective Gender Role Stress, April Berry

Theses and Dissertations

Black American women face unique challenges in their identity development and gender role experiences. Research has explored the impact of racial socialization messages on racial identity development, but there are significant gaps in the literature on how gendered racial socialization messages (i.e., the intersectionality of messages regarding both racial and gender identities; Brown et al., 2017) are associated with Black racial identity and subjective gender role stress (i.e., experiences of stress associated with events related to the female gender role; Shea et al., 2014) in Black women. This current study addresses this gap. A sample of 564 self-identified ...


Viral Overexpression Of Rprd2 In Mouse Nucleus Accumbens Induces Anxiety-Like Behavior And Regulates Genes Associated With Microtubule Transport, Claire Nuhad Atiyeh Jan 2022

Viral Overexpression Of Rprd2 In Mouse Nucleus Accumbens Induces Anxiety-Like Behavior And Regulates Genes Associated With Microtubule Transport, Claire Nuhad Atiyeh

Theses and Dissertations

Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental illness in the United States with many individuals underdiagnosed and undertreated (Anxiety & Depression Association of America, 2021; Bandelow et al., 2017). While stress is a known risk factor for developing anxiety disorders, there is emerging evidence that biological variability in the expression of key proteins in the brain may contribute to regulating an organism’s stress-related behaviors. Earlier work from our laboratory identified a protein, called Regulation of Nuclear Pre-mRNA Domain Containing 2 (RPRD2), that was differentially expressed in the brain of mice stratified in terms of their phenotypic response to chronic stress (Hamilton et al., 2020). RPRD2 ...


Detailing The Genetic And Environmental Influences Shared Between Conventional And Electronic Cigarette Use Across Measures Of Initiation And Past 12-Month Use, James Clifford Jan 2022

Detailing The Genetic And Environmental Influences Shared Between Conventional And Electronic Cigarette Use Across Measures Of Initiation And Past 12-Month Use, James Clifford

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction. Tobacco use is a public health crisis with nearly 500,000 Americans suffering premature mortality attributable to tobacco use in 2014. New development efforts have created new nicotine delivery systems whose health consequences are not yet fully understood such as electronic cigarettes (ECIG). It is possible there are shared genetic and environmental factors that influence an individual’s liability to initiate cigarette (CIG) or ECIG use, as both systems are designed to deliver nicotine.

Methods. Four study designs were used to resolve the genetic and environmental influences that underlie CIG and ECIG initiation. A twin study, scoping review, genome-wide ...


Exploring Dynamic Navigation For Palatally Impacted Canine Uncovery Surgery., Daniel Joseph Hall Jan 2022

Exploring Dynamic Navigation For Palatally Impacted Canine Uncovery Surgery., Daniel Joseph Hall

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare the exposure/uncovery of palatally impacted canines via the use of dynamic navigation guidance to the traditional freehand approach. Outcomes evaluated include the time to plan and perform exposure, area/size of initial access to locate the impacted tooth and the final size of the osteotomy to completely uncover the impacted tooth.

Methods: In order to simulate various frequently encountered clinical scenarios, three different model types were used. Six plastic models of each model type were fabricated from epoxy resin. Each model contained 2 bilaterally, palatally impacted canines, that were randomly ...


Direction Modulated Brachytherapy For The Treatment Of Cervical Cancer, Dylan Richeson Jan 2022

Direction Modulated Brachytherapy For The Treatment Of Cervical Cancer, Dylan Richeson

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: To evaluate and compare the performance of 9 experimental DMBT tandem models of varying physical dimensions in relation to 24 previously planned HDR cervical cancer treatment plans from multiple institutions that used conventional tandem and rings or ovoid applicators.

Methods and Materials: The DMBT tandem is designed to be used concurrently with IGABT and is made from an MRI-compatible tungsten-alloy rod with 6 channels grooved out of its periphery. 9 experimental DMBT tandem prototypes were provided. Each of the models was of equal lengths but varied in thickness, channel diameter size, and circle channel diameter size. Replanning was performed ...


Varied Levels Of Fructose Consumption Induce Physiological, Cognitive, And Mitochondrial Alterations In Aged Female Rats, Emilie L. Bjerring Jan 2022

Varied Levels Of Fructose Consumption Induce Physiological, Cognitive, And Mitochondrial Alterations In Aged Female Rats, Emilie L. Bjerring

Theses and Dissertations

Since the 1970s, fructose consumption has dramatically increased within the United States, as well as the world. While adolescents tend to be the largest consumer of fructose, mostly seen in the form of sugary beverages, the consequences of a high fructose diet started in adulthood can also have severe implications on physiological parameters as well as cognition. Several studies have linked fructose consumption to metabolic syndrome, a clustering of symptoms related to overall health, with particular emphasis placed on obesity, type II diabetes, and the relationship with Alzheimer’s Disease. These findings largely stem from the outcomes of studies on ...


Defiantly Childlike: Using Aesthetic Resistance To Heal, Sarah K. Reagan Jan 2022

Defiantly Childlike: Using Aesthetic Resistance To Heal, Sarah K. Reagan

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines an alternative processing mechanism surrounding the act of healing after traumatic experiences in life. Using a methodology of iterative patterning and tool-pathing, a collection of inflatable garments and wooden mannequins analyzes defense mechanisms learned in early childhood development. This work highlights an essential body of recent scholarship that takes cuteification seriously to restore a childlike approach to mastering fear. This paper will review the definitions of cuteness and childlike humor and then describe how visual culture has implemented these components to subvert established power.


Exploring Predictors In The Receipt Of Patient/Family-Centered Care, Arami Anwell Jan 2022

Exploring Predictors In The Receipt Of Patient/Family-Centered Care, Arami Anwell

Theses and Dissertations

Study 1

OBJECTIVES: The research aim of this study was to identify predictors associated with the receipt of PFCC among U.S. children/families

METHODS: Caregivers of 38,803 non-institutionalized children, aged 0 to 17 years, were surveyed by the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) 2018–20019. Patient/family-centered care (PFCC) was measured using five components of health care delivery that were answered on a 4-point Likert scale. Logistic regression models were analyzed for the overall receipt of PFCC and each component of PFCC, with survey weighting added to adjust for complex sampling design.

RESULTS: Many predictors were ...