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Articles 1 - 30 of 763
Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences
Who Will Do The Good Works?: The Troubling Case Of Secularization And The Failure Of The Welfare State In England And Perú, Gabrielle Anna Schust
This study examines the contribution and impacts of the social service works done by nuns in the UK in the 1950s and 1960s, and in Perú within the last five years. Specifically, it investigates the relationship between nuns as providers of social services and other providers such as the government. Drawing on existing literature on theories of secularization, and a close examination of the historical evolution of the British and Peruvian welfare state apparatuses, this study contextualizes the social service work of nuns in contemporaneous social, economic, and political circumstances. It finds that the population of nuns is on a ...
Examination Of Sleep Disturbance, Anxiety Sensitivity, And Depression In An Undergraduate Sample, Dasha Grace
Sleep contributes to overall well-being, mental health, and daily functioning. Sleep disturbances negatively affect psychological, physiological, and biological processing, and the quality of sleep is similarly affected by these processes. The effects of sleep disturbance call for a greater understanding of depression and anxiety sensitivity among college students. Studies have found that sleep disturbance affects nearly 90% of the college student population. The aims of the current study were to examine: 1) types and rates of sleep disturbance among a sample of college students, 2) associations between sleep disturbance, AS, and depression symptoms, and 3) AS and depression symptoms by ...
Socioeconomic Status And Symptoms Of Anxiety And Depression In Pregnant Women, Meagan Mandabach
Pregnancy is a period of great change in a woman’s body as her baby develops. During this period, women commonly experience symptoms of anxiety (Dennis et al., 2017) and depression (Shidhaye & Giri, 2014). Literature has suggested that socioeconomic status (SES) can contribute to the severity at which pregnant women experience anxiety and depression (Arora & Aeri, 2019; Field et al., 2008; Shagufta & Shams, 2019), and women of low socioeconomic status may be more likely to experience symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy (Field et al., 2008). The present study aimed to assess the relationships between household income and experience of anxiety and depression symptoms, in pregnant women in Mississippi. Specifically, it was hypothesized that lower SES would be associated with increased experience of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants included 557 pregnant women (77.4% white; Mage = 28.42) recruited at an OBGYN clinic in north Mississippi. Demographics questionnaire and several self-report measures including the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; Cox, Holden, Sagovsky, 1987) were completed. Results demonstrated that symptoms of anxiety measured by the DASS-21 were significantly higher in pregnant women earning less than $10,000 per year than all other income brackets (with the exception ...
Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Metastasize To Lung And Bone Exhibit Different Metabolic Preferences, Mollie Merrell
Metastasis is responsible for the majority of cancer related deaths. In breast cancer the lungs and bones are the major sites for metastasis. Previous studies used the metastatic aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer line to isolate sub-clones that preferentially invade the lungs (LM line) or bones (BoM line). While genes associated with the tissue specific metastasis have been identified, it is unknown if metabolic adaptations contribute to the growth of the LM and BoM lines in their respective organs. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the LM and BoM lines exhibit differences in glucose and glutamine ...
Implementation Of A Computer-Vision System As A Supportive Diagnostic Tool For Parkinson’S Disease, Diego Machado Reyes
Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting nearly 1 million people in the US and it is predicted that the number will keep increasing. Parkinson’s disease is difficult to diagnose due to its similarity with other diseases that share the parkinsonian symptoms and the subjectivity of its assessment, thus increasing the probabilities of misdiagnosis. Therefore, it is relevant to develop diagnostic tools that are quantitatively based and monitoring tools to improve the patient’s quality of life. Computer-based assessment systems have shown to be successful in this field through diverse approaches that can be classified ...
The Teaching Of Performance Enhancing Drugs In U.S. Schools And Colleges Of Pharmacy, Sara Dorothy Green
The teaching of performance enhancing drugs in U.S. schools and colleges of pharmacy is necessary to better help patients who are athletes especially those who compete in high-level athletics such as the Olympics or the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). There is no master list for banned substances, they differ for each organization and have many exceptions. Pharmacists can play a key role in preventing unintentional disqualifications of athletes as there are many medications considered performance enhancing drugs including some supplements and stimulants. For example, commonly used cold medications may contain pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, a banned substance in the world ...
Electronic Health Records And Health Information Exchange And Their Impact On International Healthcare System Efficiency, David Pfaehler
The 19th century epidemiological transition in healthcare caused a major shift in physician focus from curing one-time, deadly illness to managing chronic disease. Now, even the most advanced international healthcare systems must find a way to increase their efficiency in order to compensate for heightened strains on medical systems and swelling costs of healthcare delivery. Fortunately, recent technological innovation and, chiefly, the growth of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) provide a potential solution to this looming threat. EHRs are digital charts with the potential to store and share patient health data among providers to offer the most informed, streamlined care available ...
An Educational Audiology Model For Mississippi: Telepractice For Direct Service Provision, Sally Autry
Hearing loss among school-aged children is becoming increasingly prevalent (CDC, 2019). Having hearing loss in a classroom setting can negatively affect a child’s language development, academic achievement, and social communication. Educational audiology plays a vital role in the academic success of children with hearing loss by providing a full range of audiology services to students, as part of a multidisciplinary team, to facilitate listening, learning, and communication access. By performing specialized assessments, monitoring personal hearing instruments, recommending, fitting, and managing hearing assistive technology, providing support services, and advocating on behalf of students with hearing loss, educational audiologists help to ...
Examining The Institution Of Public Health: The Case Of The James C. Kennedy Wellness Center, Hannah Hoang
This thesis aims to function as an analysis of the James C. Kennedy Center and the impact capacity the Center has on community health and wellness in Tallahatchie County, Mississippi. Poor health is a global problem that is especially prominent in Tallahatchie County which ranked 81st out of 82 Mississippi counties in 2012. This thesis used institutional theory to explain the relationship between the Center and public health. Through interviews and data analysis, a broad evaluation was performed on the Center’s programs and community impact. Results showed that the Kennedy Center has made a large impact in improving the ...
Fluorometric Characterization Of A Methylene Blue Derivative Sensitive To Reactive Oxygen Species (Ros), Matthew Weeks
Methylene blue (MB) has many uses within both microbiology and pharmacology. MB can treat disorders such as methemoglobinemia, malaria, Alzheimer’s disease, and certain forms of cancer. MB is also useful for molecular imaging due to its off-on fluorescent capabilities. MB derivatives with a urea bond at the 10-N position have been cleavable by triggers such as light. However, I was interested in sensitivity to reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, I wanted to determine if the MB derivative MB-EA exhibited sensitivity to ROS. MB-EA was exposed to varying concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and MB release was measured. I ...
Synthesis Of Aromatic Fluorinated Ketones For Evaluation At The Gaba Receptor, Madeline Griffin
GABA is a neurotransmitter that inhibits the excitation of neurons. Targeting this specific receptor has the potential to inhibit the central nervous system and possibly treat addiction, anxiety, or mood disorders. Previous research has shown that fluorinated ketones can have valuable applications in the medicinal chemistry of addiction. Some fluorinated ketones have shown activity at the GABA receptor. The main goal of this project was to synthesize aromatic fluorinated ketones for biological evaluation at the GABAB receptor. Another goal was to compare both the monofluorinated and difluorinated analogues synthesized in order to quantify differences in activity from fluorination state ...
Assessment Of Antebrachial And Carpal Muscle Activity During Smartphone Use: Is “Selfie Wrist” A Real Phenomenon?, Monica Stacy
Reports in the media by celebrities have sparked an interest in a phenomenon being called “selfie-wrist,” in which smartphone users develop symptoms traditionally associated with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). There has been no research to date which investigates the claims of “selfie wrist.” The primary aim of this study was to address the validity of “selfie wrist” claims. The secondary aim of this study was to further investigate the effects of texting on musculoskeletal health, taking into account the differences between texting one-handed versus two-handed, and the effect of using a grip device while texting.
The experiment consisted of an ...
Does It Get Any Worse Than Acne? It Does, Actually. An In-Depth Review Of Accutane’S Regulatory History., Bridget A. Betts
Isotretinoin, most often recognized by the brand name Accutane®, is regarded by many patients and prescribers as the miracle cure for acne. Its unsurpassed efficacy is paired with serious risk of adverse events and birth defects, which poses ethical questions regarding its safety and necessity. Its regulatory history established precedent in Food and Drug Administration Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies and brought awareness to the sharp dangers of teratogenic drug use.
This medication came as a breakthrough solution to patients that suffered years of unsuccessful regimens for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Some question the risk-benefit evaluation of such a ...
Detection And Characterization Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol And Novel Synthetic Cannabinoid Metabolites Using Human Liver Microsomes, Seema Murugan
Marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids are the most commonly used and trafficked illicit drug. ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary active compound in marijuana. Synthetic cannabinoids were created as a method to study the effects of cannabinoids on the endocannabinoid system, which consists of endogenous cannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors, and the synthetic and degrading enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids. Cannabinoids activate the same receptors as endocannabinoids. Synthetic cannabinoids gained popularity as recreational drugs due to their ability to avoid detection. Synthetic cannabinoids have been found to have a greater binding affinity to the cannabinoid CB1 receptor than ...
Improving Diabetes Self-Management Developing A Patient Decision Aid To Improve Patient Education, Morgan Baker
Type 2 diabetes is a complex disease that affects a large population of people. It is imperative that efforts are made to develop more effective and inclusive treatment strategies for patients with this condition. A promising approach being studied is the utilization of community pharmacists to individualize and implement diabetes self-management training and education. The objective of this study is to develop a preliminary version of a patient decision aid (PDA) designed to evaluate patient knowledge and behavior towards diabetes self-management for use in the community pharmacy setting. The study design used to achieve this objective was a cross-sectional survey ...
Investigating The Link Between Executive Function And Creativity In School Aged Children, Katherine Crenshaw
The primary purpose of this research was to examine links between executive function (i.e., EF or conscious control) and creativity in school aged children. To accomplish this, participants completed measurements of creativity (i.e., Alternative Uses) and EF (i.e., the Backwards Digit Span to test working memory, the Delay of Gratification task to test inhibition). I also examined whether a creative manipulation (i.e., free coloring or coloring task-relevant materials) would impact EF performance in the Dimensional Card Change Sort (DCCS) focused on cognitive flexibility. While I did not find evidence for a relationship between my measures of ...
An Examination Of The Association Between State Medicaid Perinatal Services And Birth Outcomes, Joy Morgan Myers
This thesis investigated the connection between socioeconomic status, healthcare coverage, and birth outcomes. The research question that was posed specifically looked at twenty perinatal services that states covered under Medicaid to varying degrees to see their association, if any, with premature birth rates and low birthweight rates. State-level and Mississippi county-level data were compiled regarding preterm birth rates, low birthweight rates, presumptive eligibility adoption, and coverage of twenty different perinatal services. Using these data, the correlation between state Medicaid expansion status and birth outcomes was first calculated in order to determine if variation in birth outcomes was associated with expanded ...
Healthcare Workers' Perceptions Of Different Types Of Interpreters In The Gulf South, Meg Hayslip
Medical interpreters are important in the healthcare community. Many studies have focused on the consequences of not having an interpreter. A variety of problems can be caused by "language brokering" when no interpreter is available. These studies will be discussed in the literature review. Many states have requirements to become certified as an interpreter, and the selection criteria is what makes a person a “good” interpreter. Previous research, such as that by Chan et al., has shown how different styles of interpreting can affect the quality of health care. This study focuses on how healthcare personnel and their patients view ...
The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Largazole: A Potential Chemotherapeutic Agent, Hannah Lynn Carson
The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Largazole: A Potential Chemotherapeutic Agent, Hannah Lynn Carson
Histone deacetylase enzymes are known for their inherent activity as epigenetic modifiers. Although, they have become recognized for their role in cancer progression and other diseases. But also, histone deacetylases have other non-histone targets, for example, microtubules, which play important roles in cancer metastasis, apoptosis, and replication. With histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), our research explored HDACi effects on breast cancer cell lines. The overall goal was to understand the potential of largazole, a class one histone deacetylase inhibitor on breast cancer cell lines. The research consisted of two parts: sulforhodamine B (SRB) viability assays under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. The ...
Teacher Evaluation Of An Integrated Nutrition Curriculum For Mississippi Schools, Janiya A. Davis
The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has more than tripled over the last four decades from 5 percent in 1978 to 18.5 percent in 2016, and according to the Mississippi Obesity Action Plan, 40.4% of Mississippi elementary school children (grades K-5) were either overweight or obese. Some reports have suggested that Mississippi’s overall obesity rate could reach 66.7% by 2030. Although the literature on best practices for the prevention of this condition is limited, some success has been achieved through the use of school-based nutrition interventions, in which children are taught how to ...
In-Vitro Assessment Of Cb1/Cb2 Receptor Binding And Function, Joey M. Davis
In-Vitro Assessment Of Cb1/Cb2 Receptor Binding And Function, Joey M. Davis
Cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 are G protein-coupled receptors that have a variety of physiological effects on the human body. Many natural product agonists and antagonists are presumed to interact with the cannabinoid receptors and are therefore heavily studied in drug discovery. Assays are used to study the binding of compounds to these receptors. However, a limited number of these assays are efficient in determining the functional activity of ligands associated with CB1 and CB2. Of those, many use radioactivity which is both expensive and potentially dangerous to the researcher. In this study, we first validated the assays already found ...
An Evaluation Of The Treatment Of Asthma In The State Of Mississippi Using Hedis Quality Control Measures, Kyle Kantor
Introduction: Asthma is an inflammatory condition of the lungs that can have significant impacts on a patient’s quality of life. Asthma attacks can be very uncomfortable and even deadly in some cases. The objective of this study is to evaluate the treatment of asthma in the state of Mississippi and to describe the disparities between demographics to help healthcare providers identify patients who might be at risk for poor treatment and help those patients receive quality healthcare. Methods: The data was retrospectively collected from January to December 2014 Mississippi Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services claims data. This study ...
Study Of Pharmaceutical Tablets Using Raman Mapping, Kyle Joseph Pauly
Study Of Pharmaceutical Tablets Using Raman Mapping, Kyle Joseph Pauly
Covalent bonds are the strongest type of bonds holding molecules together. Based on the pattern of bonding of the molecule, the atoms associated with the bond will vibrate at a specific frequency. Utilizing vibrational spectroscopy, such as Raman spectroscopy, these unique vibrational frequencies can be used to detect the presence of analytes over a selected area. Furthermore, the intensities of the vibrational modes can be tracked to comparatively quantify the concentration of analytes at various locations. This is a method of great importance due to its ability to compare pharmaceutical tablets synthesized with different techniques. Here, the presence and concentration ...
The Auditory Radiation In Traumatic Brain Damage: Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study, Jane Walsh
Hearing loss is a known symptom among people who suffer from traumatic brain injuries. Studies have shown that sensorineural hearing loss is the most common type of hearing loss resulting from traumatic brain injury. However, it is not well understood whether the auditory pathway is affected by traumatic brain injury. In this study, we examined the auditory radiation, using diffusion tensor imaging data and probabilistic tractography. Fifty-three veterans with traumatic brain injury and forty-four veterans without traumatic brain injury are compared. There was no significant difference in fractional anisotropy of the auditory radiation between those with and without traumatic brain ...
Characterization Of A Plasmid-Based Dna Vaccine For Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, Priya Sanipara
Described as one of the world’s worst pandemics, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infects millions of people each year and is the cause for AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). Despite the development of vaccines for numerous infectious diseases such as polio, small pox, and influenza, a vaccine for HIV remains elusive due to the virus’s high mutation rate and ability to evade the immune system. HIV causes depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes, resulting in a weakened immune system. However, the development of a plasmid-based DNA vaccine approach may help revolutionize vaccine development for HIV due to its ability to confer cellular ...
Impacts Of Embryonic Exposure To Cannabidiol Or ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol On Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Frailty In F0 And F1 Generations, Anika Faruque
Exposure to cannabinoids during critical development periods has increased with epileptic children being commonly prescribed CBD for seizures and pregnant women taking it recreationally. Many studies have been done on the possible benefits and drawbacks of cannabinoid exposure on the human brain, but not much is known about how it can affect the developing brain long-term. To see the potential adverse effects of cannabinoid exposure during critical stages of development and discover potential developmental origins of disease in consuming cannabinoids during embryogenesis, zebrafish embryos (6-96 hours post fertilization) were exposed to varying concentrations of CBD (0.02, 0.1, 0 ...
Correlation Of Inflammation In Arthritis With The Myelination In The Brain, Anna Spears
This study was conducted to investigate whether the influence of arthritis has an effect on the cerebral white matter. The project was performed at the South Oxford Campus, where diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data was obtained from the Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample (NKI- RS). Image processing was conducted using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Software Library in which we obtained raw data to formulate Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC), Axial Diffusivity (AD), Radial Diffusivity (RD), and Fractional Anisotropy. A one way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to determine the significant difference between the history of arthritis on each of ...
Studies Of Salvinorin-Based Antagonists To Elucidate Pertinent Interactions For Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonism, Madeline Keane
Opioid abuse, leading to addiction and related deaths, has created a chronic epidemic in the United States for the past 30 years. This crisis has sprung from reliance on the prescription of opioid analgesics as the primary method for the management of pain in the 1990s. At that time, these drugs, specifically Purdue Pharma’s OxyContin, were marketed as non-addictive. Due to this systemic minimization of the addictive properties of opioid analgesics, as prescription rates increased, opioid-related mortality rates climbed. This epidemic continues to be pervasive, as opioid-related overdose resulted in 47,600 deaths in 2017. In addition to the ...
A Raman Spectroscopic And Quantum Chemical Investigation Of Serotonin, It's Intramolecular Interactions, And The Solvent Effects Of Methanol, Ethanol, And Water, Mallory Loe
Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine, is a neurotransmitter and metabolite vital to the normal function of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and nervous systems. Although it might be colloquially known as the ‘happiness drug,’ malfunctions in serotoninergic pathways can result in mental health disorders, heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and even collateral death. Without a current method to directly measure, or even detect, serotonin in the human body, these diseases, along with many others, pose a threat of developing without proper warning. Raman spectroscopy presents a unique method to vibrationally characterize molecules based upon the inelastic scattering of light. Serotonin’s unique, amphipathic structure ...
The Raphe-Hippocampal Tract And Its Age Differences: Diffusion Tensor Imaging And Probabilistic Tractography Study, Ashley Sekul
The raphe-hippocampal tract links the raphe nuclei to the hippocampus and is responsible for the production of the neurotransmitter serotonin. The hippocampus is key in regulating emotional and stress responses. This study utilized diffusion tensor imaging which uses Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to provide scans of the brain for analyzing differences in the raphe-hippocampal tract as one ages. In this specific study, 491 samples were visually analyzed to gather data about the fractional anisotropy of the raphe nuclei in both male and female brains ranging from 6 to 85 years old. Through the ranking of images, some were discarded, and ...