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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

The Opioid Crisis In America As It Effects Health Care Professionals, Patients, And The Economy, Dale Russell Feb 2019

The Opioid Crisis In America As It Effects Health Care Professionals, Patients, And The Economy, Dale Russell

Lynchburg Journal of Medical Science

Abstract

There is a growing concern in America over the increasing morbidity and mortality associated

with the use and abuse of opioid pain relievers. This alarming increase has led to the term

“crisis” when referring to these facts. Addressing this crisis is multi-focused. The need to prevent

and treat opioid addiction is on the forefront. These needs are seen in both the prescription of

opioids as well as the illicit use of non-prescription opioids. Overprescribing opioids has led to

an increase of abuse and addiction to these substances. This in turn has led to a rise in street use

of ...


Triennial Scientific Review: Assisting Drowning Victims: Effective Water Rescue Equipment For Lay-Responders, Angela K. Beale-Tawfeeq, American Red Cross Scientific Advisory Council Feb 2019

Triennial Scientific Review: Assisting Drowning Victims: Effective Water Rescue Equipment For Lay-Responders, Angela K. Beale-Tawfeeq, American Red Cross Scientific Advisory Council

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The original question addressed in the scientific review was What is the most effective piece of rescue equipment for a lay responder to throw to a person in trouble in water? and the modified question was rephrased as What are the most effective types of aquatic rescue equipment for a layperson/bystander to use to rescue a drowning person? To thoroughly analyze the main question, the following sub-questions were examined: What are the most accurate and buoyant types of devices? What specific equipment is best for quick rescues? What specific equipment can be grasped most easily by drowning victims? This ...


Towards Multi-Lingual Pneumonia Research Data Collection Using The Community-Acquired Pneumonia International Cohort Study Database, William A. Mattingly, Kimberley A. Buckner, Senen Pena Feb 2019

Towards Multi-Lingual Pneumonia Research Data Collection Using The Community-Acquired Pneumonia International Cohort Study Database, William A. Mattingly, Kimberley A. Buckner, Senen Pena

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Although multilingual interfaces are preferred by most users when they have a choice, organizations are often unable to support and troubleshoot problems involving multiple user languages. Software that has been structured with multiple languages and data interlinking considerations early in its development is more likely to be easily maintained. We describe the process of adding multilingual support to the CAPO international Cohort study database using REDCap.

Methods: Using Google Translate API we extend the supported Spanish language version of REDCap to the most recent version used by CAPO, 8.1.4. We then translate the English data dictionary for ...


Betrayed Partners And Men With Poisoned Souls: Interview With A Former Sex Buyer In Germany, Ingeborg Kraus Feb 2019

Betrayed Partners And Men With Poisoned Souls: Interview With A Former Sex Buyer In Germany, Ingeborg Kraus

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Clinical Research In Pneumonia: Role Of Artificial Intelligence, Timothy L. Wiemken, Robert R. Kelley, William A. Mattingly, Julio A. Ramirez Feb 2019

Clinical Research In Pneumonia: Role Of Artificial Intelligence, Timothy L. Wiemken, Robert R. Kelley, William A. Mattingly, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Severity Of Disease And Mortality For Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Viral Pneumonia Compared To Patients With Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia, Richard Y. Kim, Thomas Chandler, Stephen P. Furmanek, Timothy Lee Wiemken, Rodrigo Cavallazzi Feb 2019

Severity Of Disease And Mortality For Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Viral Pneumonia Compared To Patients With Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia, Richard Y. Kim, Thomas Chandler, Stephen P. Furmanek, Timothy Lee Wiemken, Rodrigo Cavallazzi

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: There exists a large body of literature to help identify, diagnose, treat, and manage community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Despite this, there is little data that directly compares the clinical syndromes and complications of pure bacterial pneumonia to pure viral pneumonia. Our study compares the clinical presentation, morbidity and mortality of viral vs. bacterial etiologies of CAP.

Methods: This was a secondary data analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) international study database. Data was collected concerning patient demographics, physical examination findings, laboratory findings, radiological findings, severity of illness, and clinical outcomes and stratified according to the two study groups, CAVP ...


Intimate Partner Violence Among Expectant Adolescent Couples: Psychological And Relational Predictors And Sexual Risk, Jessica Lewis Feb 2019

Intimate Partner Violence Among Expectant Adolescent Couples: Psychological And Relational Predictors And Sexual Risk, Jessica Lewis

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent and tends to be bilateral in adolescent relationships. Expectant adolescent couples are at even higher risk. Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM), this study sought to: (1) describe the patterns of physical/sexual and psychological IPV victimization of women and men in expectant adolescent couples from pregnancy through twelve months postpartum; (2) examine the associations between psychosocial and relational factors during pregnancy and postpartum IPV; and (3) investigate the relationship between IPV victimization and later sexual risk across the perinatal period.

METHODS: Data were collected from pregnant adolescents and their male partners ...


Can You Float? Part I - Perceptions And Practice Of Unsupported Flotation Competency Among Young Adults, Kevin Moran Ph.D. Jan 2019

Can You Float? Part I - Perceptions And Practice Of Unsupported Flotation Competency Among Young Adults, Kevin Moran Ph.D.

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The capacity to maintain the airway through buoyancy control when immersed in water is critical in preventing drowning (Stallman, Moran, Quan & Langendorfer, 2017). In this first phase of the Can you Float? study, perceived and real unsupported flotation competency of a group of students (n=37) with known water proficiency was examined. Using a modified version of Borgs Rating of Perceived exertion (RPE), participants were asked to estimate exertion levels before and after a practical test of five stationary floating tasks of increasing difficulty ranging from treading water to motionless floating. Most participants (82%) were able to tread water for ...


Attitudes And Barriers Towards Conducting Research Amongst Primary Care Physicians In Bahrain: A Cross-Sectional Study., Abeer J. Khalaf, Aysha I. Aljowder, Meead J. Buhamaid, Mona F. Alansari, Ghufran A. Jassim Jan 2019

Attitudes And Barriers Towards Conducting Research Amongst Primary Care Physicians In Bahrain: A Cross-Sectional Study., Abeer J. Khalaf, Aysha I. Aljowder, Meead J. Buhamaid, Mona F. Alansari, Ghufran A. Jassim

Family and Community Medicine MUB Articles

BACKGROUND: Research in primary care is essential for disease diagnosis, management and prevention in relation to the individuals, families and the community. This research aims to study the attitude of primary care physicians towards conducting research in Bahrain and to identify the main barriers encountered during research.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 200 randomly selected primary care physicians registered in Ministry of Health affiliated primary healthcare centers in Bahrain. A self-administered validated questionnaire was adopted and used for data collection. Research data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.

RESULTS: Primary care physicians ...


Instilling Confidence In First Aid And Cpr Training: Alternatives To Traditional Methods, Loriann M. Hynes, Mike Recine Jan 2019

Instilling Confidence In First Aid And Cpr Training: Alternatives To Traditional Methods, Loriann M. Hynes, Mike Recine

International Journal of First Aid Education

No abstract provided.


Physical Therapists’ Perceptions Of Barriers To The Use Of Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Intervention With Individuals Of 65 Years Of Age Or Older, Charles Agbonghae Jan 2019

Physical Therapists’ Perceptions Of Barriers To The Use Of Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Intervention With Individuals Of 65 Years Of Age Or Older, Charles Agbonghae

Student Dissertations

Falls are a problem in the elderly population. Evidence-based fall prevention programs are available but physical therapists do not always utilize them. The literature identifies a number of barriers to clinician’s use of evidence-based interventions in general but there is limited knowledge of barriers to the use of evidence-based interventions in the clinical practice area of fall prevention. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers perceived by physical therapists to the use of evidence-based fall prevention interventions with individuals of 65 years of age or older. The study utilized an on-line survey of physical therapists licensed in ...


Factors Influencing Healthy Eating Habits Among Low-Income African Americans In Tennessee, Kushal Patel, Jonathon Smith, Jemal Gishe 9637046, Mohamed Kanu, Rosemary Theriot, Jianguo Liu, Yuan Zhou, Margaret Hargreaves Jan 2019

Factors Influencing Healthy Eating Habits Among Low-Income African Americans In Tennessee, Kushal Patel, Jonathon Smith, Jemal Gishe 9637046, Mohamed Kanu, Rosemary Theriot, Jianguo Liu, Yuan Zhou, Margaret Hargreaves

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Introduction: Poor nutrition and diet are significant contributors to the development of chronic illnesses such as cancer and diabetes, particularly among individuals of lower socioeconomic status (SES).This study examined demographic and lifestyle factors that influenced decisions to engage in healthy eating behaviors among low-income African Americans in three urban Tennessee cities.

Methods: As part of the Meharry Community Networks Program (CNP) needs assessment, a 123-item community survey was administered to assess demographic characteristics and eating behaviors among low-income African Americans. The total sample size was 1116. The primary outcome of interest was the healthy eating habits score which was ...


Comparison Of Compliance With Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women Aged 18 And Above In Arkansas And The United States, Sarah N. O'Connor, Jun Tao, L. Joseph Su Jan 2019

Comparison Of Compliance With Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women Aged 18 And Above In Arkansas And The United States, Sarah N. O'Connor, Jun Tao, L. Joseph Su

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Introduction: Cervical cancer preys on women without access to preventative screening. Any woman who has developed an invasive case of cervical cancer should be regarded as a failure of screening. Disparities in access to screening, triage, and treatment fuel an uneven distribution in the burden of cervical cancer within the United States; weighing unusually heavy on the Southern States like Arkansas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate demographic and behavioral risk factors for cervical cancer and identify potential barriers which may influence the likelihood of complying with current Pap test recommendations on a state level, in Arkansas, and ...


The Use Of A “Cpr Posture” For Hemorrhage Control, Nathan Phillip Charlton, Robert Solberg, Nici Singletary, Craig Goolsby, Justin Rizer, William Woods Jan 2019

The Use Of A “Cpr Posture” For Hemorrhage Control, Nathan Phillip Charlton, Robert Solberg, Nici Singletary, Craig Goolsby, Justin Rizer, William Woods

International Journal of First Aid Education

Bleeding from traumatic injury is a major source of morbidity and mortality, however, little data is available to aid guidelines and curriculum developers in best practice of applying direct pressure when treating or teaching how to stop life-threatening hemorrhage.

Hypothesis: This study investigated the use of two-handed pressure with bent arms versus two-handed pressure with straight arms to apply direct pressure to a hemorrhage model.

Methods: Participants, recruited as a convenience sample, were randomized and instructed to use either two hands overlapping using arm strength only, or two hands overlapping with arms straight in a “CPR-like” position to apply force ...


An Educational Module For Adolescents On Cannabis Following Its Legalization, Anna Lidofsky Jan 2019

An Educational Module For Adolescents On Cannabis Following Its Legalization, Anna Lidofsky

Family Medicine Clerkship Student Projects

Recreational use of cannabis has been recently legalized in Vermont. One year prior to its legalization, 42% of high school students in Washington County reported at least one-time use of cannabis. An educational module for adolescents was developed to address the increasing potency of cannabis and health risks associated with its use.


Drug Courts: A Bridge To Recovery, Susan M. Halpin M. Ed., Timothy M. Bibaud Jd, Kayla St. George, Shenandoah Reddy Jan 2019

Drug Courts: A Bridge To Recovery, Susan M. Halpin M. Ed., Timothy M. Bibaud Jd, Kayla St. George, Shenandoah Reddy

National Network of Libraries of Medicine New England Region (NNLM NER) Repository

Drug courts are an alternative to traditional prosecution in which a collaborative team of medical clinicians, social workers, lawyers and probation officers work together to try to find a path out of addiction. Supervised probation, mandatory treatments, as well as random drug testing with progress monitored by a supervising probation officer, the court works with a team of treatment providers, which provide clinical assessment, develop and monitor treatment placements and identify ancillary counseling, case management and outreach services.

Join Judge Timothy Bibaud and Drug Court Graduates Kayla and Shenandoah for their informative, and personal stories about how drug courts address ...


The Impact Of A Fruit And Vegetable Farmers' Market Voucher Prescription Program On A Low-Income Rural Population, Kevin Anthony Richie Jan 2019

The Impact Of A Fruit And Vegetable Farmers' Market Voucher Prescription Program On A Low-Income Rural Population, Kevin Anthony Richie

Theses and Dissertations--Dietetics and Human Nutrition

Objective: Measures the impact of the Farmers’ Market Voucher program on weight, body mass index, waist circumference, during the 2016 summer on a rural, low-income population residing in Appalachian Kentucky.

Background: Rural communities often have limited access to fresh fruits and vegetables (FV) which contributes to low levels of consumption. FV are calorie poor, nutrient dense and are inversely associated with inflammation markers, obesity, hypertension, and high blood glucose levels. Appalachian rural communities have a higher prevalence of obesity, diabetes, strokes, and death by heart attack when compared to the U.S. Farmers’ markets

Methods: Pre-experimental intervention design examining FV ...


Predictors Of Experimental And Control Group Attendance: Findings From An Hiv/Std Prevention Rct With Pregnant Women At Risk For Substance Use, Jaclyn S. Sadicario Jan 2019

Predictors Of Experimental And Control Group Attendance: Findings From An Hiv/Std Prevention Rct With Pregnant Women At Risk For Substance Use, Jaclyn S. Sadicario

Theses and Dissertations

Efforts to improve inclusion in research have included mandating the recruitment of ethnic minorities and women into NIH funded studies. However, little research has been completed on who attends such interventions. This is particularly worrisome in populations for which attendance to interventions can have dire consequences. HIV is a public health concern for pregnant women in substance using communities, as pregnant women are much less likely to use condoms during intercourse to prevent HIV. Group modular HIV prevention interventions have long been the standard for HIV prevention. However, little attention in research on HIV prevention interventions RCTs has been focused ...


Culturally Adaptive Storytelling Intervention Versus Didactic Intervention To Improve Hypertension Control In Vietnam- 12 Month Follow Up Results: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial, Hoa L. Nguyen, Duc A. Ha, Robert J. Goldberg, Catarina I. Kiefe, German Chiriboga, Ha N. Ly, Cuong K. Nguyen, Ngoc T. Phan, Nguyen C. Vu, Quang P. Nguyen, Jeroan J. Allison Dec 2018

Culturally Adaptive Storytelling Intervention Versus Didactic Intervention To Improve Hypertension Control In Vietnam- 12 Month Follow Up Results: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial, Hoa L. Nguyen, Duc A. Ha, Robert J. Goldberg, Catarina I. Kiefe, German Chiriboga, Ha N. Ly, Cuong K. Nguyen, Ngoc T. Phan, Nguyen C. Vu, Quang P. Nguyen, Jeroan J. Allison

Open Access Articles

INTRODUCTION: Vietnam is experiencing an epidemiologic transition with an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases. The country needs novel, large-scale, and sustainable interventions to improve hypertension control. We report the 12 month follow-up results of a cluster randomized feasibility trial in Hung Yen province, Vietnam, which evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of two community-based interventions to improve hypertension control: a "storytelling" and a didactic intervention.

METHODS: The storytelling intervention included stories in the patients' own words about coping with hypertension and didactic content about the importance of healthy lifestyle behaviors in controlling elevated blood pressure levels. The didactic intervention included only ...


Video-Based Diabetes Education For A Culturally Diverse Population, Heather Harris Dec 2018

Video-Based Diabetes Education For A Culturally Diverse Population, Heather Harris

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Translational and Clinical Research Projects

Immigrants and refugees represent an underserved population in need of quality, accessible, and culturally appropriate healthcare and education. Diabetes is a chronic condition frequently seen in this population. The author utilized the Wagner Chronic Care Model (CCM) as a theoretical framework for planning diabetes education delivery in this diverse population. Studies report significant health disparities in diabetes care and subsequent poor diabetes quality indicators in refugees and immigrants. Research has found that culturally sensitive diabetes education can improve diabetes outcomes in ethnically diverse populations. The author implemented a translational project to develop and evaluate a video-based diabetes health education intervention ...


Keep The Beat With Heart Failure Education: A Quality Improvement Project, Brenda L. Peterson Dec 2018

Keep The Beat With Heart Failure Education: A Quality Improvement Project, Brenda L. Peterson

Master's Projects and Capstones

Abstract

Problem: Heart failure (HF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF), is the number one diagnosis-related group (DRG) for people 65 years of age and older in the United States. This disease group is complicated and debilitating, requiring frequent hospitalizations with high mortality rates. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) has identified CHF as an area for improvement in hospitals.

Context: This was a quality improvement project for an integrated medical center in the Central Valley, California with over 19,000 HF patients. In 2018, for patients 65 years and older, HF is the third-most admitted ...


Finding The Narrative In Incident Reports, La'eeqa Aslam Dec 2018

Finding The Narrative In Incident Reports, La'eeqa Aslam

Master's Projects and Capstones

The Progress Foundation, as licensed by the state of California and the Community Care Licensing, is required to use incident reports for internal audits and remain in compliance as a health facility. Incident reports are used to record events or accidents that have occurred within an organization. Often times, reports are made, handed off, and given from the residence home to the Community Care Licensing with little to no information of how an incident was managed. The Progress Foundation is working towards tracking information from the incident reports to improve internal management and understand the trends in the reports.

In ...


Surveillance, Prevention And Surgical Treatments For Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Kerui Xu Dec 2018

Surveillance, Prevention And Surgical Treatments For Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Kerui Xu

Theses & Dissertations

Liver cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer death, representing roughly 9.1% of all cancer mortality. Of all primary cancers of the liver, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for roughly 85%. HCC has been increasing in the U.S. and other countries. In particular, HCC places a huge burden on the Chinese population, as China alone consists of approximately 50% of the total HCC cases and deaths. In China, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the leading cause for developing HCC. The two challenges in prevention and control of HCC experienced in China are low rates of HCC screening ...


A Public Health Argument Against Arming Teachers, David I. Swedler Dec 2018

A Public Health Argument Against Arming Teachers, David I. Swedler

Health Behavior Research

The peer-reviewed scientific literature does not support the idea that arming teachers will prevent school shootings. In this commentary, I draw on the criminal justice, injury prevention, and firearm safety literature to demonstrate how arming teachers will do more harm than good.


Knowledge Of Health Professional Students On Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking: Curricula Implications., Randah R. Hamadeh, Jamil Ahmed, Ghufran A. Jassim, Sayed M. Alqallaf, Khaldoon Al-Roomi Dec 2018

Knowledge Of Health Professional Students On Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking: Curricula Implications., Randah R. Hamadeh, Jamil Ahmed, Ghufran A. Jassim, Sayed M. Alqallaf, Khaldoon Al-Roomi

Family and Community Medicine MUB Articles

BACKGROUND: Tobacco prevention research traditionally focuses upon cigarette smoking, but there is also a need to implement and evaluate the usefulness of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) interventions since it is considered less harmful than cigarettes. This study aimed to assess the impact of an educational intervention on WTS knowledge of health professional students in three academic health institutions in Bahrain.

METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was used to include medical students from the Arabian Gulf University, medical and nursing students from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland-Bahrain and nursing students from the University of Bahrain. Two hundred fifty students participated ...


Trends In Childhood Elevated Blood Lead Levels In Nebraska, 2013 – 2017, Ellana Haakenstad Dec 2018

Trends In Childhood Elevated Blood Lead Levels In Nebraska, 2013 – 2017, Ellana Haakenstad

Service Learning/Capstone Experience

This project explored the exposure to lead among children in Nebraska. Using the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services’ Blood Lead Level database, trends were investigated in screening; demographics; incidence; and prevalence of elevated blood lead levels, statewide and by census tract. The study further explored the geography of lead exposure and elevated blood lead level cases with maps. Based on these results, policy recommendations were made to the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services’ Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program, particularly about areas of Nebraska with high risk of lead incidence and exposure risk where testing should be ...


Cognitive Impairment And The Mediterranean Diet: A Canadian Perspective, Ivan Culum Nov 2018

Cognitive Impairment And The Mediterranean Diet: A Canadian Perspective, Ivan Culum

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Global life expectancy has increased steadily over the past century and is projected to continue increasing. Life expectancy increases are co-occurring with a reduction of fertility rates in many economically developed countries, which is resulting in an aging population, meaning that the proportion of older adults within the total world population will continue to increase. This is of particular concern as there is a rise of chronic neurodegenerative diseases among older adults, such as dementia, where the number of global deaths more than doubled since the turn of the century, making dementia the fifth leading cause of death worldwide. Dementia ...


Evaluation Of Food Insecurity In Adults And Children With Cystic Fibrosis: Community Case Study, Sarah E. Toevs, Tiffany A. Robb Nov 2018

Evaluation Of Food Insecurity In Adults And Children With Cystic Fibrosis: Community Case Study, Sarah E. Toevs, Tiffany A. Robb

Community and Environmental Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Advances in the care and treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) have led to improved mortality rates; therefore, considerably more individuals with CF are living into adulthood. With an increased number of CF patients advancing into adulthood, there is the need for more research that surrounds the aging adult CF patient. It is important to conduct research and collect results on the aging CF population to help better prepare the CF patient, who is dealing with the heavy treatment and financial burden of their disease, build autonomy and increase their quality of life. Of note, research has found that social, behavioral ...


Empowering First Aiders Through Innovative Instructor Resources, J. Victoria Logan, Dominique Macdonald Nov 2018

Empowering First Aiders Through Innovative Instructor Resources, J. Victoria Logan, Dominique Macdonald

International Journal of First Aid Education

No abstract provided.


My Experience In Swaziland With Give Hope, Fight Poverty, Megan Kaser Nov 2018

My Experience In Swaziland With Give Hope, Fight Poverty, Megan Kaser

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Megan Kaser, a recent 2017 alum in the College of Health and Human Sciences at Purdue University, describes her experience with Give Hope, Fight Poverty (GHFP)—a nonprofit organization in Indianapolis, Indiana. She is currently pursuing a master’s degree in physician assistant studies. GHFP’s mission is “to foster philanthropy domestically by designing service-learning programs that engage U.S. college students with rural communities in Swaziland, Africa, and work together to educate, empower, and lift orphaned and vulnerable children—particularly those living in child-headed households— out of poverty” (Give Hope, Fight Poverty, n.d.). By incorporating college students in ...