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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

The Youthful Pandemic, Brook Sahlemariam Dec 2020

The Youthful Pandemic, Brook Sahlemariam

Nursing | Senior Theses

This paper attempts to examine the neurological, physical, and societal effects of e-cigarette use among youth and young-adults in North America. Furthermore, the paper investigates the parallels between e-cigarette users, tobacco users, and dual users in regard to behavioral patterns, reasons for use, and age of initiation.


Inclusivity Of Minorities In The U.S. Healthcare System, Sophia N. Trujillo Jun 2020

Inclusivity Of Minorities In The U.S. Healthcare System, Sophia N. Trujillo

2020 Symposium Posters

Throughout the evolution of U.S. healthcare, the inclusivity of minorities has been a discussion amongst many communities. With healthcare being unaffordable and inaccessible to many, including minorities, it can influence their responses towards it. From research and in-depth observations, it has been revealed that certain ethnicities carry a trend of disabling illnesses and infectious diseases. This paper intends to identify the patterns that occur amongst ethnic communities that increase the risk of obtaining these conditions. Social determinants govern the health and lifestyle that have led to life-threatening illnesses. It has been found that factors such as eating habits, social ...


An Evaluation Of A Web-Based Tool To Improve Feeding Practices And The Home Environment Among Parents Of Low-Income Minority Preadolescents At-Risk For Childhood Obesity, Katrina F. Mateo Jun 2020

An Evaluation Of A Web-Based Tool To Improve Feeding Practices And The Home Environment Among Parents Of Low-Income Minority Preadolescents At-Risk For Childhood Obesity, Katrina F. Mateo

Dissertations and Theses

Background: Web-based/mHealth interventions may be an engaging approach to promote positive dietary-related behaviors among parents of youth at-risk for childhood obesity. Importantly, childhood obesity research highlights the role of parents as a key support mechanism in improving child dietary outcomes. Intervention INC is a childhood obesity intervention that comprises a unique, interactive web-based child nutrition comic aimed at improving dietary behaviors among urban Black/African American (AA) and Latino preadolescents, and also weekly online parent newsletters (with feeding tips, healthy printable recipes, links to coupons to support healthy eating/feeding and health-promoting local/community events, and access to the ...


Shadow Standards And The Logic Of Costs: Care, Stewardship, And Data In U.S. Community Health, Margarite J. Whitten Jun 2020

Shadow Standards And The Logic Of Costs: Care, Stewardship, And Data In U.S. Community Health, Margarite J. Whitten

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation examines the delegation of responsibility for providing health care to particular categories of marginalized populations in the United States in the absence of a uniform and universal health care system. It explores how the U.S. federal government governs patient populations at a distance by mandating that healthcare providers collect, produce, and report on patient data. Drawing from eighteen months of ethnographic research in Massachusetts clinics for the homeless and the frail elderly between 2014-2015, I argue that when marginalized patients are unable to satisfy the neoliberal ideal of self-governance to maintain their health in cost-effective ways, providers ...


Abo Blood Group Type And Susceptibility To Covid-19 Infection, G. Rafael Fernandez-Botran May 2020

Abo Blood Group Type And Susceptibility To Covid-19 Infection, G. Rafael Fernandez-Botran

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Since December 2019, the SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19) pandemic has continued to extend over most of the world, infecting over four million people and causing well over 300,000 deaths so far (https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html, accessed on May 14, 2020). A significant percentage of infected patients develop severe symptoms and life-threatening conditions. While COVID-19 infection can affect all ages, available evidence points to older age and pre-existing comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease, as important risk factors related to increased mortality rates. [1-3] Moreover, recent reports from China and the U.S. have suggested that the ...


Implementation Of The Louisville Covid-19 Surveillance Protocol: Experiences From The University Of Louisville Center Of Excellence For Research In Infectious Diseases [Cerid], Ruth Carrico, Dawn Balcom, William Johnson, Amr Aboelnasr, Mutasem Abuhalaweh, Stephen Furmanek, Montray Smith, Amanda Lasnik, Donghoon Chung, Julio A. Ramirez May 2020

Implementation Of The Louisville Covid-19 Surveillance Protocol: Experiences From The University Of Louisville Center Of Excellence For Research In Infectious Diseases [Cerid], Ruth Carrico, Dawn Balcom, William Johnson, Amr Aboelnasr, Mutasem Abuhalaweh, Stephen Furmanek, Montray Smith, Amanda Lasnik, Donghoon Chung, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

The lack of available testing for SARS-CoV-2 has been one of the primary challenges in the development and implementation of a comprehensive approach to infection prevention and transmission in the United States (US). In response to the need for increased testing capacities and capabilities, the University of Louisville (UofL) Division of Infectious Diseases, Center of Excellence for Research in Infectious Diseases (CERID) initiated the Louisville Coronavirus Surveillance Program, a comprehensive approach to surveillance and testing of patients and healthcare workers. The first specimens were accepted on March 12, 2020 and parallel testing was done using a high-capacity testing process and ...


Pleural Effusion As A Manifestation Of Pulmonary Cryptococcosis, Mercedes Toranzo, Marisol Arrojo, Alejandra González, Mariano Fielli May 2020

Pleural Effusion As A Manifestation Of Pulmonary Cryptococcosis, Mercedes Toranzo, Marisol Arrojo, Alejandra González, Mariano Fielli

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Mental Health Screening For Low Income Adolescents: An Evidence-Based Project, Allison Bryden May 2020

Mental Health Screening For Low Income Adolescents: An Evidence-Based Project, Allison Bryden

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

Abstract

TITLE: Mental Health Screening For Low-Income Adolescents

BACKGROUND: Nearly 80% of adolescents in the United States will suffer from a mental illness and not receive evaluation or services. Children from low socio-economic backgrounds have an increased risk of mental health disorders which permeate into adulthood, leading to additional negative sequel and lower quality of life. Among adolescent mental health conditions, depression and anxiety are the most common. Literature has suggested provider intuition alone has low sensitivity and specificity for detecting mental illness and that screening tools are indicated.

PURPOSE: The aim of this project is to implement standardized routine ...


Screening For Iron-Deficiency Anemia In The Pediatric Population (Ages 1-17) In Gonaïves, Haiti, Cara Rose Fratianni May 2020

Screening For Iron-Deficiency Anemia In The Pediatric Population (Ages 1-17) In Gonaïves, Haiti, Cara Rose Fratianni

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this pilot project is to screen for iron-deficiency anemia in pediatric patients (ages 1-17) in a primary school in Gonaïves, Haiti. Patients with anemia will be treated with oral supplemental iron for a period of four weeks according to WHO guidelines (WHO, 2011). All students will be treated empirically for helminths per WHO guidelines, unless treated elsewhere in the last six months (WHO, 2017). Nutritional status will also be assessed using MUAC according to WHO guidelines (2017).

Background Summary: Malnutrition contributes significantly to the problem of iron-deficiency anemia, with one in four children exhibiting stunting ...


Plant-Powered: A Digital Plant-Based Nutrition Intervention For Low-Income Patients With Type Ii Diabetes, Ellen Pelos May 2020

Plant-Powered: A Digital Plant-Based Nutrition Intervention For Low-Income Patients With Type Ii Diabetes, Ellen Pelos

Master's Projects and Capstones

Purpose: This project aimed to measure the acceptability and feasibility of plant-based diets among low-income individuals with type II diabetes at the Samaritan House Food Pharmacy and to create a user-centered pilot program to encourage the adoption of a plant-based diet.

Background: Plant-based diets are effective for preventing, treating, and reversing type II diabetes, but there is not much evidence about the acceptability and feasibility of these diets.

Methods: Focus groups were used to gather qualitative data about the acceptability and feasibility of plant-based diets in the target population. The researcher conducted interviews with Food Pharmacy program leaders to learn ...


Black Women Survive Breast Cancer With Community-Based Care, Shelley I. White-Means, Jill Dapremont, Barbara D. Davis, Tronlyn Thompson May 2020

Black Women Survive Breast Cancer With Community-Based Care, Shelley I. White-Means, Jill Dapremont, Barbara D. Davis, Tronlyn Thompson

Faculty Presentations

PURPOSE Community-based breast cancer support agencies who address non-medical, social determinants of health needs that serve as barriers to maximizing breast health outcomes may play a vital role in mitigating breast cancer mortality. They share a common emphasis on addressing social, economic, and psychological needs of breast cancer survivors and those at risk of breast cancer. This paper is third in a series of papers exploring why the rate of breast cancer mortality is two times higher for African American women than white women in Memphis. We sought insights from community-based breast cancer support agencies because they have a close-up ...


Kids Don’T Float…And Their Parents Don’T Either: Using A Family-Centered Approach In Alaska’S Kids Don’T Float Program, Michelle E. E. Bauer, Audrey R. Giles, Justina Marianayagam, Kelli M. Toth May 2020

Kids Don’T Float…And Their Parents Don’T Either: Using A Family-Centered Approach In Alaska’S Kids Don’T Float Program, Michelle E. E. Bauer, Audrey R. Giles, Justina Marianayagam, Kelli M. Toth

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The goal of this experiential report is to outline the adoption of a family-centered Kids Don’t Float approach. We conducted a critical synthesis of information to reflect the expansion of the Kids Don’t Float program into a more family-centered approach. The critical synthesis provided insights into why we should adopt this approach, how it was implemented, and how it influenced drowning incidents compared to the previously used child-centered approach. The adoption of a family-centered approach may contribute to reducing drowning incidents by targeting parents, providing safety information to families, and promoting parental modelling of life jackets. Program evaluators ...


Factors Impacting Swimming Participation And Competence: A Qualitative Report, Todd E. Layne, Carol C. Irwin, Jennifer Renee Pharr, Richard L. Irwin May 2020

Factors Impacting Swimming Participation And Competence: A Qualitative Report, Todd E. Layne, Carol C. Irwin, Jennifer Renee Pharr, Richard L. Irwin

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Drowning continues to be a major cause of death for children, especially among minority groups. USA Swimming commissioned studies in 2008 and 2010 to look at swimming ability or inability, an associated drowning variable. The 2010 study showed alarming high percentages regarding insufficient swimming skill for many demographic groups. The current study’s purpose was to provide further analysis of variables which emerged from 2010 study and how these variables are affecting all US populations. Focus group interviews accomplished in three regionally diverse US cities asked participants (3=fathers; 12=mothers) about their personal history with swimming, perceptions concerning swimming ...


La Maestra’S Circle Of Care: Studying The Impact Of An Integrated Service Model On The Health And Well-Being Of Vulnerable Populations, Zara Marselian May 2020

La Maestra’S Circle Of Care: Studying The Impact Of An Integrated Service Model On The Health And Well-Being Of Vulnerable Populations, Zara Marselian

Dissertations

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to reform the health care delivery system in the United States, as recognized through current bipartisan efforts. Society’s vulnerable populations especially need health care reform as health care outcomes are the poorest among disadvantaged populations. Moreover, vulnerable populations are twice as likely to develop chronic diseases than the general population and they remain ill due to other contextual, societal factors affecting their ability to achieve health and well-being. This population is subjected to adverse life events that suggest a more comprehensive approach to health and well-being is called for.

The Circle of Care ...


Promising Practices For Boating Safety Initiatives That Target Indigenous Peoples In New Zealand, Australia, The United States Of America, And Canada, Mitchell Crozier, Audrey R. Giles May 2020

Promising Practices For Boating Safety Initiatives That Target Indigenous Peoples In New Zealand, Australia, The United States Of America, And Canada, Mitchell Crozier, Audrey R. Giles

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Boating-related incidents are responsible for a significant number of the drowning fatalities that occur within Indigenous communities in New Zealand, Australia, the USA, and Canada. The aim of this paper was to identify promising practices for boating safety initiatives that target Indigenous peoples within these countries and evaluate past and ongoing boating safety initiatives delivered to/with Indigenous peoples within these countries to suggest the ways in which they – or programs that follow them - may be more effective. Based upon evidence from previous research, boating safety initiatives that target Indigenous peoples in New Zealand, Australia, the USA, and Canada should ...


Student Wellbeing And Open Studio Process In The School Curriculum, Maria Kim May 2020

Student Wellbeing And Open Studio Process In The School Curriculum, Maria Kim

Expressive Therapies Dissertations

This study aimed to explore whether Open Studio Process (OSP) increased wellbeing of middle and high school students when facilitated by teachers as a part of the regular art curriculum. It was hypothesized that OSP might increase the sense of wellbeing among middle and high school students as well as facilitating teachers. The research was conducted as a mixed methods study in South Korea where students need preventative interventions for their wellbeing. The researcher trained eight teachers to facilitate OSP and five of them implemented it with their classes for seven sessions. Quantitative data (K-YSR; pre- and posttest) were collected ...


Impact Of Increasing Hpv Vaccination Coverage On Preventing Oropharyngeal Cancer: A Cost-Effectiveness Study, Abhishek Choudhary Dr. May 2020

Impact Of Increasing Hpv Vaccination Coverage On Preventing Oropharyngeal Cancer: A Cost-Effectiveness Study, Abhishek Choudhary Dr.

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Swimming Pool Environment And Respiratory Health Issues Experienced By Masters Swimmers: Results From A Literature Review And Survey Of United States Masters Swimming Clubs, Jody C. Gan, Julia Snegg, William Harder May 2020

Swimming Pool Environment And Respiratory Health Issues Experienced By Masters Swimmers: Results From A Literature Review And Survey Of United States Masters Swimming Clubs, Jody C. Gan, Julia Snegg, William Harder

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

After three members of a Masters adult swim club died of lung cancer, both a literature review and survey were conducted with representatives from 746 United States Masters Swimming clubs to explore a possible relationship between swimming and cancers of the respiratory tract. Six other clubs reported known cancers of the respiratory tract among club members, but none of the other 740 clubs reported a similar cluster of lung cancer. More clubs reported cases of chronic respiratory infections and widespread complaints about air quality. While no studies exploring a relationship between swimming and lung cancer could be found in the ...


Black Pregnancy Matters: Racial Reproductive Bias In African American Maternal Mortality, Juhi Khemani May 2020

Black Pregnancy Matters: Racial Reproductive Bias In African American Maternal Mortality, Juhi Khemani

Master's Projects and Capstones

This semester-long research project uncovers how racial biases demonstrated in the reproductive health field, and specifically before, during, and after childbirth, affect the rate of maternal mortality and morbidity for African American mothers in the United States. The rate of maternal mortality for this specific racial group is four times greater as compared to Caucasian women and this discrepancy will be investigated and analyzed throughout this capstone thesis. Interviews were conducted with key figures in the obstetric and gynecological field as well as with Black mothers themselves in an effort to uncover what factors, aside from medical anomalies, are leading ...


Examining Minority Youth Swimmers’ Versus Non-Swimmers’ Perceptions Of Swimming Involvement, Timothy M. Dasinger, Laura L. Brown, Ashton J. Sawyers May 2020

Examining Minority Youth Swimmers’ Versus Non-Swimmers’ Perceptions Of Swimming Involvement, Timothy M. Dasinger, Laura L. Brown, Ashton J. Sawyers

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Drowning is one of the leading causes of death in youth, especially among minority populations (Gilchrest & Parker, 2014). According to the World Health Organization (2014), every hour of every day approximately 42 people lose their lives to drowning. Additionally, African-Americans are 14 times more likely to drown in a pool than other racial or ethnic group members (Waller & Norwood, 2011). The purpose of this study was to examine survey results between swimming and non-swimming minority youth participants. Forty African American students between the ages of 5-17 from an after-school program completed the Swimming Involvement Survey. Results indicated that swimmers, independent ...


Implementation Of Safe Sleep Practices In An Urban Inpatient Newborn Nursery, Megan H. Tucker May 2020

Implementation Of Safe Sleep Practices In An Urban Inpatient Newborn Nursery, Megan H. Tucker

Research Days

No abstract provided.


An Examination Of The Association Between State Medicaid Perinatal Services And Birth Outcomes, Joy Morgan Myers May 2020

An Examination Of The Association Between State Medicaid Perinatal Services And Birth Outcomes, Joy Morgan Myers

Honors Theses

This thesis investigated the connection between socioeconomic status, healthcare coverage, and birth outcomes. The research question that was posed specifically looked at twenty perinatal services that states covered under Medicaid to varying degrees to see their association, if any, with premature birth rates and low birthweight rates. State-level and Mississippi county-level data were compiled regarding preterm birth rates, low birthweight rates, presumptive eligibility adoption, and coverage of twenty different perinatal services. Using these data, the correlation between state Medicaid expansion status and birth outcomes was first calculated in order to determine if variation in birth outcomes was associated with expanded ...


An Evaluation Of Community Based Food Intervention: Cooking Matters In Charleston, Ms, Lindsay Fournier May 2020

An Evaluation Of Community Based Food Intervention: Cooking Matters In Charleston, Ms, Lindsay Fournier

Honors Theses

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Cooking Matters classes in producing improvement in individuals’ cooking skills and confidence, as well as their eating behaviors, shopping skills, and perceptions of cooking in rural Charleston, MS. These classes have reported great success in more urban areas such as Atlanta, GA; Philadelphia, PA; and Washington, DC; however, different challenges may be faced in rural Mississippi. To study the effectiveness of the interventions in a new context, pre- and post-intervention self-report surveys were performed and evaluated using Wilcoxon statistical analysis as well as paired sample t tests, and bootstrap ...


Addressing Covid 19 Among Vulnerable Populations, Tim Crawford, Sydney Silverstein, Craig Woolley, Laura M. Luehrmann May 2020

Addressing Covid 19 Among Vulnerable Populations, Tim Crawford, Sydney Silverstein, Craig Woolley, Laura M. Luehrmann

Population and Public Health Sciences Faculty Publications

This is the fifth installment in the Shelter in Place (SiP) Lecture series. This installment deals with the impact and implications of the Shelter in Place order on differing populations. It discusses how a variety of populations have differing experiences with social distancing, the virus, and other implications of the current pandemic.


Youth Violence Prevention In Florida: A Commentary, Yingwei Yang May 2020

Youth Violence Prevention In Florida: A Commentary, Yingwei Yang

Florida Public Health Review

No abstract provided.


Health Care Access For Children In Latinx Immigrant Families In The Greater Philadelphia Area, Sophia King May 2020

Health Care Access For Children In Latinx Immigrant Families In The Greater Philadelphia Area, Sophia King

Politics Honors Papers

This work examines the gap that exists in access to health care in the Greater Philadelphia Region for children of Latinx immigrant families in comparison to other children in the nation. It provides a critical analysis of the gap in access to coverage, noting that this exists despite wide support for a human right to health. This study draws on existing scholarly research as well as interviews with staff at two health clinics and one community outreach center that are located in Greater Philadelphia. It demonstrates that Latinx immigrant families are less likely to have health insurance and get primary ...


Surgical Care Perspectives: Exploring Barriers And Facilitators To Surgery In Rural Nebraska, Sarah Stanislav May 2020

Surgical Care Perspectives: Exploring Barriers And Facilitators To Surgery In Rural Nebraska, Sarah Stanislav

Capstone Experience

Background: Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is associated with less pain, faster recovery, and lower complication rates. Despite being the standard of care, it remains underutilized in rural Nebraska. Surgeon shortages and limited studies describing patient and provider factors influencing treatment gaps contribute to unnecessary complications and healthcare expenditure. Our study aimed to understand rural surgical care barriers and facilitators encountered by patients, providers, and stakeholders in Nebraska. Methods: This exploratory mixed methods study involved 17 semi-structured interviews using a snowball sampling of eligible participants affiliated with an MIS Advisory Committee. Two coders analyzed data using NVivo12. A follow-up review of ...


A Statewide Needs Assessment Of Perspectives On Training And Certification Of Community Health Workers In Nebraska, Jessica Ern May 2020

A Statewide Needs Assessment Of Perspectives On Training And Certification Of Community Health Workers In Nebraska, Jessica Ern

Capstone Experience

INTRODUCTION: Community Health Workers (CHWs) are a crucial growing component of the health care field in the U.S. According to the US Bureau of Statistics (2018), the CHW workforce is expected to grow 38% in the next ten years. While research has repeatedly shown the success of CHW-led programs and the financial benefits of CHWs, little work has been done to evaluate the training and certification preferences of CHWs in Nebraska. This project aimed to gather and analyze qualitative and quantitative data through an exploratory sequential mixed-methods approach to provide policy recommendations regarding the future training and potential certification ...


Centro Hispano's Role In Community Health, Annabeth Vannucci May 2020

Centro Hispano's Role In Community Health, Annabeth Vannucci

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


From Burnout To Wellness: Using Appreciative Inquiry To Shift Midmichigan Health Towards A Strengths-Based Perspective, Kunal Chohan, Karen Fetzer, Sophia R. Heiser, Seth Norman May 2020

From Burnout To Wellness: Using Appreciative Inquiry To Shift Midmichigan Health Towards A Strengths-Based Perspective, Kunal Chohan, Karen Fetzer, Sophia R. Heiser, Seth Norman

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Service Learning Projects

Over half of providers in the healthcare field experience burnout. Burnout syndrome is defined by the prolonged psychological and physiological response to chronic and interpersonal job stressors, and can result in a number of symptoms that negatively affect workplace morale and performance, including physical exhaustion, job dissatisfaction, and feelings of hopelessness. MidMichigan Health (MMH), a division of the University of Michigan Health system that serves nearly 1 million people in Michigan, has created the Provider Wellness and Burnout Council (PWBC) to address issues of burnout within the organization. To build on their initial work, we propose a long-term intervention based ...