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Articles 1 - 30 of 3994

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Tryptophan Residue 32 In Human Cu-Zn Superoxide Dismutase Modulates Prion-Like Propagation And Strain Selection, Anthony Crown, Luke Mcalary, Eric Fagerli, Hilda Brown, Justin J. Yerbury, Ahmad Galaleldeen, Neil Cashman, David Borchelt, Jacob Ayers Jan 2020

Tryptophan Residue 32 In Human Cu-Zn Superoxide Dismutase Modulates Prion-Like Propagation And Strain Selection, Anthony Crown, Luke Mcalary, Eric Fagerli, Hilda Brown, Justin J. Yerbury, Ahmad Galaleldeen, Neil Cashman, David Borchelt, Jacob Ayers

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cause the protein to aggregate via a prion-like process in which soluble molecules are recruited to aggregates by conformational templating. These misfolded SOD1 proteins can propagate aggregation-inducing conformations across cellular membranes. Prior studies demonstrated that mutation of a Trp (W) residue at position 32 to Ser (S) suppresses the propagation of misfolded conformations between cells, whereas other studies have shown that mutation of Trp 32 to Phe (F), or Cys 111 to Ser, can act in cis to attenuate aggregation of mutant SOD1. By expressing mutant ...


Cognitive Distortions In Relation To Plasma Cortisol And Oxytocin Levels In Major Depressive Disorder, Susan J. Thomas, Theresa A. Larkin Jan 2020

Cognitive Distortions In Relation To Plasma Cortisol And Oxytocin Levels In Major Depressive Disorder, Susan J. Thomas, Theresa A. Larkin

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Negative thinking is prominent in major depressive disorder (MDD). Cognitive models propose that negative thinking influences the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and cortisol release. Oxytocin is also linked to MDD, social and affective processing, and stress buffering. Little research has examined direct relationships between negative cognitions, cortisol, and oxytocin. Methods: Sixty-one unmedicated participants meeting DSM-5 criteria for MDD and 60 healthy controls completed measures of psychopathology, stress, and cognitions. Plasma samples were analyzed for cortisol and oxytocin. Between-group analyses of variance were conducted along with correlational, regression and mediation analyses. Results: Depressed participants reported greater frequency and believability of negative thoughts than ...


Twelve-Month Outcomes Of Makingthelink: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Of A School-Based Program To Facilitate Help-Seeking For Substance Use And Mental Health Problems, Dan Lubman, Ali Cheetham, Emma Sandral, Rory Wolfe, Catherine Martin, Fiona Blee, Bonita Berridge, Anthony Jorm, Coralie J. Wilson, Nicholas Allen, Lisa Mckay-Brown, Jenny Proimos Jan 2020

Twelve-Month Outcomes Of Makingthelink: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Of A School-Based Program To Facilitate Help-Seeking For Substance Use And Mental Health Problems, Dan Lubman, Ali Cheetham, Emma Sandral, Rory Wolfe, Catherine Martin, Fiona Blee, Bonita Berridge, Anthony Jorm, Coralie J. Wilson, Nicholas Allen, Lisa Mckay-Brown, Jenny Proimos

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Background: Young people experiencing mental health problems are often reluctant to seek help, particularly from professionals (i.e., doctors or mental health workers). MAKINGtheLINK is a school-based intervention that aims to help adolescents overcome barriers to seeking professional help for mental health and substance use problems. Methods: A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the 12-month outcomes of MAKINGtheLINK among 2447 participants (Mean age=14.9 years, SD=0.5 years, 50% male). Randomisation resulted in 1130 students from 11 schools allocated to receive the intervention, and 1317 students from 10 schools allocated to the wait-list control group ...


Study Protocol The Continuing Care Project: A Randomised Controlled Trial Of A Continuing Care Telephone Intervention Following Residential Substance Dependence Treatment, Peter James Kelly, Frank P. Deane, Gerard Byrne, Tayla Degan, Briony Osborne, Camilla Townsend, James Mckay, Laura Robinson, Christopher Oldmeadow, Kenny Lawson, Andrew Searles, Joanne Lunn Jan 2020

Study Protocol The Continuing Care Project: A Randomised Controlled Trial Of A Continuing Care Telephone Intervention Following Residential Substance Dependence Treatment, Peter James Kelly, Frank P. Deane, Gerard Byrne, Tayla Degan, Briony Osborne, Camilla Townsend, James Mckay, Laura Robinson, Christopher Oldmeadow, Kenny Lawson, Andrew Searles, Joanne Lunn

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Background: A priority area in the field of substance dependence treatment is reducing the rates of relapse. Previous research has demonstrated that telephone delivered continuing care interventions are both clinically and cost effective when delivered as a component of outpatient treatment. This protocol describes a NSW Health funded study that assesses the effectiveness of delivering a telephone delivered continuing care intervention for people leaving residential substance treatment in Australia. Methods/design: All participants will be attending residential alcohol and other drug treatment provided by The Salvation Army or We Help Ourselves. The study will be conducted as a randomised controlled ...


Establishment Of Novel Long-Term Cultures From Epcam Positive And Negative Circulating Tumour Cells From Patients With Metastatic Gastroesophageal Cancer, Daniel Brungs, Elahe Minaei, Ann-Katrin Piper, Jay Perry, Ashleigh Splitt, Martin G. Carolan, Shantay Ryan, Xiao Wu, Stephanie Corde, Moeava Tehei, Morteza Aghmesheh, Kara L. Vine, Therese M. Becker, Marie Ranson Jan 2020

Establishment Of Novel Long-Term Cultures From Epcam Positive And Negative Circulating Tumour Cells From Patients With Metastatic Gastroesophageal Cancer, Daniel Brungs, Elahe Minaei, Ann-Katrin Piper, Jay Perry, Ashleigh Splitt, Martin G. Carolan, Shantay Ryan, Xiao Wu, Stephanie Corde, Moeava Tehei, Morteza Aghmesheh, Kara L. Vine, Therese M. Becker, Marie Ranson

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Circulating tumour cell (CTC) enumeration and profiling has been established as a valuable clinical tool in many solid malignancies. A key challenge in CTC research is the limited number of cells available for study. Ex vivo CTC culture permits expansion of these rare cell populations for detailed characterisation, functional assays including drug sensitivity testing, and investigation of the pathobiology of metastases. We report for the first time the establishment and characterisation of two continuous CTC lines from patients with gastroesophageal cancer. The two cell lines (designated UWG01CTC and UWG02CTC) demonstrated rapid tumorigenic growth in immunodeficient mice and exhibit distinct genotypic ...


The Feelings Frontier: A Review Of No Feeling Is Final, Britta Jorgensen Nov 2019

The Feelings Frontier: A Review Of No Feeling Is Final, Britta Jorgensen

RadioDoc Review

No Feeling is Final faces a two-fold “feelings frontier” in an age of extreme podcast intimacy and empathy: navigating (1) how to convey the kind of deeply personal “big feelings” that are still often seen as off-limits and (2) how to maintain a hyper-awareness about the listener’s feelings. Taking place almost entirely within her mind, No Feeling is Final is a six-part memoir show about host Honor Eastly’s experiences struggling with mental health and what one mental health professional diagnoses as “too many feelings – about four times as many as the average person”. The ongoing tension between creating ...


Cross-Sectional Study Of Area-Level Disadvantage And Glycaemic-Related Risk In Community Health Service Users In The Southern.Iml Research (Simlr) Cohort, Roger Cross, Andrew D. Bonney, Darren J. Mayne, Kathryn M. Weston Jan 2019

Cross-Sectional Study Of Area-Level Disadvantage And Glycaemic-Related Risk In Community Health Service Users In The Southern.Iml Research (Simlr) Cohort, Roger Cross, Andrew D. Bonney, Darren J. Mayne, Kathryn M. Weston

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Objectives. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and glycaemic-related risk in health service users in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales, Australia. Methods. HbA1c values recorded between 2010 and 2012 for non-pregnant individuals aged 18 years were extracted from the Southern.IML Research (SIMLR) database. Individuals were assigned quintiles of the Socioeconomic Indices for Australia (SEIFA) Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD) according to their Statistical Area 1 of residence. Glycaemic risk categories were defined as HbA1c 5.0-5.99% (lowest risk), 6.0-7.49% (intermediate risk) and 7.5 ...


A Mediterranean-Style Dietary Intervention Supplemented With Fish Oil Improves Diet Quality And Mental Health In People With Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial (Helfimed), Natalie Parletta, Dorota M. Zarnowiecki, Jihyun Cho, Amy Wilson, Svetlana Bogomolova, Anthony Villani, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Theo Niyonsenga, Sarah Blunden, Barbara J. Meyer, Leonie Segal, Bernhard Baune, Kerin O'Dea Jan 2019

A Mediterranean-Style Dietary Intervention Supplemented With Fish Oil Improves Diet Quality And Mental Health In People With Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial (Helfimed), Natalie Parletta, Dorota M. Zarnowiecki, Jihyun Cho, Amy Wilson, Svetlana Bogomolova, Anthony Villani, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Theo Niyonsenga, Sarah Blunden, Barbara J. Meyer, Leonie Segal, Bernhard Baune, Kerin O'Dea

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Objectives: We investigated whether a Mediterranean-style diet (MedDiet) supplemented with fish oil can improve mental health in adults suffering depression. Methods: Adults with self-reported depression were randomized to receive fortnightly food hampers and MedDiet cooking workshops for 3 months and fish oil supplements for 6 months, or attend social groups fortnightly for 3 months. Assessments at baseline, 3 and 6 months included mental health, quality of life (QoL) and dietary questionnaires, and blood samples for erythrocyte fatty acid analysis. Results: n = 152 eligible adults aged 18-65 were recruited (n = 95 completed 3-month and n = 85 completed 6-month assessments). At 3 ...


Association Of Camk2a Genetic Variants With Transition Time From Occasional To Regular Heroin Use In A Sample Of Heroin-Dependent Individuals, Antonia Eirich, Teresa Biermann, Christian Muller, Johannes Kornhuber, Beben Benyamin, Gary K. Hulse, Dieter B. Wildenauer, Sibylle G. Schwab Jan 2019

Association Of Camk2a Genetic Variants With Transition Time From Occasional To Regular Heroin Use In A Sample Of Heroin-Dependent Individuals, Antonia Eirich, Teresa Biermann, Christian Muller, Johannes Kornhuber, Beben Benyamin, Gary K. Hulse, Dieter B. Wildenauer, Sibylle G. Schwab

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Objectives: Susceptibility to heroin dependence is strongly influenced by genetic factors with heritability estimates as high as 0.7. A number of genes, as well as environmental factors, are likely to contribute to its etiology. Not all individuals who have ever tried heroin at some stage during their lifetime become dependent on heroin. It has been suggested that genetic factors might be more important in the transition stage to heroin dependence rather than in environmental exposures and experimenting with heroin. As the features of substance dependence and memory formation have been found to be strikingly similar, we have focused on ...


The A2a Receptor Agonist Cgs 21680 Has Beneficial And Adverse Effects On Disease Development In A Humanised Mouse Model Of Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Nicholas Geraghty, Sam Adhikary, Debbie Watson, Ronald Sluyter Jan 2019

The A2a Receptor Agonist Cgs 21680 Has Beneficial And Adverse Effects On Disease Development In A Humanised Mouse Model Of Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Nicholas Geraghty, Sam Adhikary, Debbie Watson, Ronald Sluyter

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative method for blood cancers and other blood disorders, but is limited by the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). GVHD results in inflammatory damage to the host liver, gastrointestinal tract and skin, resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality in HSCT recipients. Activation of the A2A receptor has been previously demonstrated to reduce disease in allogeneic mouse models of GVHD. This study aimed to investigate the effect of A2A activation on disease development in a humanised mouse model of GVHD. Immunodeficient non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency-interleukin (IL)-2 receptor γ ...


Development And Validation Of An Experience Of Time Alone Scale For Borderline Personality Disorder, Yvette Vardy, Nicholas Day, Brin F. S Grenyer Jan 2019

Development And Validation Of An Experience Of Time Alone Scale For Borderline Personality Disorder, Yvette Vardy, Nicholas Day, Brin F. S Grenyer

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Background/Objective: Intolerance of aloneness is considered a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) that is clinically significant, yet under-researched. This study developed a measure of aloneness for individuals with BPD.

Method: Interviews investigating the experience of aloneness for BPD participants (n = 12) formed the basis for the development of the measure. Pilot testing then occurred with BPD participants, control participants and qualified respondents. Validity, reliability and factor analysis of an Experience of Time Alone Scale (ETAS) was conducted with BPD participants (n = 112) and a comparison control group (n = 105).

Results: A three factor structure was revealed: (a ...


Understanding The Role Of Apoe Fragments In Alzheimer's Disease, Sonia Sanz Munoz, Brett Garner, Lezanne Ooi Jan 2019

Understanding The Role Of Apoe Fragments In Alzheimer's Disease, Sonia Sanz Munoz, Brett Garner, Lezanne Ooi

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most devastating neurodegenerative diseases. It has been known for decades that the APOE ɛ4 allele is the most significant genetic risk factor for late-onset AD and yet its precise role in the disease remains unclear. The APOE gene encodes apolipoprotein E (apoE), a 35 kDa glycoprotein highly expressed in the brain. There are three different isoforms: apoE3 is the most common allele in the population, whilst apoE2 decreases, and apoE4 increases AD risk. ApoE has numerous functions that affect neuronal and non-neuronal cells, thus how it contributes to disease onset and progression ...


A Stepped Wedge Cluster Randomised Trial Of A Cognitive Remediation Intervention In Alcohol And Other Drug (Aod) Residential Treatment Services, Jamie Berry, Isabella Jacomb, Jo Lunn, Antoinette Sedwell, Anthony Shakeshaft, Peter James Kelly, Pooria Sarrami, Megan James, Skye Russell, Talia Nardo, Daniel Barker, Jennifer Holmes Jan 2019

A Stepped Wedge Cluster Randomised Trial Of A Cognitive Remediation Intervention In Alcohol And Other Drug (Aod) Residential Treatment Services, Jamie Berry, Isabella Jacomb, Jo Lunn, Antoinette Sedwell, Anthony Shakeshaft, Peter James Kelly, Pooria Sarrami, Megan James, Skye Russell, Talia Nardo, Daniel Barker, Jennifer Holmes

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Background: Executive functioning impairment is common in substance use disorder and is a major risk factor for poor treatment outcomes, including treatment drop-out and relapse. Cognitive remediation interventions seek to improve executive functioning and offer a promising approach to increase the efficacy of alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatments and improve long-term therapeutic outcomes. This protocol describes a study funded by the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation that assesses the effectiveness of delivering a six-week group-based intervention of cognitive remediation in an ecologically valid sample of people attending residential AOD treatment services. We primarily aim to investigate whether cognitive remediation ...


Spatial And Temporal Organization Of Reca In The Escherichia Coli Dna-Damage Response, Harshad Ghodke, Bishnu Paudel, Jacob S. Lewis, Slobodan Jergic, Kamya Gopal, Zachary Romero, Elizabeth A. Wood, Roger Woodgate, Michael M. Cox, Antoine M. Van Oijen Jan 2019

Spatial And Temporal Organization Of Reca In The Escherichia Coli Dna-Damage Response, Harshad Ghodke, Bishnu Paudel, Jacob S. Lewis, Slobodan Jergic, Kamya Gopal, Zachary Romero, Elizabeth A. Wood, Roger Woodgate, Michael M. Cox, Antoine M. Van Oijen

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

The RecA protein orchestrates the cellular response to DNA damage via its multiple roles in the bacterial SOS response. Lack of tools that provide unambiguous access to the various RecA states within the cell have prevented understanding of the spatial and temporal changes in RecA structure/function that underlie control of the damage response. Here, we develop a monomeric C-terminal fragment of the λ repressor as a novel fluorescent probe that specifically interacts with RecA filaments on single-stranded DNA (RecA*). Single-molecule imaging techniques in live cells demonstrate that RecA is largely sequestered in storage structures during normal metabolism. Upon DNA ...


Batrachotoxin Acts As A Stent To Hold Open Homotetrameric Prokaryotic Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels, Rocio K. Finol Urdaneta, Jeffrey R. Mcarthur, Marcel Goldschen-Ohm, Rachelle Gaudet, Denis Tikhonov, Boris Zhorov, Robert J. French Jan 2019

Batrachotoxin Acts As A Stent To Hold Open Homotetrameric Prokaryotic Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels, Rocio K. Finol Urdaneta, Jeffrey R. Mcarthur, Marcel Goldschen-Ohm, Rachelle Gaudet, Denis Tikhonov, Boris Zhorov, Robert J. French

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Batrachotoxin (BTX), an alkaloid from skin secretions of dendrobatid frogs, causes paralysis and death by facilitating activation and inhibiting deactivation of eukaryotic voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels, which underlie action potentials in nerve, muscle, and heart. A full understanding of the mechanism by which BTX modifies eukaryotic Nav gating awaits determination of high-resolution structures of functional toxin-channel complexes. Here, we investigate the action of BTX on the homotetrameric prokaryotic Nav channels NaChBac and NavSp1. By combining mutational analysis and whole-cell patch clamp with molecular and kinetic modeling, we show that BTX hinders deactivation and facilitates activation in a use-dependent fashion. Our ...


Dietary Patterns And Cardiovascular Disease: Insights And Challenges For Considering Food Groups And Nutrient Sources, Linda C. Tapsell, Elizabeth Neale, Yasmine Probst Jan 2019

Dietary Patterns And Cardiovascular Disease: Insights And Challenges For Considering Food Groups And Nutrient Sources, Linda C. Tapsell, Elizabeth Neale, Yasmine Probst

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Purpose of Review: The relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease has been the subject of much research, but an important methodological consideration is the interdependence between the nutrient composition of foods and the recognition of healthy dietary patterns. This review considers some of the challenges in researching dietary patterns with implications for translation to public health promotions.

Recent Findings: A number of statistical methods have emerged for analysing dietary patterns using population dietary data. There are limitations in the assumptions underpinning food categorisation, but this research is able to consistently identify foods and dietary patterns that are positively related ...


A Randomised Controlled Trial Of Vaporised Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol And Cannabidiol Alone And In Combination In Frequent And Infrequent Cannabis Users: Acute Intoxication Effects, Nadia Solowij, Samantha J. Broyd, Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Hendrika H. Van Hell, Dave Martelozzo, Kuna Rueb, Juanita Todd, Zheng Liu, Peter Galettis, Jennifer H. Martin, Robin Murray, Alison L. Jones, Patricia Michie, Rodney J. Croft Jan 2019

A Randomised Controlled Trial Of Vaporised Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol And Cannabidiol Alone And In Combination In Frequent And Infrequent Cannabis Users: Acute Intoxication Effects, Nadia Solowij, Samantha J. Broyd, Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Hendrika H. Van Hell, Dave Martelozzo, Kuna Rueb, Juanita Todd, Zheng Liu, Peter Galettis, Jennifer H. Martin, Robin Murray, Alison L. Jones, Patricia Michie, Rodney J. Croft

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Access to cannabis and cannabinoid products is increasing worldwide for recreational and medicinal use. Two primary compounds within cannabis plant matter, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), are both psychoactive, but only THC is considered intoxicating. There is significant interest in potential therapeutic properties of these cannabinoids and of CBD in particular. Some research has suggested that CBD may ameliorate adverse effects of THC, but this may be dose dependent as other evidence suggests possible potentiating effects of THC by low doses of CBD. We conducted a randomised placebo controlled trial to examine the acute effects of these compounds ...


A Transdiagnostic Dimensional Approach Towards A Neuropsychological Assessment For Addiction: An International Delphi Consensus Study, Murat Yucel, Erin Oldenhof, Serge Ahmed, David Belin, Joel Billieux, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Adrian Carter, Samuel Chamberlain, Luke Clark, Jason Connor, Mark Daglish, Geert Dom, Pinhas Dannon, Theodora Duka, Maria Fernandez-Serrano, Matt Field, Ingmar Franken, Rita Goldstein, Raul Gonzalez, Anna Goudriaan, Jon Grant, Matthew Gullo, Robert Hester, David Hodgins, Bernard Le Foll, Rico Lee, Anne Lingford-Hughes, Valentina Lorenzetti, Scott Moeller, Marcus Munafo, Brian Odlaug, Marc Potenza, Rebecca A. Segrave, Zsuzsika Sjoerds, Nadia Solowij, Wim Van Den Brink, Ruth Van Holst, Valerie Voon, Reinout Wiers, Leonardo Fontenelle, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia Jan 2019

A Transdiagnostic Dimensional Approach Towards A Neuropsychological Assessment For Addiction: An International Delphi Consensus Study, Murat Yucel, Erin Oldenhof, Serge Ahmed, David Belin, Joel Billieux, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Adrian Carter, Samuel Chamberlain, Luke Clark, Jason Connor, Mark Daglish, Geert Dom, Pinhas Dannon, Theodora Duka, Maria Fernandez-Serrano, Matt Field, Ingmar Franken, Rita Goldstein, Raul Gonzalez, Anna Goudriaan, Jon Grant, Matthew Gullo, Robert Hester, David Hodgins, Bernard Le Foll, Rico Lee, Anne Lingford-Hughes, Valentina Lorenzetti, Scott Moeller, Marcus Munafo, Brian Odlaug, Marc Potenza, Rebecca A. Segrave, Zsuzsika Sjoerds, Nadia Solowij, Wim Van Den Brink, Ruth Van Holst, Valerie Voon, Reinout Wiers, Leonardo Fontenelle, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Background: The US National Institutes of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) seek to stimulate research into biologically validated neuropsychological dimensions across mental illness symptoms and diagnoses. The RDoC framework comprises 39 functional constructs designed to be revised and refined, with the overall goal of improving diagnostic validity and treatments. This study aimed to reach a consensus among experts in the addiction field on the 'primary' RDoC constructs most relevant to substance and behavioural addictions.

Methods: Forty-four addiction experts were recruited from Australia, Asia, Europe and the Americas. The Delphi technique was used to determine a consensus as to the ...


"Quitlink"- A Randomized Controlled Trial Of Peer Worker Facilitated Quitline Support For Smokers Receiving Mental Health Services: Study Protocol, Amanda Baker, Ron Borland, Billie Bonevski, Catherine Segan, Alyna Turner, Lisa Brophy, Kristen Mccarter, Peter James Kelly, Jill Williams, Donita Baird, John R. Attia, Rohan Sweeney, Sarah L. White, Sacha Filial, David J. Castle Jan 2019

"Quitlink"- A Randomized Controlled Trial Of Peer Worker Facilitated Quitline Support For Smokers Receiving Mental Health Services: Study Protocol, Amanda Baker, Ron Borland, Billie Bonevski, Catherine Segan, Alyna Turner, Lisa Brophy, Kristen Mccarter, Peter James Kelly, Jill Williams, Donita Baird, John R. Attia, Rohan Sweeney, Sarah L. White, Sacha Filial, David J. Castle

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Introduction: Although smokers with severe mental illnesses (SSMI) make quit attempts at comparable levels to other smokers, fewer are successful in achieving smoking cessation. Specialized smoking cessation treatments targeting their needs can be effective but have not been widely disseminated. Telephone delivered interventions, including by quitlines, show promise. However, few SSMI contact quitlines and few are referred to them by health professionals. Mental health peer workers can potentially play an important role in supporting smoking cessation. This study will apply a pragmatic model using peer workers to engage SSMI with a customized quitline service, forming the "Quitlink" intervention.

Methods: A ...


Dynamic Interplay Between H-Current And M-Current Controls Motoneuron Hyperexcitability In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Yossi Buskila, Orsolya S. Kekesi, Alba Bellot-Saez, Wei Lin Seah, Tracey Berg, Michael Trpceski, Justin J. Yerbury, Lezanne Ooi Jan 2019

Dynamic Interplay Between H-Current And M-Current Controls Motoneuron Hyperexcitability In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Yossi Buskila, Orsolya S. Kekesi, Alba Bellot-Saez, Wei Lin Seah, Tracey Berg, Michael Trpceski, Justin J. Yerbury, Lezanne Ooi

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a type of motor neuron disease (MND) in which humans lose motor functions due to progressive loss of motoneurons in the cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. In patients and in animal models of MND it has been observed that there is a change in the properties of motoneurons, termed neuronal hyperexcitability, which is an exaggerated response of the neurons to a stimulus. Previous studies suggested neuronal excitability is one of the leading causes for neuronal loss, however the factors that instigate excitability in neurons over the course of disease onset and progression are not well ...


Investigating The Management Of Alcohol‐Related Presentations In An Australian Teaching Hospital, Siyu Qian, Mudar Irani, Renee M. Brighton, Wilfred W. Yeo, David Reid, Barbara L. Sinclair, Susan Bresnahan, Peter Lynch, Xiaoqi Feng, Ping Yu Jan 2019

Investigating The Management Of Alcohol‐Related Presentations In An Australian Teaching Hospital, Siyu Qian, Mudar Irani, Renee M. Brighton, Wilfred W. Yeo, David Reid, Barbara L. Sinclair, Susan Bresnahan, Peter Lynch, Xiaoqi Feng, Ping Yu

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Introduction and Aims: Alcohol‐related morbidity is estimated to range from 10-38% of the presentations to hospital emergency departments. This study aims to investigate the actual management process for alcohol‐related presentations in a teaching hospital in Australia.

Design and Methods: Retrospective audit was conducted on the electronic medical records of 210 presentations with a primary or secondary diagnosis of 'alcohol use disorder' at discharge between November 2016 and February 2017. Six key management steps were investigated: identification of alcohol use disorder, documentation, thiamine, alcohol withdrawal assessment, benzodiazepine for alcohol withdrawal and referral to the drug and alcohol consultation liaison ...


Towards An Accurate Prediction Of Nitrogen Chemical Shifts By Density Functional Theory And Gauge-Including Atomic Orbital, Peng Gao, Xingyong Wang, Haibo Yu Jan 2019

Towards An Accurate Prediction Of Nitrogen Chemical Shifts By Density Functional Theory And Gauge-Including Atomic Orbital, Peng Gao, Xingyong Wang, Haibo Yu

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

An effcient, yet accurate, computational protocol for predicting nitrogen NMR chemical shifts based on density functional theory and the gauge-including atomic orbital approach has been proposed. A database of small and relatively rigid compounds containing nitrogen atoms was compiled. Scaling factors for the linear correlation between experimental 15N chemical shifts and calculated isotropic shielding constants have been systematically investigated with seven different levels of theory in both chloroform and dimethyl sulfoxide, two commonly used solvents for NMR experiments. The best method yields a root-mean-square deviation of about 5.30 ppm and 7.00 ppm in CHCl3 and DMSO ...


A Randomized Controlled Trial Of Group Psychoeducation For Carers Of Persons With Borderline Personality Disorder, Brin F. S Grenyer, Rachel C. Bailey, Kate L. Lewis, Michael Matthias, Toni Garretty, Annemaree Bickerton Jan 2019

A Randomized Controlled Trial Of Group Psychoeducation For Carers Of Persons With Borderline Personality Disorder, Brin F. S Grenyer, Rachel C. Bailey, Kate L. Lewis, Michael Matthias, Toni Garretty, Annemaree Bickerton

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Carers of persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD) experience high burden. Treatment guidelines advocate involving carers in comprehensive therapy approaches. This study is a randomized controlled trial of group psychoeducation, compared to waitlist. Group psychoeducation involved 6-8 carers per group and focused on improving relationship patterns between carers and relatives with BPD, psychoeducation about the disorder, peer support and self-care, and skills to reduce burden. Carers were randomized into intervention (N = 33) or waitlist (N = 35). After 10 weeks, those in the intervention reported improvements in dyadic adjustment with their relative, greater family empowerment, and reduced expressed emotion, sustained after ...


Comparative Studies Of Catalytic Pathways For Streptococcus Pneumoniae Sialidases Nana, Nanb And Nanc, Kela Xiao, Xingyong Wang, Haibo Yu Jan 2019

Comparative Studies Of Catalytic Pathways For Streptococcus Pneumoniae Sialidases Nana, Nanb And Nanc, Kela Xiao, Xingyong Wang, Haibo Yu

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a leading human pathogen, which takes large responsibility for severe otitis media, acute meningitis and septicaemia. It encodes up to three distinct sialidases: NanA, NanB and NanC, which are promising drug targets. Recent experimental studies have shown that these three sialidases might work together up to the ultimate step, where NanA and NanB produce N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and 2,7-anhydro-Neu5Ac following the functions of sialidase and intramolecular trans-sialidase, whilst NanC carries on a ping-pong mechanism that produces or removes 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-Neu5AC. It is intriguing that these sialidases have similar active sites but operate via three ...


Risk Versus Regulation: An Update On The State Of E-Cigarette Control In Australia, Jody Morgan, Andreas K. Breitbarth, Alison L. Jones Jan 2019

Risk Versus Regulation: An Update On The State Of E-Cigarette Control In Australia, Jody Morgan, Andreas K. Breitbarth, Alison L. Jones

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

E-cigarettes are increasingly common around the world, particularly among youth. Ingestion of nicotine-containing e-liquid, while relatively rare, is the major toxicological risk associated with their use. Current Australian regulation has nicotine for use in e-cigarettes listed as a dangerous poison in Schedule 7, with its supply or sale illegal in all states and territories, while regulation on the sale of e-cigarettes and accessories varies by state. However, with increasing evidence that e-cigarettes produce far fewer toxic by-products than their combustible counterparts perhaps it is time to review this regulation.


Validation Of A Digital Support App To Assess Inflammatory Disease Activity And Mental Health Patient-Reported Outcomes (Pros): A Pilot Investigation, Kelly Tow, Claudia Rogge, Thomas Lee, Peter Caputi, Simon Knowles Jan 2019

Validation Of A Digital Support App To Assess Inflammatory Disease Activity And Mental Health Patient-Reported Outcomes (Pros): A Pilot Investigation, Kelly Tow, Claudia Rogge, Thomas Lee, Peter Caputi, Simon Knowles

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Background. Real-time collection of mental health and disease activity patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are essential to assist clinicians in delivering optimal holistic health care. The aim of this pilot study was to validate a digital support tool (DST) delivered via a tablet device in an outpatient setting to assess IBD activity and psychological distress. Methods. 48 individuals (26 females; average age: 40.04) with IBD completed the DST and a paper-based survey in a hospital IBD outpatient setting. PROs for disease activity and psychological distress (Kessler K10) were compared to paper-based gold-standard measures of disease activity (Partial Mayo Index or Harvey ...


Non-Dietary Factors Associated With N-3 Long Chain Pufa Levels In Humans - A Systematic Literature Review, Renate H. M De Groot, Rebecca Emmett, Barbara J. Meyer Jan 2019

Non-Dietary Factors Associated With N-3 Long Chain Pufa Levels In Humans - A Systematic Literature Review, Renate H. M De Groot, Rebecca Emmett, Barbara J. Meyer

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Numerous health benefits are attributed to the n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA); EPA and DHA. A systematic literature review was conducted to investigate factors, other than diet, that are associated with the n-3 LCPUFA levels. The inclusion criteria were papers written in English, carried out in adult non-pregnant humans, n-3 LCPUFA measured in blood or tissue, data from cross-sectional studies, or baseline data from intervention studies. The search revealed 5076 unique articles of which seventy were included in the qualitative synthesis. Three main groups of factors potentially associated with n-3 LCPUFA levels were identified: (1) unmodifiable factors (sex, genetics, age ...


Whole Grain, Bran And Cereal Fibre Consumption And Cvd: A Systematic Review, Eden Barrett, Marijka Batterham, Sumantra Ray, Eleanor J. Beck Jan 2019

Whole Grain, Bran And Cereal Fibre Consumption And Cvd: A Systematic Review, Eden Barrett, Marijka Batterham, Sumantra Ray, Eleanor J. Beck

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Whole grain intake is associated with lower CVD risk in epidemiological studies. It is unclear to what extent cereal fibre, located primarily within the bran, is responsible. This review aimed to evaluate association between intake of whole grain, cereal fibre and bran and CVD risk. Academic databases were searched for human studies published before March 2018. Observational studies reporting whole grain and cereal fibre or bran intake in association with any CVD-related outcome were included. Studies were separated into those defining whole grain using a recognised definition (containing the bran, germ and endosperm in their natural proportions) (three studies, seven ...


What Do Individuals With Borderline Personality Disorder Want From Treatment? A Study Of Self-Generated Treatment And Recovery Goals, Fiona Y. Ng, Phoebe Carter, Marianne E. Bourke, Brin F. S Grenyer Jan 2019

What Do Individuals With Borderline Personality Disorder Want From Treatment? A Study Of Self-Generated Treatment And Recovery Goals, Fiona Y. Ng, Phoebe Carter, Marianne E. Bourke, Brin F. S Grenyer

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Outcome measurement has progressed in the field of personality disorders. While the majority of trials have evaluated outcomes on the basis of symptom and diagnostic indices, what is considered a meaningful and valued outcome to individuals has seldom been investigated. Self-generated treatment goals were collected from 102 individuals seeking treatment for borderline personality disorder and independently coded by 2 raters. Responses were content-analyzed to determine the categories of goals people want for treatment. A total of 464 individual goal units across 4 main goal types emerged in the content analysis: reducing symptoms, improved well-being, better interpersonal relationships, and having a ...


Geographic And Area-Level Socioeconomic Variation In Cardiometabolic Risk Factor Distribution: A Systematic Review Of The Literature, Renin Melkias Baby Selvi Toms, Andrew D. Bonney, Darren J. Mayne, Xiaoqi Feng, Ramya Walsan Jan 2019

Geographic And Area-Level Socioeconomic Variation In Cardiometabolic Risk Factor Distribution: A Systematic Review Of The Literature, Renin Melkias Baby Selvi Toms, Andrew D. Bonney, Darren J. Mayne, Xiaoqi Feng, Ramya Walsan

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute

Introduction: A growing number of publications report variation in the distribution of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) at different geographic scales. A review of these variations may help inform policy and health service organisation.

Aim: To review studies reporting variation in the geographic distribution of CMRFs and its association with various proxy measures of area-level socioeconomic disadvantage (ASED) among the adult ( ≥ 18 years) population across the world.

Methods: A systematic search for published articles was conducted in four databases (MEDLINE (Ovid), PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) considering the interdisciplinary nature of the review question. Population-based cross-sectional and cohort studies on ...