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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Susceptibility To Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Hepatitis C Patients: A Systematic Review, Jiani Yu Feb 2019

Susceptibility To Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Hepatitis C Patients: A Systematic Review, Jiani Yu

Lynchburg Journal of Medical Science

Importance: Hepatitis C is a disease that leads to many chronic extrahepatic conditions. The establishment of the connection between hepatitis C infection and diabetes mellitus may help to change the current practice protocol and better manage both conditions.

Objective: To investigate the relationship between hepatitis C and diabetes mellitus to establish a correlation to change clinical practice.

Evidence Review: a systematic review of English-language literature on Pub-Med published in the last five years to identify articles related to hepatitis C and diabetes mellitus in adults.

Conclusion and Relevance: Multiple pieces of researches support the linkage between hepatitis C infection and ...


The Role Of Curcumin In Inflammatory Pathogenesis And The Benefits In Treatment Of Osteoarthritis, Alena V. Moreno Feb 2019

The Role Of Curcumin In Inflammatory Pathogenesis And The Benefits In Treatment Of Osteoarthritis, Alena V. Moreno

Lynchburg Journal of Medical Science

Curcumin is a perennial herb that originated in India, and its scientific name is Curcuma longa that belongs to the Zingiberaceae family. The active ingredients in turmeric are demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, and the particularly important compound is curcumin polyphenols. Curcumin has been recognized as a polyphenolic compound that has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, immunomodulatory and anti-depressant abilities, and may counteract underlying cellular mechanisms which that frequently lead to oxidative stress and inflammation that plays a significant part in OA pathogenesis. The main factors responsible for cartilage degeneration are interleukin- one (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha).13 These factors are responsible ...


Early Dexamethasone Administration In Adults With Suspected Meningitis Lowers Morbidity And Mortality, Dana Siegel Feb 2019

Early Dexamethasone Administration In Adults With Suspected Meningitis Lowers Morbidity And Mortality, Dana Siegel

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of de Gans J, van de Beek D, Investigators EDiABMS. Dexamethasone in adults with bacterial meningitis. New Eng J Med. 2002;347(20):1549-1556. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa021334.


Green Tea Extract, Epigallocatechin Gallate, Protect Against Methamphetamine-Induced Striatal Neurotoxicity In Mice, Allen L. Pan Feb 2019

Green Tea Extract, Epigallocatechin Gallate, Protect Against Methamphetamine-Induced Striatal Neurotoxicity In Mice, Allen L. Pan

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Methamphetamine (METH) is a strong psychostimulant and its exposure can lead to serious neurological complications. METH-induced neuronal injury is the result of a complex interplay of different factors including dopamine (DA) overflow, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Although the mechanisms of METH-induced neurotoxicity have been extensively studied, there is still no effective therapeutic treatment. Therefore, it is essential to study potential drug candidates that can treat METH-induced neurotoxicity. Green tea extract, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), has emerged as a neuroprotective agent that can protect against several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Recently, our lab has shown that ...


Mlk Book Read 2019 (Research Materials), Holy Cross Libraries Jan 2019

Mlk Book Read 2019 (Research Materials), Holy Cross Libraries

Library Resources for Campus Events

A bibliography of resources available through the Holy Cross Libraries which provide additional information related to the MLK Winter Book Read, based on the best-seller “Brother, I'm Dying" by Edwidge Danticat.


Coordinating An Oncology Precision Medicine Clinic Within An Integrated Health System: Lessons Learned In Year One, Michael A. Thompson, Jennifer J. Godden, Deborah Wham, Antony Ruggeri, Michael P. Mullane, Amanda Wilson, Shamsuddin Virani, Scott M. Weissman, Brenda Ramczyk, Pamela Vanderwall, James L. Weese Jan 2019

Coordinating An Oncology Precision Medicine Clinic Within An Integrated Health System: Lessons Learned In Year One, Michael A. Thompson, Jennifer J. Godden, Deborah Wham, Antony Ruggeri, Michael P. Mullane, Amanda Wilson, Shamsuddin Virani, Scott M. Weissman, Brenda Ramczyk, Pamela Vanderwall, James L. Weese

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Precision medicine is a term describing strategies to promote health and prevent and treat disease based on an individual’s genetic, molecular, and lifestyle characteristics. Oncology precision medicine (OPM) is a cancer treatment approach targeting cancer-specific genetic and molecular alterations. Implementation of an OPM clinical program optimally involves the support and collaboration of multiple departments, including administration, medical oncology, pathology, interventional radiology, genetics, research, and informatics. In this review, we briefly introduce the published evidence regarding OPM’s potential effect on patient outcomes and discuss what we have learned over the first year of operating an OPM program within an ...


Gene Co-Expression Networks Analysis Reveal Novel Molecular Endotypes In Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, Jen-Hwa Chu, Wenlan Zang Jan 2019

Gene Co-Expression Networks Analysis Reveal Novel Molecular Endotypes In Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, Jen-Hwa Chu, Wenlan Zang

Yale Day of Data

Rationale:Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a genetic condition that predisposes to early onset pulmonary emphysema and airways obstruction. The exact mechanism through which AATD leads to lung disease is incompletely understood.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of AAT genotype and augmentation therapy on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) transcriptome, while examining the link between gene expression profiles, and clinical features of AATD.

Methods: We performed RNA-Seq on RNA extracted from BAL and PBMC on samples obtained from 89 AATD patients enrolled in the Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis (GRADS) study. Differential gene ...


Non-Invasive Analysis Of The Sputum Transcriptome Discriminates Clinical Phenotypes Of Asthma, Xiting Yan Jan 2019

Non-Invasive Analysis Of The Sputum Transcriptome Discriminates Clinical Phenotypes Of Asthma, Xiting Yan

Yale Day of Data

Whole transcriptome wide gene expression profiles in the sputum and circulation from 100 asthma patients were measured using the Affymetrix HuGene 1.0ST arrays. Unsupervised clustering analysis based on pathways from KEGG were used to identify TEA clusters of patients from the sputum gene expression profiles. The identified TEA clusters have significantly different pre-bronchodilator FEV1, bronchodilator responsiveness, exhaled nitric oxide levels, history of hospitalization for asthma and history of intubation. Evaluation of TEA clusters in children from Asthma BRIDGE cohort confirmed the identified differences in intubation and hospitalization. Furthermore, evaluation of the TH2 gene signatures suggested a much lower prevalence ...


Exploring The Ipf Lung Through The Lens Of Single Cell Rna Sequencing, Taylor Adams, Jonas Schupp Jan 2019

Exploring The Ipf Lung Through The Lens Of Single Cell Rna Sequencing, Taylor Adams, Jonas Schupp

Yale Day of Data

This poster illustrates the differences between the IPF disease-specific variety of lung macrophages and the two varieties of macrophages known to reside in the normal human lung.


Discovering The Immune Cell Landscape In Ipf By Whole Lung Single Cell Transcriptomics, Jonas C. Schupp, Taylor Adams Jan 2019

Discovering The Immune Cell Landscape In Ipf By Whole Lung Single Cell Transcriptomics, Jonas C. Schupp, Taylor Adams

Yale Day of Data

Single cell transcriptomes of 27 IPF, 13 COPD and 14 control lungs were established. Cells were clustered into major cell types, then the immune cells consisting of 116,057 myeloid, 4,742 B-, and 19,165 T-& NK-cells were analyzed and subclustered. Subclustering revealed IPF-associated unique gene expression profiles subpopulations that were specific to the IPF lung. For example, we could identify an IPF-specific macrophage subpopulation which showed a pro-fibrotic profile characterized by SPP1, CHIT1, CCL18, SPARC, LGMN, CTSK, and MMP9 gene expression. Antagonistically, NK- and cytotoxic T-cells revealed a significantly increased expression of the protease inhibitors A2M and PZP ...


Association Between Plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin And Cardiac Disease Hospitalizations And Deaths In Older Women, James J.H. Chong, Richard L. Prince, Peter L. Thompson, Sujitha Thavapalachandran, Esther Ooi, Amanda Devine, E E.M. Lim, Elizabeth Byrnes, Germaine Wong, Wai H. Lim, Joshua R. Lewis Jan 2019

Association Between Plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin And Cardiac Disease Hospitalizations And Deaths In Older Women, James J.H. Chong, Richard L. Prince, Peter L. Thompson, Sujitha Thavapalachandran, Esther Ooi, Amanda Devine, E E.M. Lim, Elizabeth Byrnes, Germaine Wong, Wai H. Lim, Joshua R. Lewis

ECU Publications Post 2013

Background Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin ( NGAL ) or lipocalin 2 may promote atherosclerosis and plaque instability leading to increased risk of cardiac events. We investigated the relationships between plasma NGAL , cardiovascular disease biomarkers, and long-term cardiac events. Methods and Results The study population consisted of 1131 ambulant older white women (mean age 75 years) without clinical coronary heart disease ( CHD ) and measures of plasma NGAL in the Perth Longitudinal Study of Ageing Women with 14.5-year CHD and heart failure hospitalizations or death (events) captured using linked records. Over 14.5 years, 256 women had CHD events, while 118 had heart failure ...


Cancer Of The Esophagus, Rebecca M. Kwait, Richard S. Pieters, Madhavi Toke, Lauren E. Studey, Ali Akalin, Adib R. Karam, Geoffrey Graeber, Lacey J. Mcintosh, Anupam Singh Jan 2019

Cancer Of The Esophagus, Rebecca M. Kwait, Richard S. Pieters, Madhavi Toke, Lauren E. Studey, Ali Akalin, Adib R. Karam, Geoffrey Graeber, Lacey J. Mcintosh, Anupam Singh

Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist

This chapter in Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist presents an overview of esophageal cancer, including etiology, epidemiology, screening, pathology, staging, and treatment.


Human Islets Expressing Hnf1a Variant Have Defective Beta Cell Transcriptional Regulatory Networks, Rachana Haliyur, Sambra D. Redick, David M. Harlan, Alvin C. Powers Jan 2019

Human Islets Expressing Hnf1a Variant Have Defective Beta Cell Transcriptional Regulatory Networks, Rachana Haliyur, Sambra D. Redick, David M. Harlan, Alvin C. Powers

Open Access Articles

Using an integrated approach to characterize the pancreatic tissue and isolated islets from a 33-year-old with 17 years of type 1 diabetes (T1D), we found that donor islets contained beta cells without insulitis and lacked glucose-stimulated insulin secretion despite a normal insulin response to cAMP-evoked stimulation. With these unexpected findings for T1D, we sequenced the donor DNA and found a pathogenic heterozygous variant in the gene encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF1A). In one of the first studies of human pancreatic islets with a disease-causing HNF1A variant associated with the most common form of monogenic diabetes, we found that HNF1A dysfunction ...


How Do Teachers Use Comics To Promote Engagement, Equity, And Diversity In Science Classrooms?, Camilla Matuk, Talia Hurwich, Amy Spiegel, Judy Diamond Jan 2019

How Do Teachers Use Comics To Promote Engagement, Equity, And Diversity In Science Classrooms?, Camilla Matuk, Talia Hurwich, Amy Spiegel, Judy Diamond

World of Viruses

Equitable learning opportunities are critical to the goals of science education. However, major curriculum standards are vague on how to achieve equity goals, and educators must often develop their own resources and strategies to achieve equity goals. This study examines how educators used a comic book series designed to interest youth in virology as a way to make science more broadly appealing to their diverse students. We begin with the notion of Pedagogical Design Capacity, which describes a dynamic relationship between teachers and their tools and the ability for teachers to perceive and leverage affordances of artifacts as tools in ...


Educating Patients On Screening Guidelines And Expectations For Well-Woman Examinations, Cyrus Maxim Jalai Jan 2019

Educating Patients On Screening Guidelines And Expectations For Well-Woman Examinations, Cyrus Maxim Jalai

Family Medicine Clerkship Student Projects

Female patients seeing primary care in rural settings often do not seek out specialized care from a practicing OB/GYN, favoring instead to utilize their family practitioner to respond to their complaints. As such, it would be effective to work to educate these patients at their well-women examinations on routine screenings, immunizations, and health maintenance methods they should expect based on their presenting age. A handout simplifying and synthesizing the main screening and general health guidelines for annual well-women examinations may be helpful for female patients using primary care practitioners as their source for obstetric and gynecologic care.


Racial Disparities In The Diagnosis And Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes In Black American Youth, Kierra Mitchell Jan 2019

Racial Disparities In The Diagnosis And Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes In Black American Youth, Kierra Mitchell

Scripps Senior Theses

Introduction: Rates of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) are steadily increasing among American youth, yet Black Americans are more likely to suffer from serious T1D-related complications caused by poor glycemic control. The aim of this thesis is to determine the external factors that are causing discrepancies in the development, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of T1D in Black youth.

Methods: Epidemiological studies were compiled from the American Diabetes Association, Center for Disease Control (CDC), International Diabetes Foundation (IDF), Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF), and the Claremont Colleges Library network to identify the sociocultural aspects that negatively affect long-term glycemic control in ...


General Population Normative Data For The Eortc Qlq-C30 Health-Related Quality Of Life Questionnaire Based On 15,386 Persons Across 13 European Countries, Canada And The Unites States, S. Nolte, G. Liegl, M. A. Petersen, N. K. Aaronson, A. Costantini, P. M. Fayers, M. Groenvold, B. Holzner, C. D. Johnson, G Kemmler, K. A. Tomaszewski, A. Waldmann, T. E. Young, Matthias S. F. Rose Jan 2019

General Population Normative Data For The Eortc Qlq-C30 Health-Related Quality Of Life Questionnaire Based On 15,386 Persons Across 13 European Countries, Canada And The Unites States, S. Nolte, G. Liegl, M. A. Petersen, N. K. Aaronson, A. Costantini, P. M. Fayers, M. Groenvold, B. Holzner, C. D. Johnson, G Kemmler, K. A. Tomaszewski, A. Waldmann, T. E. Young, Matthias S. F. Rose

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 health-related quality of life questionnaire is one of the most widely used cancer-specific health-related quality of life questionnaires worldwide. General population norm data can facilitate the interpretation of QLQ-C30 data obtained from cancer patients. This study aimed at systematically collecting norm data from the general population to develop European QLQ-C30 norm scores and to generate comparable norm data for individual countries in Europe and North America.

METHODS: We collected QLQ-C30 data from the general population across 11 European Union (EU) countries, Russia, Turkey, Canada and United States (n ...


Establishing The European Norm For The Health-Related Quality Of Life Domains Of The Computer-Adaptive Test Eortc Cat Core, G. Liegl, M. A. Petersen, M. Groenvold, N. K. Aaronson, A. Costantini, P. M. Fayers, B. Holzner, C. D. Johnson, G. Kemmler, K. A. Tomaszewski, A. Waldmann, T. E. Young, Matthias S. F. Rose, S. Nolte Jan 2019

Establishing The European Norm For The Health-Related Quality Of Life Domains Of The Computer-Adaptive Test Eortc Cat Core, G. Liegl, M. A. Petersen, M. Groenvold, N. K. Aaronson, A. Costantini, P. M. Fayers, B. Holzner, C. D. Johnson, G. Kemmler, K. A. Tomaszewski, A. Waldmann, T. E. Young, Matthias S. F. Rose, S. Nolte

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: The computer-adaptive test (CAT) of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the EORTC CAT Core, assesses the same 15 domains as the EORTC QLQ-C30 health-related quality of life questionnaire but with increased precision, efficiency, measurement range and flexibility. CAT parameters for estimating scores have been established based on clinical data from cancer patients. This study aimed at establishing the European Norm for each CAT domain based on general population data.

METHODS: We collected representative general population data across 11 European Union (EU) countries, Russia, Turkey, Canada and the United States (n > /= 1000/country; stratified by ...


Culturally Adaptive Storytelling Intervention Versus Didactic Intervention To Improve Hypertension Control In Vietnam- 12 Month Follow Up Results: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial, Hoa L. Nguyen, Duc A. Ha, Robert J. Goldberg, Catarina I. Kiefe, German Chiriboga, Ha N. Ly, Cuong K. Nguyen, Ngoc T. Phan, Nguyen C. Vu, Quang P. Nguyen, Jeroan J. Allison Dec 2018

Culturally Adaptive Storytelling Intervention Versus Didactic Intervention To Improve Hypertension Control In Vietnam- 12 Month Follow Up Results: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial, Hoa L. Nguyen, Duc A. Ha, Robert J. Goldberg, Catarina I. Kiefe, German Chiriboga, Ha N. Ly, Cuong K. Nguyen, Ngoc T. Phan, Nguyen C. Vu, Quang P. Nguyen, Jeroan J. Allison

Open Access Articles

INTRODUCTION: Vietnam is experiencing an epidemiologic transition with an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases. The country needs novel, large-scale, and sustainable interventions to improve hypertension control. We report the 12 month follow-up results of a cluster randomized feasibility trial in Hung Yen province, Vietnam, which evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of two community-based interventions to improve hypertension control: a "storytelling" and a didactic intervention.

METHODS: The storytelling intervention included stories in the patients' own words about coping with hypertension and didactic content about the importance of healthy lifestyle behaviors in controlling elevated blood pressure levels. The didactic intervention included only ...


Toll-Like Receptor-4 Disruption Suppresses Adipose Tissue Remodeling And Increases Survival In Cancer Cachexia Syndrome, Felipe Henriques, Magno A. Lopes, Felipe O. Franco, Pamela Knobl, Kaltinaitis B. Santos, Luana L. Bueno, Victor A. Correa, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Alexander Birbrair, Sidney B. Peres, Stephen R. Farmer, Miguel L. Batista Jr. Dec 2018

Toll-Like Receptor-4 Disruption Suppresses Adipose Tissue Remodeling And Increases Survival In Cancer Cachexia Syndrome, Felipe Henriques, Magno A. Lopes, Felipe O. Franco, Pamela Knobl, Kaltinaitis B. Santos, Luana L. Bueno, Victor A. Correa, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Alexander Birbrair, Sidney B. Peres, Stephen R. Farmer, Miguel L. Batista Jr.

Open Access Articles

Cancer-induced cachexia, characterized by systemic inflammation, body weight loss, adipose tissue (AT) remodeling and muscle wasting, is a malignant metabolic syndrome with undefined etiology. Here, we show that both genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 were able to attenuate the main clinical markers of cachexia in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC). AT remodelling was not found in LLC tumor-bearing (TB) TLR4(-/-) mice due to reduced macrophage infiltration and adipocyte atrophy. TLR4(-/-) mice were also resistant to cold-induced browning of subcutaneous AT (scAT). Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 (Atorvastatin) reproduced the main protective effect against AT remodeling found in ...


Protective Versus Pathologic Pre-Exposure Cytokine Profiles In Dengue Virus Infection, Heather Friberg, Coreen M. Beaumier, Sangshin Park, Pamela P. Pazoles, Timothy P. Endy, Anuja Mathew, Jeffrey R. Currier, Richard G. Jarman, Kathryn B. Anderson, Steven Hatch, Stephen J. Thomas, Alan L. Rothman Dec 2018

Protective Versus Pathologic Pre-Exposure Cytokine Profiles In Dengue Virus Infection, Heather Friberg, Coreen M. Beaumier, Sangshin Park, Pamela P. Pazoles, Timothy P. Endy, Anuja Mathew, Jeffrey R. Currier, Richard G. Jarman, Kathryn B. Anderson, Steven Hatch, Stephen J. Thomas, Alan L. Rothman

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Hyperendemic circulation of all four types of dengue virus (DENV-1-4) has expanded globally, fueling concern for increased incidence of severe dengue. While the majority of DENV infections are subclinical, epidemiologic studies suggest that type-cross-reactive immunity can influence disease outcome in subsequent infections. The mechanisms controlling these differential clinical outcomes remain poorly defined.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood samples were collected from a cohort of school-aged Thai children who subsequently experienced a subclinical DENV infection or developed dengue illness. PBMC collected prior to infection were stimulated in vitro with DENV and the secretion of 30 cytokines was measured using a multiplexed ...


Video-Based Diabetes Education For A Culturally Diverse Population, Heather Harris Dec 2018

Video-Based Diabetes Education For A Culturally Diverse Population, Heather Harris

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Translational and Clinical Research Projects

Immigrants and refugees represent an underserved population in need of quality, accessible, and culturally appropriate healthcare and education. Diabetes is a chronic condition frequently seen in this population. The author utilized the Wagner Chronic Care Model (CCM) as a theoretical framework for planning diabetes education delivery in this diverse population. Studies report significant health disparities in diabetes care and subsequent poor diabetes quality indicators in refugees and immigrants. Research has found that culturally sensitive diabetes education can improve diabetes outcomes in ethnically diverse populations. The author implemented a translational project to develop and evaluate a video-based diabetes health education intervention ...


Multiple Regression Models To Analyze Length Of Hospitalization Due To Nosocomial Infections In U.S. Hospitals, Ernest M. Oleksy Dec 2018

Multiple Regression Models To Analyze Length Of Hospitalization Due To Nosocomial Infections In U.S. Hospitals, Ernest M. Oleksy

The Downtown Review

Nosocomial diseases are a serious concern and detriment to hospitals’ abilities to provide appropriate patient care. Bearing this in mind, an effort must be made to determine whether infection surveillance and control programs have reduced the rates of nosocomial infection at U.S. hospitals. The data that were studied were obtained as part of the Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control (SENIC) and used to develop a model of what variables most contribute to a patient’s length of stay at the Cleveland Clinic (Quade et al, 1980).


Keep The Beat With Heart Failure Education: A Quality Improvement Project, Brenda L. Peterson Dec 2018

Keep The Beat With Heart Failure Education: A Quality Improvement Project, Brenda L. Peterson

Master's Projects and Capstones

Abstract

Problem: Heart failure (HF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF), is the number one diagnosis-related group (DRG) for people 65 years of age and older in the United States. This disease group is complicated and debilitating, requiring frequent hospitalizations with high mortality rates. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) has identified CHF as an area for improvement in hospitals.

Context: This was a quality improvement project for an integrated medical center in the Central Valley, California with over 19,000 HF patients. In 2018, for patients 65 years and older, HF is the third-most admitted ...


Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. Mccauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban Dec 2018

Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. Mccauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban

Open Access Articles

HIV-1-infected people who take drugs that suppress viremia to undetectable levels are protected from developing AIDS. Nonetheless, HIV-1 establishes proviruses in long-lived CD4(+) memory T cells, and perhaps other cell types, that preclude elimination of the virus even after years of continuous antiviral therapy. Here we show that the HIV-1 provirus activates innate immune signaling in isolated dendritic cells, macrophages, and CD4(+) T cells. Immune activation requires transcription from the HIV-1 provirus and expression of CRM1-dependent, Rev-dependent, RRE-containing, unspliced HIV-1 RNA. If rev is provided in trans, all HIV-1 coding sequences are dispensable for activation except those cis-acting sequences required ...


Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, Kenan C. Murphy, Samantha J. Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti Dec 2018

Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, Kenan C. Murphy, Samantha J. Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti

Open Access Articles

Two efficient recombination systems were combined to produce a versatile method for chromosomal engineering that obviates the need to prepare double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) recombination substrates. A synthetic "targeting oligonucleotide" is incorporated into the chromosome via homologous recombination mediated by the phage Che9c RecT annealase. This oligonucleotide contains a site-specific recombination site for the directional Bxb1 integrase (Int), which allows the simultaneous integration of a "payload plasmid" that contains a cognate recombination site and a selectable marker. The targeting oligonucleotide and payload plasmid are cotransformed into a RecT- and Int-expressing strain, and drug-resistant homologous recombinants are selected in a single step ...


Nutrigenomics Of Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Durpri Lin Dec 2018

Nutrigenomics Of Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Durpri Lin

Master of Chemical Sciences Capstone Projects

Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are nutrients that reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). As micronutrients that selectively accumulate in the retina of the eye, L/Z can protect the macula from oxidative damage that contributes to AMD. This review will discuss the role of genes as a mediator between increased intake of dietary L/Z and decreased risk of AMD. Figure 1 outlines a pathway of L/Z that is subject to genetic influences, from 1) the diet to 2) the bloodstream to 3) the retina of the eye. First, L/Z are carotenoids that cannot be ...


Peptidylarginine Deiminases 2 And 4 Modulate Innate And Adaptive Immune Responses In Tlr-7-Dependent Lupus., Yudong Liu, Yaíma L Lightfoot, Nickie Seto, Santanu Mondal, Padmavathy Nandha Premnath, Paul R. Thompson Dec 2018

Peptidylarginine Deiminases 2 And 4 Modulate Innate And Adaptive Immune Responses In Tlr-7-Dependent Lupus., Yudong Liu, Yaíma L Lightfoot, Nickie Seto, Santanu Mondal, Padmavathy Nandha Premnath, Paul R. Thompson

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

The peptidylarginine deiminases PAD2 and PAD4 are implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. PAD4 may be pathogenic in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) through its role in neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation that promotes autoantigen externalization, immune dysregulation, and organ damage. The role of this enzyme in mouse models of autoimmunity remains unclear, as pan-PAD chemical inhibitors improve clinical phenotype, whereas PAD4-KO models have given conflicting results. The role of PAD2 in SLE has not been investigated. The differential roles of PAD2 and PAD4 in TLR-7-dependent lupus autoimmunity were examined. Padi4-/- displayed decreased autoantibodies, type I IFN responses, immune ...


Trisomy Silencing By Xist Normalizes Down Syndrome Cell Pathogenesis Demonstrated For Hematopoietic Defects In Vitro, Jen-Chieh Chiang, Jun Jiang, Peter E. Newburger, Jeanne B. Lawrence Dec 2018

Trisomy Silencing By Xist Normalizes Down Syndrome Cell Pathogenesis Demonstrated For Hematopoietic Defects In Vitro, Jen-Chieh Chiang, Jun Jiang, Peter E. Newburger, Jeanne B. Lawrence

Open Access Articles

We previously demonstrated that an integrated XIST transgene can broadly repress one chromosome 21 in Down syndrome (DS) pluripotent cells. Here we address whether trisomy-silencing can normalize cell function and development sufficiently to correct cell pathogenesis, tested in an in vitro model of human fetal hematopoiesis, for which DS cellular phenotypes are best known. XIST induction in four transgenic clones reproducibly corrected over-production of megakaryocytes and erythrocytes, key to DS myeloproliferative disorder and leukemia. A contrasting increase in neural stem and iPS cells shows cell-type specificity, supporting this approach successfully rebalances the hematopoietic developmental program. Given this, we next used ...


Establishing Trust In Hiv/Hcv Research Among People Who Inject Drugs (Pwid): Insights From Empirical Research, Roberto Abadie, Shira Goldenberg, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Celia B. Fisher Dec 2018

Establishing Trust In Hiv/Hcv Research Among People Who Inject Drugs (Pwid): Insights From Empirical Research, Roberto Abadie, Shira Goldenberg, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Celia B. Fisher

Sociology Department, Faculty Publications

Background — The establishment of trust between researchers and participants is critical to advance HIV and HCV prevention particularly among people who inject drugs (PWID) and other marginalized populations, yet empirical research on how to establish and maintain trust in the course of community health research is lacking. This paper documents ideas about trust between research participants and researchers amongst a sub-sample of PWID who were enrolled in a large, multi-year community health study of social networks and HIV/HCV risk that was recently conducted in rural Puerto Rico.

Methods — Qualitative research was nested within a multi-year Social Network and HIV ...