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Community Health and Preventive Medicine

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Articles 1 - 30 of 5527

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Fall 2021 Oct 2921

Fall 2021

Scientia

A Decade of Progress and Success; Speech Language Pathology Program; COVID-19 Long-Hauler Study; Peer Mentors Initiative; Faculty Update; Expert Engagement: Three CSH initiatives further education and scholarship while supporting communities in need; Strategic Command: Business consultant and med tech expert Stephen Sichak helps others face pandemic challenges; Taking Care: A School of Nursing research team plumbs the pandemic experiences of nurses nationwide


Rising Costs Of Insulin And Effects Of Self-Management In Type 1 Diabetes, Justine Yadao Dec 2022

Rising Costs Of Insulin And Effects Of Self-Management In Type 1 Diabetes, Justine Yadao

Nursing | Senior Theses

Background

Type 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes is a chronic condition where the pancreas may not be able to produce little to no insulin. This type of diabetes can be attributed to some factors such as age, family history, environmental factors or types of viruses. It is seen more often in children or adolescence but can develop in adults, averaging approximately 5-10% of the population.

Insulin is a type of hormone produced in the pancreas naturally or can be manufactured in the laboratory. People with Type 1 Diabetes need insulin from an exogenous source to ...


The Emerging Epidemic Of Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity Amongst Young Children, Juliana Morales Dec 2022

The Emerging Epidemic Of Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity Amongst Young Children, Juliana Morales

Nursing | Senior Theses

Background:

In the past years childhood obesity has increased tremendously and currently ⅓ of children in the United States are obese today. Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes are illnesses that can later on lead to more severe health complications when as a child enters adulthood. Children who are obese have a greater risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, and currently more than 80% of children who already are diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes are obese. In school and often by health care providers we are told daily physical activity and healthy diet are the best ways to maintain optimal health ...


Podium Presentation: Integrating Resiliency And Diversity, Equity, And Inclusion Training Into Orientation For New Healthcare Workers: A Quality Improvement Project, Debra Sawyers, Carmen Sincerbeaux Jun 2022

Podium Presentation: Integrating Resiliency And Diversity, Equity, And Inclusion Training Into Orientation For New Healthcare Workers: A Quality Improvement Project, Debra Sawyers, Carmen Sincerbeaux

Providence Nurse Research Conference (2022 - present)

No abstract provided.


Podium Presentation: Broadening The Lens: How Using A Multidisciplinary Approach To Increase Cultural Competency In Nurses, Joann Long Jun 2022

Podium Presentation: Broadening The Lens: How Using A Multidisciplinary Approach To Increase Cultural Competency In Nurses, Joann Long

Providence Nurse Research Conference (2022 - present)

Background: Cultural competence is central to the development of healthy nurse-patient relationships. Considered an essential standard of professional practice for nursing and multiple disciplines world-wide, the use interdisciplinary materials from anthropology, philosophy and theology broaden the lens through which students can critically think about human diversity. The online course in Cultural Diversity was revised to enhance the cultural competence of nurses enrolled in an RN-BSN program of study. Drawing on global research conducted by cultural anthropologists provides students with a global look at key cultural concepts through which national cultures may be better understood. Video interviews with nursing theorist and ...


Rowan Community Health Center’S Ask First Model: Building Authentic & Impactful Community Relationships By Asking A Simple Question, Patrick J. Tempera, Christian Diliberto, Ruchi Shah, Daniel Hurst Jun 2022

Rowan Community Health Center’S Ask First Model: Building Authentic & Impactful Community Relationships By Asking A Simple Question, Patrick J. Tempera, Christian Diliberto, Ruchi Shah, Daniel Hurst

Cooper Rowan Medical Journal

Spring of 2017, Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine’s student-run free clinic, the Rowan Community Health Center, launched an outreach initiative named the Unity Project. This is an ongoing initiative aimed at fostering relationships with Camden, New Jersey organizations to both educate community members about our clinic services and collaborate on improving Camden’s health. The objective of the Unity Project is to work towards affecting long-term change by forming authentic and impactful relationships with organizations that are already participating in meaningful community work. In order to achieve such a goal, we needed to overcome the traditional model of ...


Treating Cytokine Storm In Patients With Covid-19, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Deekshitha Turaka, Shameera Shaik Masthan, Steven B Lippmann Jun 2022

Treating Cytokine Storm In Patients With Covid-19, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Deekshitha Turaka, Shameera Shaik Masthan, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Review Of Cannabis Use Among Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander People, Julia Butt, Mandy Wilson, Jocelyn Jones, Simon Lenton Jun 2022

Review Of Cannabis Use Among Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander People, Julia Butt, Mandy Wilson, Jocelyn Jones, Simon Lenton

Journal of the Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet

The health effects of cannabis use may not always be seen as a high priority for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. However, the impact of cannabis use on physical and mental health can have significant consequences. It is known that the use of high potency cannabis has increased over the last two decades, with a corresponding increased risk to health. In particular, young people are at increased risk of experiencing harms to mental health. Physical harms to health include effects on the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, an increased risk of cancer, and in-utero effects from maternal use. The review ...


Book Review: Urban Health | Emerging Public Health Perspectives, Demi Miriam Jun 2022

Book Review: Urban Health | Emerging Public Health Perspectives, Demi Miriam

Journal of Research Initiatives

Book Review

Book Title: Urban Health | Emerging public health perspectives

Editors: Fernandes & Grewal, 2021

Publisher: Global South Strategies

Publication: 02 September 2021

City: Mangalore, India

Total No. of Pages: 341

Price (in INR): 950 (Paperback)

ISBN-13: 978-8195336418


An Evidence--Based Intervention: Use Of Visual Aids For Patient Education During Bedside Team Rounding, Kristin Clifford, Shay Gruber Jun 2022

An Evidence--Based Intervention: Use Of Visual Aids For Patient Education During Bedside Team Rounding, Kristin Clifford, Shay Gruber

Nursing DNP Projects

Abstract Purpose: To increase patient health literacy and satisfaction in hospitalized adult medical-surgical patients through an evidence-based provider intervention (advanced practice providers, APPs, or physicians, MDs) adding visual aids to current verbal patient education methods during daily bedside team rounding (BTR).

Strength of Evidence: A literature review resulted in 15 studies meeting inclusion criteria including two meta-analyses, three randomized control trials, two quasi-experimental studies, five systematic reviews, two descriptive studies, and one clinical practice guideline. Evidence revealed the addition of visual information to verbal and written education methods significantly improves patient knowledge, understanding, and recall of health information and increases ...


Preliminary (Year 1) Report To Oha On Pediatric Sogi: Executive Summary. Report To The Oregon Health Authority, Office Of Equity And Inclusion, Martin Arrigotti, Kieran Chase, Alexis Dinno Jun 2022

Preliminary (Year 1) Report To Oha On Pediatric Sogi: Executive Summary. Report To The Oregon Health Authority, Office Of Equity And Inclusion, Martin Arrigotti, Kieran Chase, Alexis Dinno

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Overview: The enclosed report is the result of collaboration between the authors and the Oregon Health Authority. The report synthesizes the thinking and recommendations of the authors about routine data collection of SOGI data in minors for clinical and demographic purposes. Primary motivations to routinely collect SOGI data include: (1) inclusive practice in order to welcome and make space for people from historically excluded genders, sexes, and sexual orientations, (2) to promote health equity between minority and majority SOGI identities, and (3) to direct group-specific services towards those who need them.

Investigation and Findings: These recommendations are informed by (1 ...


Attitudes And Barriers Toward Covid-19 Vaccination Among People Experiencing Homelessness In Detroit, Mi, Sanjna Ghanshani, Sophie Wittenberg, Richard Bryce Jun 2022

Attitudes And Barriers Toward Covid-19 Vaccination Among People Experiencing Homelessness In Detroit, Mi, Sanjna Ghanshani, Sophie Wittenberg, Richard Bryce

Medical Student Research Symposium

Introduction: People experiencing homelessness (PEH) have a high risk of exposure to communicable diseases and limited access to health care services and treatment in their communities. Despite the availability of highly effective vaccines against COVID-19, the infection prevention practices and level of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among PEH in Detroit have not been well studied.

Methods: Medical students administered an electronic Qualtrics survey to consented participants during outreach visits to local homeless shelters and encampments organized by Street Medicine Detroit. The questionnaire comprised six topics, including hygiene and masking practices, experience with COVID-19 testing and vaccination, and attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination ...


Discharged Against Medical Advice In The Postpartum Period: Why Should We Care?, Gurbani Bedi Bs, Mariam Ayyash Md, Mscr, Monique Swain Md Jun 2022

Discharged Against Medical Advice In The Postpartum Period: Why Should We Care?, Gurbani Bedi Bs, Mariam Ayyash Md, Mscr, Monique Swain Md

Medical Student Research Symposium

Objective: To understand reasons and events surrounding postpartum discharges against medical advice (AMA) in an urban population in Detroit, Michigan.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted looking at women who left AMA in the postpartum period from Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, Michigan between 2013 and 2021.

Results: 111 women (0.18%) left AMA in the postpartum period between 2013 and 2021. 35.1% of women were Black, 53% were White, 11.7% were of other races. 4.5% of women had home births and were brought in by EMS shortly after delivery. 44.1% of women had preterm ...


The Impact Of Maternal Nutrition On The Development And Severity Of Generalized Anxiety Disorders In Rodent And Non-Human Primate Studies, Esmeralda H. Cardoso Jun 2022

The Impact Of Maternal Nutrition On The Development And Severity Of Generalized Anxiety Disorders In Rodent And Non-Human Primate Studies, Esmeralda H. Cardoso

University Honors Theses

Generalized anxiety has become more prevalent among children and adolescents in the United States which impacts their health and livelihood. Maternal nutrition during pregnancy is purported to play a role in cognitive development and mental health during childhood, adolescence, and into adulthood. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease theory suggests maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy influences transgenerational susceptibility, onset, and severity of disease through epigenetic mechanisms that then impact the child’s overall health, including cognitive development and mental health later in life. A literature review of rodents and non-human primate studies was conducted to explore the association ...


Investigating The Efficacy & Implications Of Abstinence-Based Drug Education, Sophia Hanken Jun 2022

Investigating The Efficacy & Implications Of Abstinence-Based Drug Education, Sophia Hanken

University Honors Theses

The United States has a long and complex history surrounding substance use. Drug education programs have become widely implemented in American schools and the media. Policy, rhetoric, and ideology have directly affected the curriculum of drug education programs. Drug education in the United States centers around substance abstinence. While well-intended, abstinence-based drug education is not a pragmatic solution for reducing substance-related harm or promoting health. The purpose of this thesis is to critique two of the most widely used abstinence-based drug education programs; Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E) and Project ALERT. These programs often emphasize the dangers ...


Micro-Rna Analysis Of Extracellular Vesicles Secreted By Alveolar Macrophages And Epithelial Cells In Response To Cadmium, Anisha Bhakta Jun 2022

Micro-Rna Analysis Of Extracellular Vesicles Secreted By Alveolar Macrophages And Epithelial Cells In Response To Cadmium, Anisha Bhakta

Biotechnology Theses

Inhalation of cadmium (Cd) has been an environmental health concern with the increase in industrial activities and smoking. Cd exposure is known to affect several organs such as lungs, kidneys, and liver. In this study, we wanted to understand if Cd inhalation exposure can affect the lungs and other organs in the body. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles secreted by all living cells and are known to carry toxicants between organs. We investigated whether Cd exposure could affect exosome biogenesis and their composition. Cd exposure did not affect the viability of A549, a lung epithelial cell line and macrophages derived from ...


Utility Of The Motivation To Change Lifestyle And Health Behaviors For Dementia Risk Reduction Scale (Mclhb-Drr) Based On A North American Sample, Angelina E. Witbeck Jun 2022

Utility Of The Motivation To Change Lifestyle And Health Behaviors For Dementia Risk Reduction Scale (Mclhb-Drr) Based On A North American Sample, Angelina E. Witbeck

Dissertations

As the population ages, the prevalence rates of dementia continue to increase. Without a cure or promising treatment for dementia, the best course of lowering the prevalence rates of dementia is through preventative measures. Through an electronic survey, the study utilized the MCLHB-DRR scale to determine whether (1) gender, age, educational background, and socioeconomic status will impact the motivational factors to change lifestyle and health behaviors to reduce the risk of developing dementia and (2) direct experiences with individuals that have a dementia diagnosis are likely to impact one's motivational factors to change lifestyle and health behaviors to reduce ...


Gobernar Es Prever: Health Management Self-Efficacy Among A National Sample Of Latinx Adults, Giselle Gerardi Jun 2022

Gobernar Es Prever: Health Management Self-Efficacy Among A National Sample Of Latinx Adults, Giselle Gerardi

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: Minority populations, such as Latinx people, are more likely to develop chronic diseases and increased complications related to disease severity when compared to Non Latinx Whites (NLW). Furthermore, Latinx people are less likely to engage and maintain health promoting behaviors (HPB) to prevent disease development. HPB are effective in preventing or delaying chronic disease. Despite interventions and resources aimed at supporting Latinx populations, often, there are low participation and high attrition rates.

Methods: This research explores the relative impact of aspects of health, built environment and key demographic domains on HMSE of a national sample of Latinx adults through ...


Patterns And Predictors Of Smoking By Race And Medical Diagnosis During Hospital Admission: A Latent Class Analysis, Amanda M. Palmer, Benjamin A. Toll, Georges J. Nahhas, Kayla Haire, Brandon T. Sanford, Kenneth Micheal Cummings, Alana M. Rojewski May 2022

Patterns And Predictors Of Smoking By Race And Medical Diagnosis During Hospital Admission: A Latent Class Analysis, Amanda M. Palmer, Benjamin A. Toll, Georges J. Nahhas, Kayla Haire, Brandon T. Sanford, Kenneth Micheal Cummings, Alana M. Rojewski

Health Behavior Research

Hospital-based tobacco treatment programs provide tobacco cessation for a diverse array of admitted patients. Person-centered approaches to classifying subgroups of individuals within large datasets are useful for evaluating the characteristics of the sample. This study categorized patients who received tobacco treatment while hospitalized and determined whether demographics and smoking-related health conditions were associated with group membership. Chart review data was obtained from 4854 patients admitted to a large hospital in South Carolina, USA, from July 2014 through December 2019 who completed a tobacco treatment visit. Smoking characteristics obtained from the visit interview were dichotomized, and then latent class analysis (LCA ...


Increasing Mental Health Literacy In The Black Church, Jonathan Allotey May 2022

Increasing Mental Health Literacy In The Black Church, Jonathan Allotey

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

Purpose: The purpose of this project was to increase mental health literacy, assess stigmatizing attitudes, and increase help seeking behavior in leadership within an African American church.

Background: The Black church has historically been a central institution for community support and leadership within these churches are often ill equipped to address the mental health needs of congregants. African Americans underutilize mental health services and are reported to have more chronic mental illnesses. Lack of mental health literacy may result in difficulty recognizing the risk factors, signs, symptoms, and treatments related to specific mental illnesses.

Evidence Based Intervention and Methods: Participating ...


Exploring Extension Agent Capacity And Readiness To Adopt Policy, Systems And Environmental Change Approaches, Lisa T. Washburn, Heather Norman-Burgdolf, Natalie Jones, Lauren E. Kennedy, Soghra Jarvandi May 2022

Exploring Extension Agent Capacity And Readiness To Adopt Policy, Systems And Environmental Change Approaches, Lisa T. Washburn, Heather Norman-Burgdolf, Natalie Jones, Lauren E. Kennedy, Soghra Jarvandi

Dietetics and Human Nutrition Faculty Publications

Introduction: Enhanced Extension outreach strategies combine traditional direct education programs with public health approaches like policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) change. However, the Cooperative Extension system and county-based Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) Extension agents have historically prioritized direct education programming and diffusion of enhanced outreach strategies has varied. Extension personnel may lack capacity and readiness for successful PSE change implementation. This study explored perceived acceptability, capacity, and readiness for PSE change work among FCS Extension agents in two states.

Method: A survey was developed framed by selected domains from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research: Intervention Characteristics, Inner Setting ...


A Pandemic Of Separation Of Powers Violations In Texas: The Interrelationship Of The Texas Disaster Act And Texas Gov’T Code Section 22.0035, Ron Beal May 2022

A Pandemic Of Separation Of Powers Violations In Texas: The Interrelationship Of The Texas Disaster Act And Texas Gov’T Code Section 22.0035, Ron Beal

St. Mary's Law Journal

This Article is on the interrelationship of the Texas Disaster Act and Texas Government Code Section 22.0035. The author demonstrates that the Governor of Texas and the Texas Supreme Court have grossly violated the separation of powers on a continuing basis since March 29, 2020 by Governor Abbott issuing Executive Order 13, which prohibits the granting of bail to anyone awaiting trial, and the Texas Supreme Court’s unwillingness to invalidate that order administratively or judicially. Finally, the Article addresses the nearly one thousand district and county court judges who are constantly violating the separations of powers by failing ...


Plant-Centered Diets Among Older Adults: The Need For Improved Nutritional Health Messaging, Margaret Rose May 2022

Plant-Centered Diets Among Older Adults: The Need For Improved Nutritional Health Messaging, Margaret Rose

Lerner Center for Public Health Promotion: Population Health Research Brief Series

By the year 2030, it is expected that 12% of the world’s population will be aged 65 years or older compared to 8.5% in 2015. This demographic shift will be accompanied by increased healthcare costs and greater demand on health care. One way aging adults may mitigate disease onset and progression is through increased consumption of plant-based foods. This issue brief examines the impact plant-based foods have on disease prevention and acceleration and calls for developing appropriate health messaging to encourage the acceptance and adoption of plant-centered diets among older adults.


Antimicrobial Stewardship Meets Transitions Of Care: Defining Length Of Therapy For Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Cap), Christopher Whitman, Sarah E. Moore Pharmd, Matthew Song Pharmd, Bcidp, Brian C. Bohn Pharmd, Bcidp, Ashley M. Wilde May 2022

Antimicrobial Stewardship Meets Transitions Of Care: Defining Length Of Therapy For Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Cap), Christopher Whitman, Sarah E. Moore Pharmd, Matthew Song Pharmd, Bcidp, Brian C. Bohn Pharmd, Bcidp, Ashley M. Wilde

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Hospital-based antimicrobial stewardship efforts have traditionally focused on inpatient settings. Antibiotic prescribing at discharge is often an overlooked area of focus for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Discharge prescribing optimization is necessary to combat antibiotic overuse.

Methods: This was an observational, retrospective cohort study at a four–adult community hospital system. Four hundred adult patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia and discharged with antibiotics were included. The primary outcome was overall (inpatient and discharge) antibiotic length of therapy. The secondary outcome was percentage of patients discharged on a fluoroquinolone who had not received one in the hospital. Descriptive statistics were utilized.

Results ...


Covid-19 Case Complicated With Organizing Pneumonia And Pneumothorax: Correspondence, Hammad A. Bhatti, Minh Q. Ho May 2022

Covid-19 Case Complicated With Organizing Pneumonia And Pneumothorax: Correspondence, Hammad A. Bhatti, Minh Q. Ho

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


How Environmental Change Will Impact Mosquito-Borne Diseases, Arsal Khan May 2022

How Environmental Change Will Impact Mosquito-Borne Diseases, Arsal Khan

Master's Projects and Capstones

Mosquitos, the most lethal species throughout human history, are the most prevalent source of vector-borne diseases and therefore a major global health burden. Mosquito-borne disease incidence is expected to shift with environmental change. These changes can be predicted using species distribution models. With the wide variety of methods used for models, consensus for improving accuracy and comparability is needed. A comparative analysis of three recent modeling approaches revealed that integrating modeling techniques compensates for trade-offs associated with a singular approach. An area that represents a critical gap in our ability to predict mosquito behavior in response to changing climate factors ...


Innovation In Health Science Education: An Experiential Learning Program, Lily Apedaile May 2022

Innovation In Health Science Education: An Experiential Learning Program, Lily Apedaile

International Journal of Health Sciences Education

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic disrupted health professions education on a number of different levels. Many health professions and pre-health professions students lost access to real-world clinical experience which has lead to disruptions in the healthcare workforce pipeline. At the University of Montana a diverse group of health professions educators designed an innovative experiential learning program, called Griz Health, that would allow UM students to engage in healthcare experiences while helping the campus with COVID-19 response. Because of the overwhelmingly positive response from students and community members that participated in this program, the Griz Health program was shifted from a volunteer response ...


Health Equity & Obesity Management: An Improvement Project In A Federally Qualified Healthcare Center In Central Harlem, Brianna Bouchez May 2022

Health Equity & Obesity Management: An Improvement Project In A Federally Qualified Healthcare Center In Central Harlem, Brianna Bouchez

Doctor of Nursing Practice Scholarly Projects

Description of the problem: Obesity is a growing healthcare problem worldwide with extraordinary costs to the individual's health and the healthcare system. Individuals most affected by obesity include socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals, often with limited resources to seek specialized care.

Available knowledge: Various weight-loss interventions exist but access and success rates vary. Weight loss is often modest and additional factors such as social determinants of health, health literacy, and patient motivation are all factors important to the success of an intervention.

Specific Aims: The purpose of this quality improvement project was to improve self-regulatory weight loss behaviors and increase weight ...


National Early Warning Score (News) For Covid-19 Infected Patients: A Clinical Guidance Tool, Robert Villegas May 2022

National Early Warning Score (News) For Covid-19 Infected Patients: A Clinical Guidance Tool, Robert Villegas

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

Background: Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) presents with variable clinical manifestations from asymptomatic to life-threatening organ dysfunction. The National Early Warning Score, also known as NEWS, was initially developed to detect adult inpatient deterioration using existing physiological data and adverse clinical outcomes from 35,585 medical admissions. The NEWS guideline consists of six parameters: respiratory rate, pulse, oxygen saturation, temperature, systolic blood pressure, and level of consciousness.

Purpose: This project implemented NEWS guidelines to identify patients at high risk for deterioration with COVID-19.

Evidence-Based Interventions: The project included retrospective-prospective chart reviews for 100 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from October 2020 to December ...


An Exploratory Look Into The Effects Of Mississippi's Population Decline On Rural Dental Care, Allen Bailey Saffold May 2022

An Exploratory Look Into The Effects Of Mississippi's Population Decline On Rural Dental Care, Allen Bailey Saffold

Honors Theses

Literature reviews and interviews with dentists working in rural Mississippi counties examined the effects of population decline on rural dental care in Mississippi. With the state’s continual population decline, loss of industry follows a loss of people. Through a cascade of effects, this can further reduce underserved areas’ access to dental care. In order to address the issue of rural Mississippi continuing to be underserved, policies need to be implemented that will make rural practice at least enticing if not desirable.