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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Social-Ecological And Protective Factor Approach To Managing Parental Incarceration, Jacquelyn Harris Jun 2020

Social-Ecological And Protective Factor Approach To Managing Parental Incarceration, Jacquelyn Harris

Dissertations

Mass imprisonment does not only impact the incarcerated individual; it also affects approximately five million children in the United States. Researchers identified and compare the impact of parental incarceration on child development. They acknowledged the protective factors across the lifecycle from a social-ecological perspective and specifically related to parental incarceration. The comprehensive literature review inspired an innovative model, the social-ecological and protective factor approach to managing parental incarceration. The primary goal of this model is to combat the detrimental effects of parental incarceration by identifying protective factors across the lifecycle and throughout the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem. This model is ...


The Impact Of Childhood Music Experience On Speech Perception And Processing: A Systematic Review, Erika Lanham Jun 2020

The Impact Of Childhood Music Experience On Speech Perception And Processing: A Systematic Review, Erika Lanham

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a systematic review of the literature that addresses the impact of childhood musical experience on speech perception and processing abilities. Specifically, this review assessed how musical training impacted scores on both objective and behavioral tests of speech perception/processing in children. This analysis contributes to a better understanding of the effects of individual musical experience in childhood on our ability to perceive and process speech in a variety of listening conditions. This analysis also determined the clinical implications of such findings.

Methods: A comprehensive search utilizing the Web of Science database ...


The Wellbeing Partners’ Use Of The School Health Index To Identify Needs In Omaha Public Schools: A Process Evaluation, Sophia A. Quintero May 2020

The Wellbeing Partners’ Use Of The School Health Index To Identify Needs In Omaha Public Schools: A Process Evaluation, Sophia A. Quintero

Capstone Experience

The School Health Index tool from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention has been a useful tool to identify needs and areas of improvement for schools. This tool is most effective when used in collaboration with school staff and assistance from an outside facilitator. The purpose of this evaluation was to determine the administration efficiency of the School Health Index in select schools throughout the Omaha Public School (OPS) district by The Wellbeing Partners. A process evaluation was conducted to: 1) assess the relationship between the schools’ wellness champions at five Omaha Public School (OPS) elementary schools and The ...


Demographic Predictors Of Adult Behaviors In The Pediatric Postoperative Environment, Natasha H. Hikita, Amber Osorno, Carlie Taurosa, Michelle A. Fortier, Zeev N. Kain, Brooke N. Jenkins May 2020

Demographic Predictors Of Adult Behaviors In The Pediatric Postoperative Environment, Natasha H. Hikita, Amber Osorno, Carlie Taurosa, Michelle A. Fortier, Zeev N. Kain, Brooke N. Jenkins

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Over 85% of children experience postoperative pain. If poorly treated, pediatric postoperative pain may lead to various negative health outcomes. Adult behaviors may be associated with child experiences in the postoperative environment. For example, adult behaviors such as distraction, humor, and coping advice divert a child’s attention away from their pain and thus, may significantly reduce child postoperative distress. In contrast, adult behaviors such as empathy, reassurance, and apology direct a child’s attention towards their pain which may increase a child’s overall postoperative distress. Moreover, patient demographic factors, like child ethnicity, may significantly alter the frequency of ...


How Positive And Negative Affect Relate To Postoperative Pain In Children Undergoing Surgery, Stephanie Munduruca, Ryan Johnson May 2020

How Positive And Negative Affect Relate To Postoperative Pain In Children Undergoing Surgery, Stephanie Munduruca, Ryan Johnson

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Positive affect has been shown to be associated with lower levels of postoperative pain, while negative affect is associated with higher levels of pain. More recent research asks if subscales of positive affect such as calm, well-being, and vigor could be related to pain experiences. Studies of postoperative pain in children relating to positive and negative affect are limited, with none examining the connection between positive affect subscales and negative affect subscales (anger, anxiety, and depression) and children’s pain. This study addresses that gap by uncovering the relationships between the aforementioned subscales to postoperative pain in children. This study ...


Screen Time Reduction, Karmen L. Serda Mrs. Apr 2020

Screen Time Reduction, Karmen L. Serda Mrs.

MSN Capstone Projects

Children and adolescents are spending an alarming amount of time engaging in screen time (ST) activities on mobile devices, computers, televisions (TV), and video games; activities include, but are not limited to, watching shows or movies, playing video games, searching the internet, texting, or using social media. This excessive ST is contributing to a vast array of serious childhood complications and health concerns, of which are rarely discussed, acknowledged, or remedied.

The proposed implementation of a structured 3-day elementary school based screen time reduction program (STRP) that would target not only the children and adolescents, but their parents and/or ...


Holistic Home Modification: Developing A Client-Centered Approach To Home Assessments And Quality Of Life Measures, Maggie Little Apr 2020

Holistic Home Modification: Developing A Client-Centered Approach To Home Assessments And Quality Of Life Measures, Maggie Little

OTD Capstone Projects

This project is an appraisal of home assessments and quality of life measures in order to find the best fit for pediatric populations and their caregivers.


Mitral Valve Replacement In Dilated Cardiomyopathy: A Valid Option?, Mohamed H. Mashali, Nashwa Badawi, Mohammed O. Galal Apr 2020

Mitral Valve Replacement In Dilated Cardiomyopathy: A Valid Option?, Mohamed H. Mashali, Nashwa Badawi, Mohammed O. Galal

Journal of the Saudi Heart Association

Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular dilation and dysfunction. The association with significant mitral regurgitation worsens the prognosis. Case report: A 2-year-old girl presented withDCMand severe mitral regurgitation. She had a history of viral myocarditis at the age of 4 months, necessitating recurrent hospital admissions for management of intractable heart failure, pneumonia, and failure to thrive. The decision was taken to proceed for mitral valve surgery, which ended with mitral valve replacement. Over 3 years of follow-up after surgery, there was significant improvement in her weight gain and she improved clinically. There were still recurrent admissions, but ...


Prevent The Preventable: Children With Hypertension Due To High-Sodium Diets., Shana M. Cobb Apr 2020

Prevent The Preventable: Children With Hypertension Due To High-Sodium Diets., Shana M. Cobb

MSN Capstone Projects

Heart disease in the United States is the number one cause of death and costs $317 billion annually (Centers for Disease Control, [CDCa], 2018). Heart disease is usually considered an adult disease, but today we are finding that more children are developing symptoms of high blood pressure and sodium consumption is the link (Webb, 2017). Health care spending for hypertension is at an all-time high and is expected to triple over the next 20 years (Bussenius, Zeck, Williams, & Haynes-Ferere, 2018). The American Heart Association (AHA) states if sodium consumption was decreased to around 1,500 milligrams (mg) a day, blood ...


Increasing Participation In Children And Adults With Disabilities At Christ Presbyterian Church, Taylor Boggus Apr 2020

Increasing Participation In Children And Adults With Disabilities At Christ Presbyterian Church, Taylor Boggus

OTD Capstone Projects

In partnering with Christ Presbyterian Church’s Special Needs Ministry for my doctoral capstone project, my aim was to increase participation in the community for children and adults with disabilities. I first created a family needs questionnaire to enable the special needs ministry to identify the needs of the families they serve. I created a resource guide for the ministry to disseminate to their families that includes local resources that serve children and adults with disabilities, including information about the services each resource provides and their contact information. Finally, I created a job skills curriculum to be used in the ...


Effectiveness Of An Intensive Drowning Prevention Program And Skills Retention By Children With And Without Disabilities, Anna L. Forde Otd, Otr/L, Ctrs, Emily A. Zeman Otd, Ms, Otr/L, Lynn Clarke Apr 2020

Effectiveness Of An Intensive Drowning Prevention Program And Skills Retention By Children With And Without Disabilities, Anna L. Forde Otd, Otr/L, Ctrs, Emily A. Zeman Otd, Ms, Otr/L, Lynn Clarke

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

This study examined the effectiveness of a drowning prevention program and the retention of swimming and water safety skills for 3-14 year-old children with and without disabilities. The intensive program, SWIM Central, used a top-down approach to teach 6 swimming and water safety skills during 10, 30-minute sessions. A post-participation parent survey results suggested that children ages 3-14 with and without disabilities who had previously participated in SWIM Central retained swimming and water safety skills to a similar degree. The current swim skill assessments showed that there was not an overall difference in swim skill performance in the presence of ...


Covid-19 In The Pediatric Population, Patricia A. Mcquilkin Apr 2020

Covid-19 In The Pediatric Population, Patricia A. Mcquilkin

PEER Liberia Project

This presentation provides an overview of a recent study and its implications pertaining to COVID-19 for pediatric patients.


Musical Shoes Shine A New Light On The Clinical World, Emma Madonna Apr 2020

Musical Shoes Shine A New Light On The Clinical World, Emma Madonna

Transformations: Presentation Slides

This study focused on the application of a unique technology designed originally to supply biofeedback to dancers, but in this case was used to assist a child learning to walk while battling the effects of Cerebral Palsy. The music shoes, called “Electroskip”, utilize a biofeedback system that generates different sounds/beats/songs when an individual is walking and placing pressure on their heel or toe. The study lasted six weeks with 2 sessions per week. While the Electroskip technology was worn for each session, it was only activated every other session. Data indicated that at the end of the study ...


Trauma-Informed Care In A School Setting: Occupational Therapy Interventions To Promote Emotional Regulation, Sarah Blaise, Ots, Sara Cohen, Ots, Maria Marcum, Ots Apr 2020

Trauma-Informed Care In A School Setting: Occupational Therapy Interventions To Promote Emotional Regulation, Sarah Blaise, Ots, Sara Cohen, Ots, Maria Marcum, Ots

Collaborative Research and Evidence shared Among Therapists and Educators (CREATE Day)

PICO Question

  • What trauma-informed occupational therapy interventions improve emotional regulation and participation in school-based tasks for students?

Objectives

  • Define trauma and note its prevalence among school-aged children
  • Describe principles of Trauma-Informed Care and its importance in a school setting.
  • Describe current research to determine best practice using a Trauma-Informed Care (TIC) approach in schools for OT practitioners


Neighborhoods And Mental Health: Understanding The Social, Environmental And Structural Factors To Better Support Our Youth And Communities, Meghan Murtagh Apr 2020

Neighborhoods And Mental Health: Understanding The Social, Environmental And Structural Factors To Better Support Our Youth And Communities, Meghan Murtagh

Community Engagement Student Work

The social, structural and environmental characteristics of neighborhoods can have a significant impact on the social, emotional, behavioral and cognitive development of children and adolescents. The Center for Disease Control reports every 1 out of 5 children (22%) living below 100% of the federal poverty level have a mental, behavioral and/or developmental disorder (CDC, 2019). Through the utilization of ecological frameworks and a “place” based framework called The Social Determinates of Health, research was conducted to examine the link between neighborhoods and health outcomes in children and adolescents. These findings were then shared through a workshop with the target ...


Mainstreaming Nutrition Services: Stabilization Centers And Outpatient Therapeutic Program Centers, Ashar Muhammad Malik Mar 2020

Mainstreaming Nutrition Services: Stabilization Centers And Outpatient Therapeutic Program Centers, Ashar Muhammad Malik

Community Health Sciences

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Speech Cues In French-Speaking Children With Dysarthria, Erika S. Levy, Gemma Moya-Galé, Younghwa Michelle Chang, Luca Campanelli, Andrea A. N. Macleod, Sergio Escorial, Christelle Maillart Feb 2020

Effects Of Speech Cues In French-Speaking Children With Dysarthria, Erika S. Levy, Gemma Moya-Galé, Younghwa Michelle Chang, Luca Campanelli, Andrea A. N. Macleod, Sergio Escorial, Christelle Maillart

Publications and Research

Background: Articulatory excursion and vocal intensity are reduced in many children with dysarthria due to cerebral palsy (CP), contributing to the children’s intelligibility deficits and negatively affecting their social participation. However, the effects of speech-treatment strategies for improving intelligibility in this population are understudied, especially for children who speak languages other than English. In a cueing study on English-speaking children with dysarthria, acoustic variables and intelligibility improved when the children were provided with cues aimed to increase articulatory excursion and vocal intensity. While French is among the top 20 most spoken languages in the world, dysarthria and its management ...


Famille+: A Multifamily Group Program For Families With Parental Depression, Genevieve Piche, Aude Villatte, Rima Habib, Kelly Vetri, William Beardslee Feb 2020

Famille+: A Multifamily Group Program For Families With Parental Depression, Genevieve Piche, Aude Villatte, Rima Habib, Kelly Vetri, William Beardslee

Journal of Parent and Family Mental Health

Children living with a parent with a depressive disorder are at higher risk for low adaptive functioning, in terms of social, academic, emotional, and mental health problems (Reupert, Maybery & Kowalenko, 2012).This brief describes FAMILLE+, a multifamily group program for parents with major depressive disorder and their 7 to 11 years old children. Its purpose is to prevent the development of mental health problems in children and to promote family resilience and was specifically adapted to fit the children's developmental (cognitive, attentional and socio-emotional) abilities.


Modelling And Mapping Of State Disparities Associated With Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Prevalence Among Girls Aged 0–14 Years In Nigeria: Evidence From Dhs And Mics 2003–2017, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala, Paul Komba, Chibuzor Christopher Nnanatu, Glory Atilola, Lubanzadio Mavatikua, Zhuzhi Moore, Dennis Matanda Jan 2020

Modelling And Mapping Of State Disparities Associated With Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Prevalence Among Girls Aged 0–14 Years In Nigeria: Evidence From Dhs And Mics 2003–2017, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala, Paul Komba, Chibuzor Christopher Nnanatu, Glory Atilola, Lubanzadio Mavatikua, Zhuzhi Moore, Dennis Matanda

Reproductive Health

The practice of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has been positioned as a gender and global development issue that national and international organizations must address for girls and women to thrive in good health and enjoy their fundamental rights. Consequently, many efforts have been made to promote the abandonment of the practice. Despite evidence of a decline in FGM/C, there are significant variations in its prevalence in many sub-Saharan African countries, where the practice persists due to the combined effects of factors among individuals as well as communities. This working paper presents findings from a study that analyzed ...


Effectiveness Of A School-Based Asthma Education Program For 8-10-Year-Old Children, Laura Hunt Jan 2020

Effectiveness Of A School-Based Asthma Education Program For 8-10-Year-Old Children, Laura Hunt

DNP Projects

Background: Asthma is the most common chronic condition to affect children in the United States Five million children throughout the United States and approximately 112, 000 children in Kentucky are living with the diagnosis of asthma (CDC, 2017; CHFS, 2017). Based on current rates 1 out of 10 elementary school-age students will likely have asthma (CDC, 2019). Educating elementary-age students about asthma and symptoms of an asthma exacerbation is very important and could save a life.

Methods: A school-based asthma education program targeting children in third and fourth grades was implemented at two elementary schools in Central Kentucky. The asthma ...


Cochlear Implants And Executive Function In Children: A Current Review Of Literature, Jessica Bonezzi, Dr. Alex Meibos Jan 2020

Cochlear Implants And Executive Function In Children: A Current Review Of Literature, Jessica Bonezzi, Dr. Alex Meibos

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

We systematically reviewed existing research on cochlear implantation and executive function to determine if children with bilateral profound hearing loss with cochlear implantation have executive functioning levels similar to their normal hearing peers. Overall, we wanted to know if cochlear implantation resulted in executive functioning in deaf children. A systematic analysis of research was performed using the Preferred Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) technique. Research comparing unilaterally implanted children to bilaterally implanted children shows that bilaterally implanted children scored higher on verbal IQ tests. Research comparing predominately bilaterally implanted children to norms presents split results.


Implementation Of Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (Pecarn) Guidelines For Traumatic Brain Injury In A Rural Tertiary Care Center, Jackie Tsao, Peter Bingham, Marcus Hook, Purvi Shah Jan 2020

Implementation Of Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (Pecarn) Guidelines For Traumatic Brain Injury In A Rural Tertiary Care Center, Jackie Tsao, Peter Bingham, Marcus Hook, Purvi Shah

Larner College of Medicine Fourth Year Advanced Integration Teaching/Scholarly Projects

Objectives: To evaluate changes in imaging practices for pediatric head trauma following publication of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) guidelines, explore areas for quality improvement regarding neuroradiology referrals. We also sought to determine the prevalence of incidental findings discovered on CTs attained for minor head trauma and ascertain disposition in these cases.

Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at a rural academic center and included 156 children who received CTs for head trauma between 2005 and 2015. Subjects were divided into two groups: pre-PECARN publication and post-PECARN publication. Electronic medical records were reviewed to determine whether or ...


Influenza Vaccination Of Young Children Or Antibody Immune Response And Protection After Inactivated Influenza Vaccine In Children – A Literature Review, Danielle Wall Jan 2020

Influenza Vaccination Of Young Children Or Antibody Immune Response And Protection After Inactivated Influenza Vaccine In Children – A Literature Review, Danielle Wall

Larner College of Medicine Fourth Year Advanced Integration Teaching/Scholarly Projects

Influenza virus infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in at risk populations. Children, especially under the age of two, are at an increased risk of complications associated with influenza virus infection. Evidence suggests that a single dose of influenza vaccine does not adequately protect children against circulating influenza virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices (ACIP) recommends two doses of influenza vaccine, spaced at least four weeks apart, before the beginning of the influenza season for children between the ages of 6 months through 8 years receiving influenza vaccine ...


Childhood Anxiety, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy And/Or Pharmacological Treatment, Jennifer S. Mccarthy Jan 2020

Childhood Anxiety, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy And/Or Pharmacological Treatment, Jennifer S. Mccarthy

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Objective: Evaluate best practice in managing anxiety in the pediatric population, including both school age children and adolescents. This literature review compared pharmacological treatment and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)’s effectiveness on the management of anxiety within the pediatric population.

Background: Up to 25% of children in the United States are affected by a mental health disorder, anxiety being the most prevalent. Childhood anxiety can have a distressing impact on social, family, and academic functioning. If persisting into adulthood it increases the risk of developing other co-occurring mental health conditions, substance abuse issues, and contributes to impaired employment retention and ...


Safety And Effectiveness Of Stoss Therapy In Children With Vitamin D Deficiency, Paul Tannous Jan 2020

Safety And Effectiveness Of Stoss Therapy In Children With Vitamin D Deficiency, Paul Tannous

Theses

Objectives: Paediatric vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D - 25OHD) deficiency can lead to nutritional rickets and extra-skeletal complications. Compliance with daily therapy can be difficult, making high dose, short-term vitamin D (stoss) therapy attractive to correct vitamin D deficiency. We compared the effectiveness and safety of standard versus stoss therapy in treating childhood 25OHD deficiency.

Study Design: Children aged 2 - 16 years with 25OHD <50nmol/L were randomized to either standard (5,000IU daily for 80 days) or stoss (100,000 IU weekly for 4 weeks) cholecalciferol. Participants underwent evaluation of effectiveness and safety. 25OHD, random spot calcium: creatinine ratio (Ca:Cr) and compliance were measured at 12 weeks.

Results: 151 children were enrolled in the study (68 standard and 83 stoss), median age 9 years (IQR: 6 - 12 years). Baseline 25OHD levels were 26 nmol/L (IQR: 19 - 35 nmol/L) and 32 nmol/L (IQR ...


Association Between Childhood Secondhand Smoke Exposure And Inflammatory Bowel Disease Development, Stephanie Eve Walsh Jan 2020

Association Between Childhood Secondhand Smoke Exposure And Inflammatory Bowel Disease Development, Stephanie Eve Walsh

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of diseases that affect the gastrointestinal tract. Environmental factors, such as smoking, have been shown to play a role in the development of IBD; however, minimal research regarding secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and the development of IBD has been conducted. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there was a relationship between childhood SHS exposure and the development of IBD. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory was used in this study as a basis that the environment can aid in the development of disease. The research questions addressed the potential association between ...


Characterizing The Composition Of The Pediatric Gut Microbiome: A Systematic Review, Kane E. Deering, Amanda Devine, Therese A. O’Sullivan, Johnny Lo, Mary C. Boyce, Claus T. Christophersen Jan 2020

Characterizing The Composition Of The Pediatric Gut Microbiome: A Systematic Review, Kane E. Deering, Amanda Devine, Therese A. O’Sullivan, Johnny Lo, Mary C. Boyce, Claus T. Christophersen

ECU Publications Post 2013

The consortium of trillions of microorganisms that live inside the human gut are integral to health. Little has been done to collate and characterize the microbiome of children. A systematic review was undertaken to address this gap (PROSPERO ID: CRD42018109599). MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using the keywords: “healthy preadolescent children” and “gut microbiome” to 31 August 2018. Of the 815 journal articles, 42 met the inclusion criteria. The primary outcome was the relative abundance of bacteria at the phylum, family, and genus taxonomic ranks. α-diversity, short chain fatty acid concentrations, diet, 16S rRNA sequencing region, and geographical location were ...


Developing The Rapid Assessment Of Problem Solving For Kids (Raps-K), Emily Phillips Jan 2020

Developing The Rapid Assessment Of Problem Solving For Kids (Raps-K), Emily Phillips

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The Rapid Assessment of Problem Solving (RAPS) was created by Dr. Robert Marshall in order to assess an individuals’ problem solving abilities. This assessment is set up like the popular twenty-questions game and is used to assess adults with cognitive impairments. An administrator chooses a picture from a board of thirty-two pictures and the subject must ask yes or no questions in order to guess the target picture in as few questions as possible. Analysis assesses integration planning scores, question asking efficiency scores, and question types to determine a level of problem solving abilities.

Smith and Jones (2018) used the ...


A Needs Assessment For The Utilization Of Child Life Specialist Bereavement Support Services In An Emergency Veterinary Hospital Setting, Jared R. Negin-Fryers Jan 2020

A Needs Assessment For The Utilization Of Child Life Specialist Bereavement Support Services In An Emergency Veterinary Hospital Setting, Jared R. Negin-Fryers

MSU Graduate Theses

Studies indicate that there is an affective attachment bond, and related emotional involvement that exists between the companion animal and their human owners. Patient companion-animal death within the veterinary hospital, is a daily occurrence, with death rates per patient being significantly higher than in human health care. This comparatively higher death rate is due to the commonplace utilization of professionally sanctioned euthanasia to relieve animal pain and suffering. Companion animal death, may elicit grief reactions that are identical to what is experienced upon the death of a family member. A void currently exists in family centered veterinary care in terms ...


The Relationship Between Abdominal Pain And Emotional Wellbeing In Children And Adolescents In The Raine Study, Oyekoya T. Ayonrinde, Oyedeji A. Ayonrinde, Leon A. Adams, Frank M. Sanfilippo, Therese A. O’ Sullivan, Monique Robinson, Wendy H. Oddy, John K. Olynyk Jan 2020

The Relationship Between Abdominal Pain And Emotional Wellbeing In Children And Adolescents In The Raine Study, Oyekoya T. Ayonrinde, Oyedeji A. Ayonrinde, Leon A. Adams, Frank M. Sanfilippo, Therese A. O’ Sullivan, Monique Robinson, Wendy H. Oddy, John K. Olynyk

ECU Publications Post 2013

Abdominal pain is a common reason for medical visits. We examined the prevalence, gastrointestinal, and emotional significance of abdominal pain in a population-based cohort serially followed up from birth to 17 years. Children and adolescents from Generation 2 of the Raine Study participated in comprehensive cross-sectional assessments at ages 2, 5, 8, 10, 14 and 17 years. At 17 years, medical history, general health, gastrointestinal symptoms, medications, health practitioner attendance, and self-rated unhappiness were recorded. Longitudinal data regarding abdominal pain or unhappiness, from serial questionnaires, were analysed to identify factors associated with abdominal pain and adverse emotional health at age ...