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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Ocular, Neural, And Cellular Biodistribution Of Multifunctional Antioxidants, Damian Daszynski May 2020

Ocular, Neural, And Cellular Biodistribution Of Multifunctional Antioxidants, Damian Daszynski

Theses & Dissertations

Aging is a complex biological process which stems from a growing imbalance between the regenerative capacity of an organism and endogenous as well as exogenous damaging factors. This imbalance leads to the slow deterioration of individual cells, organs, and eventually the entire organism. The free radical theory of aging combines the evolutionary and mechanistic aspects of aging, postulating that the innate process is caused by deleterious, irreversible, and inevitable changes in biological systems caused by oxidative damage that accumulates over the lifespan. Evidence of this phenomenon is supported by the pathogenesis of age-related diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and ...


The Role Of Central Ace2 And Nrf2 In Sympatho-Excitation: Responses To Central Angiotensin Ii, Anyun Ma May 2020

The Role Of Central Ace2 And Nrf2 In Sympatho-Excitation: Responses To Central Angiotensin Ii, Anyun Ma

Theses & Dissertations

Sympatho-excitation is a key characteristic in cardiovascular diseases such as chronic heart failure (CHF) and primary Hypertension (HTN). Evidence suggests that increased sympathetic tone is closely related to activation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system (RAAS) in the central nervous system. An underlying mechanism for sympatho-excitation is thought to be oxidative stress resulting from Angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT1R) activation. Over the past several decades, pharmacological targeting of components of the RAAS have been used as standard therapy in CHF and HTN. However, additional therapeutic strategies are necessary to control these diseases. Oxidative stress is regulated, in part, by the ...


The Evolving Management Of Aortic Valve Disease: Trends In The Utilization And Cost Of Savr, Tavr, And Medical Therapy, Andrew Goldsweig May 2020

The Evolving Management Of Aortic Valve Disease: Trends In The Utilization And Cost Of Savr, Tavr, And Medical Therapy, Andrew Goldsweig

Theses & Dissertations

Aortic stenosis (AS) and regurgitation (AR) may be treated with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), transcatheter AVR (TAVR), or medical therapy (MT). Data are lacking regarding usage and cost of SAVR, TAVR, and MT for patients hospitalized with aortic valve disease. From the Nationwide Readmissions Database, we determined utilization and cost trends for SAVR, TAVR, and MT in patients with aortic valve disease admitted 2012-2016 for valve replacement, heart failure, unstable angina, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, or syncope. From 2012 through 2016, there was a 48.1% increase in the number of patients hospitalized for aortic valve disease annually. Overall, 19 ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Manganese Porphyrin Compounds In The Prevention Of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis, Shashank Shrishrimal May 2020

Molecular Mechanisms Of Manganese Porphyrin Compounds In The Prevention Of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis, Shashank Shrishrimal

Theses & Dissertations

Radiation therapy is frequently used as a treatment strategy for prostate cancer patients, which leads to several side effects due to damage to health tissue around the tumor and the development of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). Manganese (III) meso-tetrakis (N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl) porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP or T2E or BMX-010) and other similar manganese porphyrin compounds that scavenge superoxide molecules have been demonstrated to be effective radioprotectors and prevent the development of RIF. However, understanding of the radioprotective molecular pathway associated with these compounds remains limited. Recent RNA-sequencing data from our laboratory revealed that MnTE-2-PyP treatment may activate the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 ...


Characteristics Of Tobacco Retailers And Proximity To Schools In A Midwest City, Sierra N. Garth May 2020

Characteristics Of Tobacco Retailers And Proximity To Schools In A Midwest City, Sierra N. Garth

Capstone Experience

This descriptive epidemiology project provides an overview of the number, characteristics, and proximity of retailers that sell tobacco and vaping products to middle and high schools. ArcGIS was used to map the proximity of these retailers to public and private middle and high schools in Lincoln, Nebraska. Mapping the retailers and schools allowed us to explore the potential exposures to these products teens experience on a daily basis.


Surgical Care Perspectives: Exploring Barriers And Facilitators To Surgery In Rural Nebraska, Sarah Stanislav May 2020

Surgical Care Perspectives: Exploring Barriers And Facilitators To Surgery In Rural Nebraska, Sarah Stanislav

Capstone Experience

Background: Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is associated with less pain, faster recovery, and lower complication rates. Despite being the standard of care, it remains underutilized in rural Nebraska. Surgeon shortages and limited studies describing patient and provider factors influencing treatment gaps contribute to unnecessary complications and healthcare expenditure. Our study aimed to understand rural surgical care barriers and facilitators encountered by patients, providers, and stakeholders in Nebraska. Methods: This exploratory mixed methods study involved 17 semi-structured interviews using a snowball sampling of eligible participants affiliated with an MIS Advisory Committee. Two coders analyzed data using NVivo12. A follow-up review of ...


Medical-Legal Partnerships: Assessment Of Mental Health & Substance Abuse Patients And Social/Legal Needs, Fung J. Liu May 2020

Medical-Legal Partnerships: Assessment Of Mental Health & Substance Abuse Patients And Social/Legal Needs, Fung J. Liu

Capstone Experience

A medical-legal partnership (MLP) is a model which brings together health and legal services in the form of a multidisciplinary team that works to address medical and legal issues. Currently, Legal Aid of Nebraska is partnering with Bluestem Health, a local federally qualified health center (FQHC) located in Lincoln, Nebraska, to identify legal issues and provide civil legal aid services through a screening and referral process. The purpose of this capstone project was to assess the characteristics and determine the types of social/legal needs of FQHC patients referred to Legal Aid of Nebraska. Data collected was utilized to assess ...


Comprehensive Review Of Telehealth Law And Literature: Implications For Future Policy And Patients, Morgan Kristensen May 2020

Comprehensive Review Of Telehealth Law And Literature: Implications For Future Policy And Patients, Morgan Kristensen

Capstone Experience

PURPOSE: The purpose of this Capstone is to determine whether telehealth is effective at producing positive health outcomes, and what the current status of state telehealth law is in the United States and how can the law be changed to improve the implementation and use of telehealth services. METHODS: A literature review of PubMed was used to find articles relating to telehealth and its effectiveness. A law review of each state’s telehealth and telemedicine laws was conducted using Westlaw. RESULTS: The literature review uncovered that telehealth has the potential to produce positive health outcomes for a variety of conditions ...


Planning A Culturally And Linguistically Appropriate Obesity Intervention For Hispanic/Latino Children Living In Rural Nebraska, Ada V. Luna May 2020

Planning A Culturally And Linguistically Appropriate Obesity Intervention For Hispanic/Latino Children Living In Rural Nebraska, Ada V. Luna

Capstone Experience

Childhood obesity is a public health concern in the U.S; however, for the Hispanic/Latino community these concerns have grown to epic proportions. In Nebraska, the rate of childhood obesity is 25.1%; among Hispanic / Latinos students, the obesity rate is 30.9%. Unfortunately, specific Nebraska obesity rates by race and ethnicity are limited among rural communities, and programs that can effectively address this problem in the Hispanic / Latino community are limited or non-existent. Consequently, disparities between urban and rural communities exist. The purpose of this capstone project is to design a culturally and linguistically oriented intervention to address ...


Program Evaluation: Wellness For Life, Patricia Wagner May 2020

Program Evaluation: Wellness For Life, Patricia Wagner

Capstone Experience

Specific Aim: The specific aim of this program evaluation is to assess the effectiveness of the employee wellness program (Wellness for Life program) at Community Hospital (CH) in McCook, Nebraska through the analysis of biometric data, personal health assessment results, and survey results.

Significance: The evaluation of this program is important to ensure CH is aiding their employees so they might lead healthy lives at a time when the health of our country is incredibly poor.

Background: CH is a small critical access hospital that employs 323 people in McCook, Nebraska. In 2013 CH decided to offer a formal employee ...


A Statewide Needs Assessment Of Perspectives On Training And Certification Of Community Health Workers In Nebraska, Jessica Ern May 2020

A Statewide Needs Assessment Of Perspectives On Training And Certification Of Community Health Workers In Nebraska, Jessica Ern

Capstone Experience

INTRODUCTION: Community Health Workers (CHWs) are a crucial growing component of the health care field in the U.S. According to the US Bureau of Statistics (2018), the CHW workforce is expected to grow 38% in the next ten years. While research has repeatedly shown the success of CHW-led programs and the financial benefits of CHWs, little work has been done to evaluate the training and certification preferences of CHWs in Nebraska. This project aimed to gather and analyze qualitative and quantitative data through an exploratory sequential mixed-methods approach to provide policy recommendations regarding the future training and potential certification ...


The Wellbeing Partners’ Use Of The School Health Index To Identify Needs In Omaha Public Schools: A Process Evaluation, Sophia A. Quintero May 2020

The Wellbeing Partners’ Use Of The School Health Index To Identify Needs In Omaha Public Schools: A Process Evaluation, Sophia A. Quintero

Capstone Experience

The School Health Index tool from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention has been a useful tool to identify needs and areas of improvement for schools. This tool is most effective when used in collaboration with school staff and assistance from an outside facilitator. The purpose of this evaluation was to determine the administration efficiency of the School Health Index in select schools throughout the Omaha Public School (OPS) district by The Wellbeing Partners. A process evaluation was conducted to: 1) assess the relationship between the schools’ wellness champions at five Omaha Public School (OPS) elementary schools and The ...


Effect Of Cigarette Smoking On Cd4 Count And Viral Load Among Hiv Patients Attending Treatment At Nebraska Medicine, Chacha Josiah Mwita May 2020

Effect Of Cigarette Smoking On Cd4 Count And Viral Load Among Hiv Patients Attending Treatment At Nebraska Medicine, Chacha Josiah Mwita

Capstone Experience

Background

Smoking is known to have a negative impact on both morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV (PLHIV). However, there is inconsistent information about the role of smoking on markers of HIV disease progression (CD4 count and HIV viral load). This study examined the effects of cigarette smoking on markers of HIV disease progression among PLHIV at Nebraska Medicine.

Methods

A retrospective cohort study was conducted utilizing electronic health information of 604 PLHIV who attended treatment at Nebraska Medicine between 2012 and 2020. Multiple linear regression was used to model the effects of smoking on the mean change ...


Closing The Loop: Pilot Evaluation Of Referral Navigator At Oneworld Community Health Centers, Oliver Ramirez-Gutierrez May 2020

Closing The Loop: Pilot Evaluation Of Referral Navigator At Oneworld Community Health Centers, Oliver Ramirez-Gutierrez

Capstone Experience

Background. Low-income persons are subject to barriers to accessing health care and the additional complexity of the referral process, specifically for those receiving assistance from indigent care programs, contributes to those barriers. The requirements for patients receiving social assistance from indigent care programs leads to increased waiting time to be seen by specialists and contributes to health disparities.

Aim. Through a partnership with OneWorld Community Health Centers this project seeks to understand the efficacy of the implementation of a “referral navigator” at OneWorld and make recommendations to enhance the process. The proposed navigator is aimed to decrease the waiting time ...


Barriers And Promoters Of Retention Of Direct Care Workers In Community Mental Health Agencies, Shinobu Watanabe-Galloway, Brent Khan, Mogens (Bill) Baerentzen, Zaeema Naveed Feb 2020

Barriers And Promoters Of Retention Of Direct Care Workers In Community Mental Health Agencies, Shinobu Watanabe-Galloway, Brent Khan, Mogens (Bill) Baerentzen, Zaeema Naveed

Reports: Behavioral Health Education Center of Nebraska

Demand for behavioral health direct-care providers is increasing due to shortage of licensed behavioral health providers. However, high turnover has been reported among them with limited exploratory research. The present study aimed to identify a wide variety of barriers and promoters of retention and strategies to retain direct care workers. An online, self-administered survey designed to measure demographics, job satisfaction, perceived importance of various job aspects, intention to leave, perceived stress and sources of stress was administered among 179 direct care workers from four agencies. Multiple logistic regression exhibited higher odds of intending to leave for those who had higher ...


The Use Of Immersive 360 Videos To Induce Different Strategies Of Postural Control, Chenfan Gui, Jung Hung Chien, Ka-Chun Siu Feb 2020

The Use Of Immersive 360 Videos To Induce Different Strategies Of Postural Control, Chenfan Gui, Jung Hung Chien, Ka-Chun Siu

Posters and Presentations: Physical Therapy

Purpose/Hypothesis: Visual perception is a decision-making process of the central nervous system based on recognitions of relative distances and velocities between objects. With the input from visual perception, an appropriate postural control is applied to maintain balance. Previous studies on how visual perception affects the postural control were only in one direction. Therefore, this study used immersive 360° videos to identify how visual perception affects the postural control in multiple directions. We hypothesized that video with more turns could induce more ML body sway, and video with higher elevation could induce more AP body sway. Number of Subjects: Nineteen ...


The Effect Of Inclination On Lower Extremity Inter-Joint Coordination During Treadmill Walking, Jiani Lu, Jung Hung Chien, Ka-Chun Siu Feb 2020

The Effect Of Inclination On Lower Extremity Inter-Joint Coordination During Treadmill Walking, Jiani Lu, Jung Hung Chien, Ka-Chun Siu

Posters and Presentations: Physical Therapy

Purpose/Hypothesis: Inclined walking is a challenging daily task in comparison with level walking. It requires specific control from central nervous system and exhibits increases in muscle activities and alternations of joint kinematics in lower extremities. However, the knowledge of the inclination effect on the inter-joint coordination is limited. Previous studies have shown the benefits of investigating the inter-joint coordination in patients with Parkinson’s disease, low back pain and hemiplegic gait. This study aimed to evaluate such coordination in healthy young adults during inclined walking.

Number of Subjects: 19 healthy young adults (13 females, 6 males; aged 22 – 29 ...


Declined Treadmill Walking Eliminates Asymmetric Walking Pattern In Healthy Young Adults, Yuhang Zhang, Ka-Chun Siu, Jung Hung Chien Feb 2020

Declined Treadmill Walking Eliminates Asymmetric Walking Pattern In Healthy Young Adults, Yuhang Zhang, Ka-Chun Siu, Jung Hung Chien

Posters and Presentations: Physical Therapy

Background: Human locomotion is flexible in any environment, and this fact has been proven when walking on different speeds in each leg on the split-belt treadmill. However, during the split-belt walking, participant’s locomotor behaviors are passively adopted by a motor-driven treadmill. Therefore, how humans actively adjust the flexibility of locomotion is still limited by using the split-belt treadmill. Our current study investigated the flexibility of locomotion by using ankle weight on the dominant leg to induce asymmetric walking pattern when walking on a regular treadmill. We hypothesized that the level of active control would increase to adapt the asymmetric ...


Designing A Course To Acculturate Professional Behaviors Of International Students In Physical Therapy Education, Nicole M. Sleddens, Kathleen G. Volkman, Betsy J. Becker, Ka-Chun Siu, Michael Smith, Joseph F. Norman Feb 2020

Designing A Course To Acculturate Professional Behaviors Of International Students In Physical Therapy Education, Nicole M. Sleddens, Kathleen G. Volkman, Betsy J. Becker, Ka-Chun Siu, Michael Smith, Joseph F. Norman

Posters and Presentations: Physical Therapy

The University of Nebraska Medical Center DPT program has a Global Health Opportunity track in which international students work on a master’s degree and complete a DPT. The current students are from China and meet all requirements of the DPT and graduate admissions, including a high proficiency in English (e.g. TOEFL ³ 90). All students have undergraduate degrees in medicine, rehabilitation therapy or medical sciences from universities in China. While these students have performed well in the didactic DPT curriculum, we noted a trend in professional interactions and communication which interfered with clinical performance and required remediation. To ...


Reaching The Summit: From Exposure To Immersion In Quality Improvement In Physical Therapy Education, Tami Struessel, Nicole M. Sleddens, Katherine J. Jones Feb 2020

Reaching The Summit: From Exposure To Immersion In Quality Improvement In Physical Therapy Education, Tami Struessel, Nicole M. Sleddens, Katherine J. Jones

Posters and Presentations: Physical Therapy

Following the release of its 2001 report, Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened a summit of 150 interprofessional healthcare educators to reform health professions education. As a result, in 2002, the IOM established an overarching vision to achieve care that is safe, effective, patient-centered, timely efficient, and equitable: “All health professionals should be educated to deliver patient-centered care as members of an interdisciplinary team, emphasizing evidence-based practice, quality improvement approaches, and informatics.” Physical Therapy educators have expanded curricula to teach three of these five competencies. We routinely teach ...


Age-Related Visual Dynamics In Hiv-Infected Adults With Cognitive Impairment., Boman R. Groff, Alex I. Wiesman, Michael T. Rezich, Jennifer O'Neill, Kevin R. Robertson, Howard S. Fox, Susan Swindells, Tony W. Wilson Jan 2020

Age-Related Visual Dynamics In Hiv-Infected Adults With Cognitive Impairment., Boman R. Groff, Alex I. Wiesman, Michael T. Rezich, Jennifer O'Neill, Kevin R. Robertson, Howard S. Fox, Susan Swindells, Tony W. Wilson

Journal Articles: Internal Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether aging differentially affects neural activity serving visuospatial processing in a large functional neuroimaging study of HIV-infected participants and to determine whether such aging effects are attributable to differences in the duration of HIV infection.

METHODS: A total of 170 participants, including 93 uninfected controls and 77 HIV-infected participants, underwent neuropsychological assessment followed by neuroimaging with magnetoencephalography (MEG). Time-frequency analysis of the MEG data followed by advanced image reconstruction of neural oscillatory activity and whole-brain statistical analyses were used to examine interactions between age, HIV infection, and cognitive status. Post hoc testing for a mediation effect of ...


Mechanistic And Functional Shades Of Mucins And Associated Glycans In Colon Cancer, Ramesh Pothuraju, Shiv Ram Krishn, Shailendra K. Gautam, Priya Pai, Koelina Ganguly, Sanjib Chaudhary, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Sukhwinder Kaur, Surinder K. Batra Jan 2020

Mechanistic And Functional Shades Of Mucins And Associated Glycans In Colon Cancer, Ramesh Pothuraju, Shiv Ram Krishn, Shailendra K. Gautam, Priya Pai, Koelina Ganguly, Sanjib Chaudhary, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Sukhwinder Kaur, Surinder K. Batra

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Mucus serves as the chief protective barrier against pathogenic and mechanical insults in respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts. Altered mucin expression, the major component of mucus, in conjunction with differential glycosylation has been strongly associated with both benign and malignant pathologies of colon. Mucins and their associated glycans arbitrate their impact sterically as well as mechanically by altering molecular and microbial spectrum during pathogenesis. Mucin expression in normal and pathological conditions is regulated by nonspecific (dietary factors and gut microbiota) and specific (epigenetic and transcriptional) modulators. Further, recent studies highlight the impact of altering mucin glycome (cancer-associated carbohydrate antigens including ...


Molecular Implications Of Muc5ac-Cd44 Axis In Colorectal Cancer Progression And Chemoresistance, Ramesh Pothuraju, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Shiv Ram Krishn, Sanjib Chaudhary, Rama Krishna Nimmakayala, Jawed A. Siddiqui, Koelina Ganguly, Imayavaramban Lakshmanan, Jesse L. Cox, Kavita Mallya, Sukhwinder Kaur, Surinder K. Batra Jan 2020

Molecular Implications Of Muc5ac-Cd44 Axis In Colorectal Cancer Progression And Chemoresistance, Ramesh Pothuraju, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Shiv Ram Krishn, Sanjib Chaudhary, Rama Krishna Nimmakayala, Jawed A. Siddiqui, Koelina Ganguly, Imayavaramban Lakshmanan, Jesse L. Cox, Kavita Mallya, Sukhwinder Kaur, Surinder K. Batra

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

BACKGROUND: Differential expression of mucins has been associated with several cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). In normal physiological conditions, secretory mucin MUC5AC is not expressed in the colonic mucosa, whereas its aberrant expression is observed during development of colon cancer and its precursor lesions. To date, the molecular mechanism of MUC5AC in CRC progression and drug resistance remains obscure.

METHODS: MUC5AC expression was determined in colon tissue microarray by immunohistochemistry. A RNA interference and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated system was used to knockdown/knockout the MUC5AC in CRC cell lines to delineate its role in CRC tumorigenesis using in vitro functional assays ...


Heightened Levels Of Antimicrobial Response Factors In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Prathapan Ayyappan, Robert Z. Harms, Jennifer A. Seifert, Elizabeth A. Bemis, Marie L. Feser, Kevin D. Deane, M Kristen Demoruelle, Ted R. Mikuls, V Michael Holers, Nora Sarvetnick Jan 2020

Heightened Levels Of Antimicrobial Response Factors In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Prathapan Ayyappan, Robert Z. Harms, Jennifer A. Seifert, Elizabeth A. Bemis, Marie L. Feser, Kevin D. Deane, M Kristen Demoruelle, Ted R. Mikuls, V Michael Holers, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Surgery

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic progressive autoimmune disease leading to considerable disability over time. The disease can be characterized by the presence of multiple autoantibodies in the serum and synovial fluid. Microbial dysbiosis is proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of RA. Increased systemic bacterial exposure leads to elevated levels of antimicrobial response factors (ARFs) in the circulation. In the present study, we tested whether RA patients have increased levels of ARFs by analyzing the levels of multiple ARFs in serum from RA patients and healthy age and sex-matched controls. The levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14), lysozyme ...


Stochastic Expression Of Sae-Dependent Virulence Genes During Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Development Is Dependent On Saes, Elizabeth A. Delmain, Derek E. Moormeier, Jennifer L. Endres, Rebecca E. Hodges, Marat R. Sadykov, Alexander R. Horswill, Kenneth W. Bayles Jan 2020

Stochastic Expression Of Sae-Dependent Virulence Genes During Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Development Is Dependent On Saes, Elizabeth A. Delmain, Derek E. Moormeier, Jennifer L. Endres, Rebecca E. Hodges, Marat R. Sadykov, Alexander R. Horswill, Kenneth W. Bayles

Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology

The intricate process of biofilm formation in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus involves distinct stages during which a complex mixture of matrix molecules is produced and modified throughout the developmental cycle. Early in biofilm development, a subpopulation of cells detaches from its substrate in an event termed “exodus” that is mediated by SaePQRS-dependent stochastic expression of a secreted staphylococcal nuclease, which degrades extracellular DNA within the matrix, causing the release of cells and subsequently allowing for the formation of metabolically heterogenous microcolonies. Since the SaePQRS regulatory system is involved in the transcriptional control of multiple S. aureus virulence factors, the ...


Fluorescent Sensor Arrays Can Predict And Quantify The Composition Of Multicomponent Bacterial Samples, Denis Svechkarev, Marat Sadykov, Lucas J. Houser, Kenneth W. Bayles, Aaron M. Mohs Jan 2020

Fluorescent Sensor Arrays Can Predict And Quantify The Composition Of Multicomponent Bacterial Samples, Denis Svechkarev, Marat Sadykov, Lucas J. Houser, Kenneth W. Bayles, Aaron M. Mohs

Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology

Fast and reliable identification of infectious disease agents is among the most important challenges for the healthcare system. The discrimination of individual components of mixed infections represents a particularly difficult task. In the current study we further expand the functionality of a ratiometric sensor array technology based on small-molecule environmentally-sensitive organic dyes, which can be successfully applied for the analysis of mixed bacterial samples. Using pattern recognition methods and data from pure bacterial species, we demonstrate that this approach can be used to quantify the composition of mixtures, as well as to predict their components with the accuracy of ~80 ...


Tlr2 And Caspase-1 Signaling Are Critical For Bacterial Containment But Not Clearance During Craniotomy-Associated Biofilm Infection, Amy L. Aldrich, Cortney E. Heim, Wen Shi, Rachel W. Fallet, Bin Duan, Tammy Kielian Jan 2020

Tlr2 And Caspase-1 Signaling Are Critical For Bacterial Containment But Not Clearance During Craniotomy-Associated Biofilm Infection, Amy L. Aldrich, Cortney E. Heim, Wen Shi, Rachel W. Fallet, Bin Duan, Tammy Kielian

Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology

BACKGROUND: A craniotomy is required to access the brain for tumor resection or epilepsy treatment, and despite precautionary measures, infectious complications occur at a frequency of 1-3%. Approximately half of craniotomy infections are caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) that forms a biofilm on the bone flap, which is recalcitrant to antibiotics. Our prior work in a mouse model of S. aureus craniotomy infection revealed a critical role for myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in bacterial containment and pro-inflammatory mediator production. Since numerous receptors utilize MyD88 as a signaling adaptor, the current study examined the importance of Toll-like receptor 2 ...


Monocyte Metabolic Reprogramming Promotes Pro-Inflammatory Activity And Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Clearance, Kelsey J. Yamada, Cortney E. Heim, Xinyuan Xi, Kuldeep S. Attri, Dezhen Wang, Wenting Zhang, Pankaj K. Singh, Tatiana K. Bronich, Tammy Kielian Jan 2020

Monocyte Metabolic Reprogramming Promotes Pro-Inflammatory Activity And Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Clearance, Kelsey J. Yamada, Cortney E. Heim, Xinyuan Xi, Kuldeep S. Attri, Dezhen Wang, Wenting Zhang, Pankaj K. Singh, Tatiana K. Bronich, Tammy Kielian

Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology

Biofilm-associated prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) cause significant morbidity due to their recalcitrance to immune-mediated clearance and antibiotics, with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) among the most prevalent pathogens. We previously demonstrated that S. aureus biofilm-associated monocytes are polarized to an anti-inflammatory phenotype and the adoptive transfer of pro-inflammatory macrophages attenuated biofilm burden, highlighting the critical role of monocyte/macrophage inflammatory status in dictating biofilm persistence. The inflammatory properties of leukocytes are linked to their metabolic state, and here we demonstrate that biofilm-associated monocytes exhibit a metabolic bias favoring oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) and less aerobic glycolysis to facilitate their anti-inflammatory activity and ...


An Integrated Computational And Experimental Study To Investigate Staphylococcus Aureus Metabolism, Mohammad Mazharul Islam, Vinai Chittezham Thomas, Matthew Van Beek, Jong-Sam Ahn, Abdulelah A. Alqarzaee, Chunyi Zhou, Paul D. Fey, Kenneth W. Bayles, Rajib Saha Jan 2020

An Integrated Computational And Experimental Study To Investigate Staphylococcus Aureus Metabolism, Mohammad Mazharul Islam, Vinai Chittezham Thomas, Matthew Van Beek, Jong-Sam Ahn, Abdulelah A. Alqarzaee, Chunyi Zhou, Paul D. Fey, Kenneth W. Bayles, Rajib Saha

Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology

Staphylococcus aureus is a metabolically versatile pathogen that colonizes nearly all organs of the human body. A detailed and comprehensive knowledge of staphylococcal metabolism is essential to understand its pathogenesis. To this end, we have reconstructed and experimentally validated an updated and enhanced genome-scale metabolic model of S. aureus USA300_FPR3757. The model combined genome annotation data, reaction stoichiometry, and regulation information from biochemical databases and previous strain-specific models. Reactions in the model were checked and fixed to ensure chemical balance and thermodynamic consistency. To further refine the model, growth assessment of 1920 nonessential mutants from the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library ...


Nanoscale Interaction Of Recg With Mobile Fork Dna, Zhiqiang Sun, Yaqing Wang, Piero R. Bianco, Yuri L. Lyubchenko Jan 2020

Nanoscale Interaction Of Recg With Mobile Fork Dna, Zhiqiang Sun, Yaqing Wang, Piero R. Bianco, Yuri L. Lyubchenko

Journal Articles: Pharmaceutical Sciences

RecG DNA helicase is a guardian of the bacterial genome where it dominates stalled DNA replication fork rescue. The single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) is involved in this process and promotes the binding of RecG to stalled replication forks. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to investigate the interaction of RecG and SSB on a mobile fork substrate capable of being regressed. In the absence of proteins, the fork undergoes spontaneous dynamics between two states, defined by the length of the DNA complementarity at the fork. The binding of SSB does not affect these dynamics as it binds to single-stranded ...