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Reproductive Health

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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Practice-Based Learning: Establishing Simple Monitoring Systems To Support Sgbv Programming In Refugee Settings, Chi-Chi Undie, Josephine Ngebeh, Jane Harriet Namwebya, Michael Gaitho, George Odwe, Nachela Chelwa, Harriet Birungi, Michael Mbizvo Sep 2020

Practice-Based Learning: Establishing Simple Monitoring Systems To Support Sgbv Programming In Refugee Settings, Chi-Chi Undie, Josephine Ngebeh, Jane Harriet Namwebya, Michael Gaitho, George Odwe, Nachela Chelwa, Harriet Birungi, Michael Mbizvo

Reproductive Health

Implementers of sexual and gender-based violence programs in refugee settings are typically eager to learn about the extent to which their programs are making a difference in the lives of those they serve. Basic monitoring information can help address this imperative without unduly burdening program implementers with time-consuming evaluations. The Sauti/VOICE project is guiding adaptation and implementation of evidence-based SGBV interventions in refugee contexts. These interventions are implemented by UNHCR partners in eight countries in the East, Horn, and Great Lakes region of Africa. Although Sauti/VOICE is primarily focused on integrating tested SGBV interventions into refugee contexts, monitoring ...


Practice-Based Learning: Medico-Legal Evidence Collection As Part Of Post-Rape Care In Refugee Contexts, Michael Gaitho, Ronald Kotut, Anne Ngunjiri, Jane T. Thiomi, Josephine Ngebeh, Chi-Chi Undie Sep 2020

Practice-Based Learning: Medico-Legal Evidence Collection As Part Of Post-Rape Care In Refugee Contexts, Michael Gaitho, Ronald Kotut, Anne Ngunjiri, Jane T. Thiomi, Josephine Ngebeh, Chi-Chi Undie

Reproductive Health

Health care providers collect an array of documentation and specimens to support criminal investigations. Such documentation and specimens are referred to as “medico-legal” or “forensic” evidence, and in the case of rape, include a survivor’s documented injuries and emotional state at the time of examination, as well as samples and specimens from the survivor’s body or clothing. For survivors of rape and defilement who want to obtain legal justice, medico-legal evidence is critical. In African countries, health providers and the police are depended upon to ensure such evidence is collected, but medico-legal evidence collection can present challenges. Evidence-based ...


Asking And Telling: An Assessment Of The Feasibility Of Screening Children For Sexual Violence In Kenyan School And Health Facility Contexts, Chi-Chi Undie, Margaret Mak'anyengo Aug 2020

Asking And Telling: An Assessment Of The Feasibility Of Screening Children For Sexual Violence In Kenyan School And Health Facility Contexts, Chi-Chi Undie, Margaret Mak'anyengo

Reproductive Health

Although sexual violence against children is increasingly prevalent in Kenya, documented and tested interventions for proactively identifying child survivors and providing them with care are currently nonexistent. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of screening children for SV in both school and health facility settings, and of providing child survivors identified through this process with access to care. The four-component intervention, implemented from January through April 2017, involved parent dialogues; student sensitization; provider training to administer a child-friendly screening tool and respond to child survivors; and SV screening, paired with SV service provision. As noted in this report, the ...


Important Lessons On Fgm/C Abandonment From Four Research Studies In Egypt, Nada Ramadan, Nahla G. Abdel-Tawab, Abeer Salem Jul 2020

Important Lessons On Fgm/C Abandonment From Four Research Studies In Egypt, Nada Ramadan, Nahla G. Abdel-Tawab, Abeer Salem

Reproductive Health

Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) continues to be a widespread practice in Egypt. According to the 2014 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey, the prevalence of FGM/C was 92 percent among ever-married women aged 15–49. However, Egypt continues to witness a drastic surge in the medicalization of FGM/C, with 74 percent of women aged 19 years and younger circumcised by medical practitioners, compared to 55 percent in 1995. This policy brief provides key results and recommendations of four studies conducted by the Population Council/ Egypt under the Evidence to End FGM/C project, in coordination with Egypt ...


Commentary: Using Law More Effectively Towards Abandonment Of Fgm/C In Kenya, Agnes K. Meroka-Mutua Jul 2020

Commentary: Using Law More Effectively Towards Abandonment Of Fgm/C In Kenya, Agnes K. Meroka-Mutua

Reproductive Health

Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is considered a harmful cultural practice and a form of violence against women. Kenya has an FGM/C prevalence rate of 21 percent, but levels vary by ethnic group. Kenya has adopted a robust legal framework for the prohibition of FGM/C, including passage of the Prohibition of FGM Act in 2011, a detailed law that criminalizes carrying out FGM/C and associated offenses. Kenya relies on the human rights–based approach and criminalization in its legal framework for the prohibition of this practice. Despite extensive legal provisions, Kenya has prosecuted fewer than 100 ...


Lessons From A Five-Year Research Programme On Fgm/C And Their Relevance For Policy And Programmes In Kenya, Dennis Matanda, Agnes K. Meroka-Mutua, Samuel Kimani Jul 2020

Lessons From A Five-Year Research Programme On Fgm/C And Their Relevance For Policy And Programmes In Kenya, Dennis Matanda, Agnes K. Meroka-Mutua, Samuel Kimani

Reproductive Health

The Sustainable Development Goals target the elimination of all forms of harmful practices, including female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) by 2030. Kenya has made progress in addressing the elimination of FGM/C through ratification of global instruments and enactment of the Prohibition of FGM Act in 2011 and other supportive laws. The Act created the foundation for the establishment of the Anti-FGM Board, which provides policy leadership and coordination of anti-FGM/C programs in Kenya. More recently, the President of Kenya issued a decree for accelerated elimination of FGM/C by 2022. This synthesis report highlights how evidence generated ...


Appendices—Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Review Of Laws And Policies In Kenya And Nigeria, Samuel Kimani, Otibho Obianwu Jun 2020

Appendices—Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Review Of Laws And Policies In Kenya And Nigeria, Samuel Kimani, Otibho Obianwu

Reproductive Health

This document contains Appendices to “Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Review of Laws and Policies in Kenya and Nigeria.” Appendix 1 contains two tables: “Components of Kenyan Laws Related to FGM/C Prevention and Management,” and “Components of Nigerian Laws Related to FGM/C Prevention and Management.” Appendix 2 contains seven tables: “Components Relevant to Health Sector Response to Prevention and Management of FGM/C in Kenyan Policies,” “Components Relevant to Health Sector Response to Prevention and Management of FGM/C in Nigerian Policies,” “Components Relevant to Health Sector Response to Prevention and Management of FGM/C in the Kenyan ...


Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Review Of Laws And Policies In Kenya And Nigeria, Samuel Kimani, Otibho Obianwu Jun 2020

Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Review Of Laws And Policies In Kenya And Nigeria, Samuel Kimani, Otibho Obianwu

Reproductive Health

Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice that has health and human rights impacts on girls and women. The health sector has responsibility for prevention and response to provision of care services to women/girls with FGM/C-related complications. The mandate for the health sector response to FGM/C is anchored in nationwide or sector-specific legal/policy instruments. Kenya and Nigeria have ratified global legal/policy instruments and adopted WHO guidelines/tools for the prevention and management of FGM/C. The extent to which existing legal/policy documents in these two countries address prevention and response to ...


Quand Et Comment La Loi Est-Elle Efficace Pour Réduire La Pratique Des Mgf/E: Une Étude Transfrontalière Au Burkina Faso Et Au Mali, Josephine Wouango, Susan L. Ostermann, Daniel Mwanga May 2020

Quand Et Comment La Loi Est-Elle Efficace Pour Réduire La Pratique Des Mgf/E: Une Étude Transfrontalière Au Burkina Faso Et Au Mali, Josephine Wouango, Susan L. Ostermann, Daniel Mwanga

Reproductive Health

No abstract provided.


A Diagnostic Assessment Of The Health System's Response To Fgm/C Management And Prevention In Nigeria, Osasuyi Dirisu, Adetayo Adetunji, Mayokun Adediran, Otibho Obianwu May 2020

A Diagnostic Assessment Of The Health System's Response To Fgm/C Management And Prevention In Nigeria, Osasuyi Dirisu, Adetayo Adetunji, Mayokun Adediran, Otibho Obianwu

Reproductive Health

In Africa, it is estimated that 27 million, 24 million, and 20 million girls and women have undergone FGM/C in Egypt, Ethiopia, and Nigeria, respectively, making them the countries with the highest absolute numbers of women and girls living with FGM/C in the continent. Despite the existence of laws, policies, and plans of action that should drive the health system’s response, the practice persists at a substantial level in Nigeria. The goal of the study, detailed in this working paper, was to contribute to a reduction in the prevalence and ultimately the abandonment of FGM/C through ...


When And How The Law Is Effective In Reducing The Practice Of Fgm/C: A Cross-Border Study In Burkina Faso And Mali, Josephine Wouango, Susan L. Ostermann, Daniel Mwanga May 2020

When And How The Law Is Effective In Reducing The Practice Of Fgm/C: A Cross-Border Study In Burkina Faso And Mali, Josephine Wouango, Susan L. Ostermann, Daniel Mwanga

Reproductive Health

Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is recognized globally for being associated with risks to both the physical and psychological health of girls and women; it is also considered to be a violation of human rights. At present, an estimated 200 million girls and women in 30 countries have undergone FGM/C and as many as 30 million under-15 girls are at risk. A common policy response to FGM/C is to enact laws and enforce criminal prohibitions. This policy brief summarizes key findings from a cross-border study of two neighboring countries: Burkina Faso, which has a strong FGM/C ...


Fertility Preferences And Behaviors Among Younger Cohorts In Egypt: Recent Trends, Correlates, And Prospects For Change, Nahla G. Abdel-Tawab, Shadia Attia, Nourhan Bader, Rania Roushdy, Shatha El-Nakib, Doaa Oraby Apr 2020

Fertility Preferences And Behaviors Among Younger Cohorts In Egypt: Recent Trends, Correlates, And Prospects For Change, Nahla G. Abdel-Tawab, Shadia Attia, Nourhan Bader, Rania Roushdy, Shatha El-Nakib, Doaa Oraby

Reproductive Health

After years of steady decline, Egypt experienced an increase in the total fertility rate (TFR) from 3.0 births per woman in 2008 to 3.5 in 2014, which was coupled with an increase in desired family size among young people. To better understand this increase in fertility as well as prospects for change, the Evidence Project/Population Council conducted secondary analyses of quantitative data from the Egypt Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) and the Survey of Young People in Egypt (SYPE) and collected qualitative data from young people and key informants. This report examines the changes in fertility preferences ...


Policy Brief: Fertility Preferences And Behaviors Among Younger Cohorts In Egypt: Recent Trends, Correlates, And Prospects For Change [Arabic], Nahla G. Abdel-Tawab, Shadia Attia, Nourhan Bader, Rania Roushdy, Shatha El-Nakib, Doaa Oraby Apr 2020

Policy Brief: Fertility Preferences And Behaviors Among Younger Cohorts In Egypt: Recent Trends, Correlates, And Prospects For Change [Arabic], Nahla G. Abdel-Tawab, Shadia Attia, Nourhan Bader, Rania Roushdy, Shatha El-Nakib, Doaa Oraby

Reproductive Health

After years of steady decline, Egypt experienced an increase in the total fertility rate (TFR) from 3.0 births per woman in 2008 to 3.5 in 2014, which was coupled with an increase in desired family size among young people. To better understand this increase in fertility as well as prospects for change, the Evidence Project/Population Council conducted secondary analyses of quantitative data from the Egypt Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) and the Survey of Young People in Egypt (SYPE) and collected qualitative data from young people and key informants. This brief examines the changes in fertility preferences ...


The Community Health System In The Drc: An Overview, Frontline Health Project Apr 2020

The Community Health System In The Drc: An Overview, Frontline Health Project

Reproductive Health

This brief provides an overview of the community health system in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The community health system is decentralized and operates across five levels: national, provincial, health zone, health area, and community. Various policy documents guide DRC’s community health system, including The National Health Development Plan 2016–2020. Relais communautaire (RECOs) are the main cadre of community health workers operating in the DRC. They are volunteers who provide a minimum package of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health services, including the provision of family planning; integrated community case management for malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory ...


The Community Health System In Mali: An Overview, Frontline Health Project Apr 2020

The Community Health System In Mali: An Overview, Frontline Health Project

Reproductive Health

This brief provides an overview of the community health system in Mali. The system is decentralized and operates across five levels: national, regional, district, health area, and community. It relies on two cadres of community health workers to deliver health-care services, primarily to rural populations: agents de santé communautaire (ASCs) and relais communautaire. The National Implementation Guide for Essential Community Health Care is the main document that outlines responsibilities of community health providers and processes for organization, management, and delivery of health services. Although Mali’s maternal, child (under five years), and infant mortality rates have fallen over the past ...


Measurement Of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Status: Perspectives From Healthcare Providers, Policymakers, Programme Implementers, And Researchers, Dennis Matanda Apr 2020

Measurement Of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Status: Perspectives From Healthcare Providers, Policymakers, Programme Implementers, And Researchers, Dennis Matanda

Reproductive Health

Among practicing communities, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a highly sensitive and emotionally charged issue, and open discussion is often considered taboo. Not only may it be difficult to motivate people to discuss the topic, but the validity of their responses may be questionable. These factors make research on FGM/C challenging and hence the need for careful consideration of research methodologies. There is a need for proper documentation of the strengths and limitations of the various data-collection methodologies to assist in generating reliable data for programmatic efforts toward FGM/C abandonment. This working paper describes a study ...


When And How Does Law Effectively Reduce The Practice Of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting?, Josephine Wouango, Susan L. Ostermann, Daniel Mwanga Apr 2020

When And How Does Law Effectively Reduce The Practice Of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting?, Josephine Wouango, Susan L. Ostermann, Daniel Mwanga

Reproductive Health

Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is recognized globally as carrying risks to both the physical and psychological health of girls and women and is widely considered a violation of human rights. An estimated 200 million girls and women in 30 countries have undergone FGM/C and as many as 30 million girls younger than 15 years of age are at risk. A common policy response to FGM/C is to call for the enactment and enforcement of criminal prohibitions on the practice. Yet, compliance with laws is complex: it can be motivated and undercut by moral, social, religious, and ...


A Diagnostic Assessment Of The Health System’S Response To Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Management And Prevention In Kenya, Samuel Kimani, Chantalle Okondo Apr 2020

A Diagnostic Assessment Of The Health System’S Response To Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Management And Prevention In Kenya, Samuel Kimani, Chantalle Okondo

Reproductive Health

Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice associated with health consequences and rights violations. In Kenya, health sector–led FGM/C-related interventions are anchored in the legal and policy instruments and guidelines adapted from global/regional frameworks, as well as interventional tools approved by the World Health Organization. Despite the existence of the instruments, guidelines, and tools that should direct a robust health system response to FGM/C, the practice persists and quality of care of services for women and girls with FGM/C-related complications has not been ascertained. Evidence on whether the health sector implements relevant ...


Two Implementation Models Of Workers' Health Education Programs In Egypt: What Works? What Doesn't Work?, Nahla G. Abdel-Tawab, Norhan Bader, Elizabeth Tobey, Aparna Jain Mar 2020

Two Implementation Models Of Workers' Health Education Programs In Egypt: What Works? What Doesn't Work?, Nahla G. Abdel-Tawab, Norhan Bader, Elizabeth Tobey, Aparna Jain

Reproductive Health

This brief presents findings from two models of workers’ health education programs implemented by the Evidence Project/Population Council in Egypt. The two interventions aimed to increase family planning (FP) service demand among young people aged 18–35 in Port Said and urban Souhag. In Port Said, male and female factory workers who were trained as peer educators shared family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH) information with fellow factory workers, distributed communication materials, and provided referrals to infirmary nurses trained in FP counseling. In Souhag, male and female peer educators were trained to provide integrated FP/RH and livelihood workshops ...


The Community Health System In Bangladesh: An Overview, Frontline Health Project Mar 2020

The Community Health System In Bangladesh: An Overview, Frontline Health Project

Reproductive Health

This brief provides an overview of the community health system in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is divided into eight administrative divisions, 64 districts, and 545 subdistricts, known as upazilas. Each rural area within an upazila is divided into union parishads and mouzas, which are further divided into villages. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has an extensive health infrastructure that is pluralistic and follows the country’s administrative pattern. Union parishads are the smallest administrative unit in rural areas. At the lowest administrative level, traditional healers, nonqualified allopathic practitioners, and community health workers (CHWs) are typically the only providers available. This ...


The Community Health System In Haiti: An Overview, Frontline Health Project Mar 2020

The Community Health System In Haiti: An Overview, Frontline Health Project

Reproductive Health

This brief provides an overview of the community health system in Haiti. In Haiti, the health system is overseen at the national level by the Ministry of Public Health and Population (Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population-MSPP) which provides policies and standards for service delivery at all levels, including the community level. Health service delivery is managed and coordinated across three levels: national (level III), health department (level II), and district and community levels (level I). The national level is guided by the MSPP and provides policy guidance for community-level service delivery. The Health Department level is ...


Implementation Process Brief: Integrated Family Planning And Hiv Services At The Community Level In Kenya, Wilson Liambila, Sara Chace Dwyer, Charlotte E. Warren, Aparna Jain, Melsa Lutomia, Jane Loech, Elizabeth Washika Mar 2020

Implementation Process Brief: Integrated Family Planning And Hiv Services At The Community Level In Kenya, Wilson Liambila, Sara Chace Dwyer, Charlotte E. Warren, Aparna Jain, Melsa Lutomia, Jane Loech, Elizabeth Washika

Reproductive Health

Enabling women living with HIV to use contraception effectively can decrease unintended pregnancies and in turn reduce maternal mortality and vertical transmission of HIV. This brief describes the implementation process and intervention tested under the Evidence Project for delivering integrated FP and HIV services at the community level in Kenya. It outlines the implementation steps, best practices, and lessons learned of an intervention that was tested within the existing community health structure. Community health volunteers were trained to offer FP as part of their routine services to women living with HIV, and community health units were prepared to sustain those ...


Contraceptive Use Dynamics In India: A Prospective Cohort Study Of Modern Reversible Contraceptive Users, Arupendra Mozumdar, Elizabeth Tobey, Kumudha Aruldas, Rajib Acharya, Aparna Jain Mar 2020

Contraceptive Use Dynamics In India: A Prospective Cohort Study Of Modern Reversible Contraceptive Users, Arupendra Mozumdar, Elizabeth Tobey, Kumudha Aruldas, Rajib Acharya, Aparna Jain

Reproductive Health

This report highlights the contraceptive use dynamics among 2,699 married women in India who began using one of four reversible contraceptive methods over one year. Women aged 15-49 were enrolled into the study from Odisha and Haryana states within one month of starting their reversible method—interval intrauterine device (IUD), postpartum IUD (PPIUD), injectable contraceptive, or oral contraceptive pill (OCP)—and were interviewed at four time points: at enrollment into the study, and three, six, and 12 months after enrollment. Study findings include the quality of care received at the time of method adoption, experience and management of side ...


Exploring Changes In Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Shifting Norms And Practices Among Communities In Fafan And West Arsi Zones, Ethiopia, Getaneh Mehari, Asabneh Molla, Ayantu Mamo, Dennis Matanda Mar 2020

Exploring Changes In Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Shifting Norms And Practices Among Communities In Fafan And West Arsi Zones, Ethiopia, Getaneh Mehari, Asabneh Molla, Ayantu Mamo, Dennis Matanda

Reproductive Health

Globally, more than 200 million women and girls have undergone FGM/C. More than half of these girls and women live in three high-prevalence countries: Egypt, Ethiopia, and Indonesia. Given the increase in population growth, recent estimates show that the number of girls and women subject to FGM/C will continue to rise in the coming years unless sufficient efforts are undertaken to encourage abandonment of the practice. A descriptive analysis of changes in FGM/C prevalence over time in Ethiopia shows that the percentage of women aged 15–49 years who report undergoing FGM/C has been declining. Despite ...


Understanding Barriers To Clinical Management Of Rape (Cmr) Services Among Survivors Of Rape In Crisis Settings In Borno State, Osasuyi Dirisu Mar 2020

Understanding Barriers To Clinical Management Of Rape (Cmr) Services Among Survivors Of Rape In Crisis Settings In Borno State, Osasuyi Dirisu

Reproductive Health

Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is a global public health concern disproportionately affecting women, with negative consequences for their health, well-being, human rights, and equality. SGBV includes any act perpetrated against an individual that is against that person’s will and is predicated upon gender norms and unequal power relationships. SGBV occurs in crisis settings where vulnerability is increased, and social and legal sanctions are reduced. Internally Displaced Persons are vulnerable to SGBV during times of conflict as well as in post-conflict settings due to resultant losses of socioeconomic opportunities in addition to housing, security, lack of institutional protection, and ...


Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting In Senegal: Is The Practice Declining? Descriptive Analysis Of Demographic And Health Surveys, 2005–2017, Dennis Matanda, Glory Atilola, Zhuzhi Moore, Paul Komba, Lubanzadio Mavatikua, Chibuzor Christopher Nnanatu, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala Feb 2020

Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting In Senegal: Is The Practice Declining? Descriptive Analysis Of Demographic And Health Surveys, 2005–2017, Dennis Matanda, Glory Atilola, Zhuzhi Moore, Paul Komba, Lubanzadio Mavatikua, Chibuzor Christopher Nnanatu, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala

Reproductive Health

To achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is one of the most prominent issues world leaders and governments must address. In Senegal, estimates from the 2017 Senegal Demographic and Health Survey show that almost a quarter of women aged 15–49 have undergone FGM/C, while 14 percent of girls aged 0–14 years have been cut. Given the many interventions that have been implemented in Senegal with the intention of scaling down FGM/C rates, the key question is: To what extent has the practice declined? The aim of this study, as presented in ...


Considerations For Collecting And Documenting Fgm/C Data By Health Care Providers, Dennis Matanda Feb 2020

Considerations For Collecting And Documenting Fgm/C Data By Health Care Providers, Dennis Matanda

Reproductive Health

Data on female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) are rarely collected in health facilities, yet routine collection of facility-based data through other health-seeking visits (e.g., during antenatal care) is considered good medical practice and can be an important source of data. Clinical exams provide an opportunity to identify women and girls who have undergone FGM/C, which is an important step in aiding the prevention of chronic complications that can be difficult to manage later in life. These exams also make it possible to refer those with FGM/C-related complications for specialized treatment. Clinical visits also present an opportunity ...


Understanding Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Abandonment In Egypt, Nada Wahba, Hania El Banhawi, Amira El Ayouti Feb 2020

Understanding Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Abandonment In Egypt, Nada Wahba, Hania El Banhawi, Amira El Ayouti

Reproductive Health

Although the prevalence of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) in Egypt among married women aged 15–49 years is high (92 percent), in the most recent (2014) Demographic and Health Survey, prevalence rates appear to be declining among younger cohorts of girls and women. Support for the discontinuation of the practice is more widespread in younger generations, among females, and among those living in urban areas. Variations in attitudes toward FGM/C by education level and wealth status are also documented. While numerous studies have examined the reasons why people practice FGM/C, few studies have examined the characteristics ...


Assessing The Role Of Law In Reducing The Practise Of Fgm/C In Kenya, Agnes K. Meroka-Mutua, Daniel Mwanga, Charles Owuor Olungah Feb 2020

Assessing The Role Of Law In Reducing The Practise Of Fgm/C In Kenya, Agnes K. Meroka-Mutua, Daniel Mwanga, Charles Owuor Olungah

Reproductive Health

Criminalization is an important aspect of anti-FGM/C policies and programs. In countries where FGM/C is practiced, the enactment of a law prohibiting the practice is an important indicator of progress toward abandonment. Criminalization is often seen as playing an important role in the declining prevalence of FGM/C. However, there is not much research on the link between the enactment of laws that prohibit and criminalize FGM/C and declining prevalence of the practice. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to assess the extent to which people obey the law on FGM/C; to investigate the reasons ...


No To Circumcision’: The Road To Effective Social Marketing Campaigns In Egypt [Arabic], Salma Abou Hussein, Sarah Ghattass Feb 2020

No To Circumcision’: The Road To Effective Social Marketing Campaigns In Egypt [Arabic], Salma Abou Hussein, Sarah Ghattass

Reproductive Health

This study sought to understand how, where, and why social marketing campaigns (SMCs) supporting abandonment of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) are working, and with what impact, to inform design and scale-up of campaigns that can foster new perspectives, expectations, and behaviors.