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Articles 1 - 30 of 1100

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

The Gene Ontology Resource: Enriching A Gold Mine., Gene Ontology Consortium, Judith A. Blake, Mary E. Dolan, Harold J. Drabkin, David P. Hill Jan 2021

The Gene Ontology Resource: Enriching A Gold Mine., Gene Ontology Consortium, Judith A. Blake, Mary E. Dolan, Harold J. Drabkin, David P. Hill

Faculty Research 2021

The Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC) provides the most comprehensive resource currently available for computable knowledge regarding the functions of genes and gene products. Here, we report the advances of the consortium over the past two years. The new GO-CAM annotation framework was notably improved, and we formalized the model with a computational schema to check and validate the rapidly increasing repository of 2838 GO-CAMs. In addition, we describe the impacts of several collaborations to refine GO and report a 10% increase in the number of GO annotations, a 25% increase in annotated gene products, and over 9,400 new scientific ...


Mouse Genome Database (Mgd): Knowledgebase For Mouse-Human Comparative Biology., Judith A. Blake, Richard M. Baldarelli, James A. Kadin, Joel E Richardson, Cynthia Smith, Carol J Bult, Mouse Genome Database Group Jan 2021

Mouse Genome Database (Mgd): Knowledgebase For Mouse-Human Comparative Biology., Judith A. Blake, Richard M. Baldarelli, James A. Kadin, Joel E Richardson, Cynthia Smith, Carol J Bult, Mouse Genome Database Group

Faculty Research 2021

The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the community model organism knowledgebase for the laboratory mouse, a widely used animal model for comparative studies of the genetic and genomic basis for human health and disease. MGD is the authoritative source for biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and mouse models of human disease. MGD is the primary source for official gene, allele, and mouse strain nomenclature based on the guidelines set by the International Committee on Standardized Nomenclature for Mice. MGD's biocuration scientists curate information from the biomedical literature and from ...


The Effect Of Age On Neurological Inflammation To Acute Sleep Fragmentation In Mice, Molly Taylor Jan 2021

The Effect Of Age On Neurological Inflammation To Acute Sleep Fragmentation In Mice, Molly Taylor

Mahurin Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Obstructive sleep apnea is identified by recurring events of airway collapse during sleep, intermittent hypoxia, and perturbations in sleep continuity, known as sleep fragmentation. There is evidence to suggest that elderly patients are more at risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea. The purpose of this study was to assess whether age affects neurological inflammatory responses to acute sleep fragmentation. This assessment was made by subjecting young (4-5 months old) and old (10-11 months old) male C57BL/6j mice to automated sleep fragmentation, as well as having mice in both age categories as a control with no sleep fragmentation, for twenty-four ...


Functional Redundancy Of Type I And Type Ii Receptors In The Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Growth By Myostatin And Activin A., Se-Jin Lee, Adam Lehar, Yewei Liu, Chi Hai Ly, Quynh-Mai Pham, Michael Michaud, Renata Rydzik, Daniel W Youngstrom, Michael M Shen, Vesa Kaartinen, Emily L Germain-Lee, Thomas A Rando Dec 2020

Functional Redundancy Of Type I And Type Ii Receptors In The Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Growth By Myostatin And Activin A., Se-Jin Lee, Adam Lehar, Yewei Liu, Chi Hai Ly, Quynh-Mai Pham, Michael Michaud, Renata Rydzik, Daniel W Youngstrom, Michael M Shen, Vesa Kaartinen, Emily L Germain-Lee, Thomas A Rando

Faculty Research 2020

Myostatin (MSTN) is a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family member that normally acts to limit muscle growth. The function of MSTN is partially redundant with that of another TGF-β family member, activin A. MSTN and activin A are capable of signaling through a complex of type II and type I receptors. Here, we investigated the roles of two type II receptors (ACVR2 and ACVR2B) and two type I receptors (ALK4 and ALK5) in the regulation of muscle mass by these ligands by genetically targeting these receptors either alone or in combination specifically in myofibers in mice. We show that targeting ...


Genetic Variant Effects On Gene Expression In Human Pancreatic Islets And Their Implications For T2d., Ana Viñuela, Arushi Varshney, Martijn Van De Bunt, Rashmi B Prasad, Olof Asplund, Amanda Bennett, Michael Boehnke, Andrew A Brown, Michael R Erdos, João Fadista, Ola Hansson, Gad Hatem, Cédric Howald, Apoorva K Iyengar, Paul Johnson, Ulrika Krus, Patrick E Macdonald, Anubha Mahajan, Jocelyn E Manning Fox, Narisu Narisu, Vibe Nylander, Peter Orchard, Nikolay Oskolkov, Nikolaos I Panousis, Anthony Payne, Michael L. Stitzel, Swarooparani Vadlamudi, Ryan Welch, Francis S Collins, Karen L Mohlke, Anna L Gloyn, Laura J Scott, Emmanouil T Dermitzakis, Leif Groop, Stephen C J Parker, Mark I Mccarthy Sep 2020

Genetic Variant Effects On Gene Expression In Human Pancreatic Islets And Their Implications For T2d., Ana Viñuela, Arushi Varshney, Martijn Van De Bunt, Rashmi B Prasad, Olof Asplund, Amanda Bennett, Michael Boehnke, Andrew A Brown, Michael R Erdos, João Fadista, Ola Hansson, Gad Hatem, Cédric Howald, Apoorva K Iyengar, Paul Johnson, Ulrika Krus, Patrick E Macdonald, Anubha Mahajan, Jocelyn E Manning Fox, Narisu Narisu, Vibe Nylander, Peter Orchard, Nikolay Oskolkov, Nikolaos I Panousis, Anthony Payne, Michael L. Stitzel, Swarooparani Vadlamudi, Ryan Welch, Francis S Collins, Karen L Mohlke, Anna L Gloyn, Laura J Scott, Emmanouil T Dermitzakis, Leif Groop, Stephen C J Parker, Mark I Mccarthy

Faculty Research 2020

Most signals detected by genome-wide association studies map to non-coding sequence and their tissue-specific effects influence transcriptional regulation. However, key tissues and cell-types required for functional inference are absent from large-scale resources. Here we explore the relationship between genetic variants influencing predisposition to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related glycemic traits, and human pancreatic islet transcription using data from 420 donors. We find: (a) 7741 cis-eQTLs in islets with a replication rate across 44 GTEx tissues between 40% and 73%; (b) marked overlap between islet cis-eQTL signals and active regulatory sequences in islets, with reduced eQTL effect size observed in ...


Aluminum Reproductive Toxicity: A Summary And Interpretation Of Scientific Reports, Robert A. Yokel Sep 2020

Aluminum Reproductive Toxicity: A Summary And Interpretation Of Scientific Reports, Robert A. Yokel

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Publications addressing aluminum (Al)-induced reproductive toxicity were reviewed. Key details were compiled in summary tables. Approximate systemic Al exposure, a measure of bioavailability, was calculated for each exposure, based on the Al percentage in the dosed Al species, Al bioavailability, and absorption time course reports for the exposure route. This was limited to laboratory animal studies because no controlled-exposure human studies were found. Intended Al exposure was compared to unintended dietary Al exposure. The considerable and variable Al content of laboratory animal diets creates uncertainty about reproductive function in the absence of Al. Aluminum-induced reproductive toxicity in female mice ...


Dual Roles Of Neutrophils In Metastatic Colonization Are Governed By The Host Nk Cell Status., Peishan Li, Mingyang Lu, Jiayuan Shi, Li Hua, Zheng Gong, Qing Li, Leonard D. Shultz, Guangwen Ren Sep 2020

Dual Roles Of Neutrophils In Metastatic Colonization Are Governed By The Host Nk Cell Status., Peishan Li, Mingyang Lu, Jiayuan Shi, Li Hua, Zheng Gong, Qing Li, Leonard D. Shultz, Guangwen Ren

Faculty Research 2020

The role of neutrophils in solid tumor metastasis remains largely controversial. In preclinical models of solid tumors, both pro-metastatic and anti-metastatic effects of neutrophils have been reported. In this study, using mouse models of breast cancer, we demonstrate that the metastasis-modulating effects of neutrophils are dictated by the status of host natural killer (NK) cells. In NK cell-deficient mice, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-expanded neutrophils show an inhibitory effect on the metastatic colonization of breast tumor cells in the lung. In contrast, in NK cell-competent mice, neutrophils facilitate metastatic colonization in the same tumor models. In an ex vivo neutrophil-NK cell-tumor cell ...


Esrrb Regulates Glucocorticoid Gene Expression In Mice And Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Kayleigh M. Gallagher, Justine E. Roderick, Shi Hao. Tan, Tze King Tan, Leonard Murphy, Jun Yu, Rui Li, Kevin O'Connor, Lihua Julie Zhu, Michael R. Green, Takaomi Sanda, Michelle A. Kelliher Jul 2020

Esrrb Regulates Glucocorticoid Gene Expression In Mice And Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Kayleigh M. Gallagher, Justine E. Roderick, Shi Hao. Tan, Tze King Tan, Leonard Murphy, Jun Yu, Rui Li, Kevin O'Connor, Lihua Julie Zhu, Michael R. Green, Takaomi Sanda, Michelle A. Kelliher

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs), such as dexamethasone and prednisone, remain key components of therapy for patients with lymphoid malignancies. For pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), response to GCs remains the most reliable prognostic indicator; failure to respond to GC correlates with poor event-free survival. To uncover GC resistance mechanisms, we performed a genome-wide, survival-based short hairpin RNA screen and identified the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor-beta (ESRRB) as a critical transcription factor that cooperates with the GC receptor (GR) to mediate the GC gene expression signature in mouse and human ALL cells. Esrrb knockdown interfered with the expression of ...


Microbial Experience Influences Tumor- Infiltrating T Lymphocytes, Hanna Groeber Jul 2020

Microbial Experience Influences Tumor- Infiltrating T Lymphocytes, Hanna Groeber

Masters Theses

Immune cells, including T cells, have been used for anti-cancer therapy with varying degrees of success. One potential reason for immunotherapy failures in clinical trials may be that typical specific pathogen free (SPF) mice do not accurately replicate human microbial experience, which has important influence on shaping the adaptive immune response. Recently, several previous studies have shown that the immune system of SPF mice more closely resembles newborn human immunity, whereas immune systems from mice exposed to diverse pathogens more closely reflect adult human immunity.

To study the impact of microbial experience on the immune response, we have adopted a ...


Facial Shape And Allometry Quantitative Trait Locus Intervals In The Diversity Outbred Mouse Are Enriched For Known Skeletal And Facial Development Genes., David C Katz, J David Aponte, Wei Liu, Rebecca M Green, Jessica M Mayeux, K Michael Pollard, Daniel Pomp, Steven C. Munger, Stephen A Murray, Charles C Roseman, Christopher J Percival, James Cheverud, Ralph S Marcucio, Benedikt Hallgrímsson Jun 2020

Facial Shape And Allometry Quantitative Trait Locus Intervals In The Diversity Outbred Mouse Are Enriched For Known Skeletal And Facial Development Genes., David C Katz, J David Aponte, Wei Liu, Rebecca M Green, Jessica M Mayeux, K Michael Pollard, Daniel Pomp, Steven C. Munger, Stephen A Murray, Charles C Roseman, Christopher J Percival, James Cheverud, Ralph S Marcucio, Benedikt Hallgrímsson

Faculty Research 2020

The biology of how faces are built and come to differ from one another is complex. Discovering normal variants that contribute to differences in facial morphology is one key to untangling this complexity, with important implications for medicine and evolutionary biology. This study maps quantitative trait loci (QTL) for skeletal facial shape using Diversity Outbred (DO) mice. The DO is a randomly outcrossed population with high heterozygosity that captures the allelic diversity of eight inbred mouse lines from three subspecies. The study uses a sample of 1147 DO animals (the largest sample yet employed for a shape QTL study in ...


Covid-19 Preclinical Models: Human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Transgenic Mice., Cathleen Lutz, Leigh Maher, Charles Lee, Wonyoung Kang Jun 2020

Covid-19 Preclinical Models: Human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Transgenic Mice., Cathleen Lutz, Leigh Maher, Charles Lee, Wonyoung Kang

Faculty Research 2020

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a declared pandemic that is spreading all over the world at a dreadfully fast rate. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen of COVID-19, infects the human body using angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor identical to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic that occurred in 2002-2003. SARS-CoV-2 has a higher binding affinity to human ACE2 than to that of other species. Animal models that mimic the human disease are highly essential to develop therapeutics and vaccines against COVID-19. Here, we review transgenic mice that express human ACE2 in the airway and ...


The Comparison Of Endothelial Permeability At 48 Hours Post Skeletal Muscle Injury In Male And Female Mice At Various Ages, Sabrina Tusavitz May 2020

The Comparison Of Endothelial Permeability At 48 Hours Post Skeletal Muscle Injury In Male And Female Mice At Various Ages, Sabrina Tusavitz

Health and Exercise Physiology Honors Papers

We compared endothelial permeability at 48 hours post skeletal muscle injury in male and female mice at 1 month, 2 months, 3, 6 and 12 months of age. We hypothesized that the female mice would show more permeability at 48 hours post injury than the male mice at all ages. Our findings were more complicated as permeability following injury trends down with age in females, and up with age in males. These findings could be beneficial for medical professionals to tailor an injured athlete’s treatment to their age and sex since there are permeability and therefore possibly inflammation differences.


The Effects Of Total Body Proton Irradiation On Mouse Myometrium, Lillith Bulawa May 2020

The Effects Of Total Body Proton Irradiation On Mouse Myometrium, Lillith Bulawa

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The boundaries of human space exploration continue to expand with new technology and discoveries making it even more important to investigate the effects of space on biological systems. Although humans have explored space in small increments, reproductive studies must be conducted to determine if stable short- or long-term residences for humans can exist in space. This study explored the effects of whole-body proton radiation on uterine smooth muscle known as the myometrium. Two types of mice utilized in this study were C57BL/6 and B6.129S6Cybbtm1Din/J NOX2 knockout mice. C57BL/6 mice are standard laboratory mice that were used ...


Examining Permeability And Contractility Of Skeletal Muscle In Castrated Male Mice, Evan Scott Apr 2020

Examining Permeability And Contractility Of Skeletal Muscle In Castrated Male Mice, Evan Scott

Health and Exercise Physiology Honors Papers

A common method of treating skeletal muscle injury is temperature therapy. Temperature affects one of the initial aspects of skeletal muscle healing, the increasing of vascular permeability. Previous data accumulated from the Ursinus College Skeletal Muscle Lab suggests that vascular permeability following temperature therapy is different between the anatomically intact male and female mice. However, there have not been any studies to date that are able determine the cause of these permeability differences following temperature treatment. In addition, it is currently unclear how increased vascular permeability affects skeletal muscle healing. A possible cause for these differences is the increased presence ...


Flexibility And Constraint In Preimplantation Gene Regulation In Mouse [Preprint], Colin C. Conine, Marina Krykbaeva, Lina Song, Robert C. Brewster, Nir Friedman, Oliver J. Rando Mar 2020

Flexibility And Constraint In Preimplantation Gene Regulation In Mouse [Preprint], Colin C. Conine, Marina Krykbaeva, Lina Song, Robert C. Brewster, Nir Friedman, Oliver J. Rando

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Although many features of embryonic development exhibit remarkable stability in the face of environmental perturbations, it is also clear that some aspects of early embryogenesis can be modulated by non-genetic influences during and after fertilization. Among potential perturbations experienced during reproduction, understanding the consequences of differing ex vivo fertilization methods at a molecular level is imperative for comprehending both the basic biology of early development and the potential consequences of assisted reproduction. Here, we set out to explore stable and flexible aspects of preimplantation gene expression using single-embryo RNA-sequencing of mouse embryos fertilized by natural mating, in vitro fertilization, or ...


Immune Checkpoint Modulation Enhances Hiv-1 Antibody Induction., Todd Bradley, Masayuki Kuraoka, Chen-Hao Yeh, Ming Tian, Huan Chen, Derek W Cain, Xuejun Chen, Cheng Cheng, Ali H Ellebedy, Robert Parks, Maggie Barr, Laura L. Sutherland, Richard M. Scearce, Cindy M. Bowman, Hilary Bouton-Verville, Sampa Santra, Kevin Wiehe, Mark G. Lewis, Ane Ogbe, Persephone Borrow, David Montefiori, Mattia Bonsignori, M Anthony Moody, Laurent Verkoczy, Kevin O. Saunders, Rafi Ahmed, John R. Mascola, Garnett Kelsoe, Frederick W. Alt, Barton F. Haynes Feb 2020

Immune Checkpoint Modulation Enhances Hiv-1 Antibody Induction., Todd Bradley, Masayuki Kuraoka, Chen-Hao Yeh, Ming Tian, Huan Chen, Derek W Cain, Xuejun Chen, Cheng Cheng, Ali H Ellebedy, Robert Parks, Maggie Barr, Laura L. Sutherland, Richard M. Scearce, Cindy M. Bowman, Hilary Bouton-Verville, Sampa Santra, Kevin Wiehe, Mark G. Lewis, Ane Ogbe, Persephone Borrow, David Montefiori, Mattia Bonsignori, M Anthony Moody, Laurent Verkoczy, Kevin O. Saunders, Rafi Ahmed, John R. Mascola, Garnett Kelsoe, Frederick W. Alt, Barton F. Haynes

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Eliciting protective titers of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a goal of HIV-1 vaccine development, but current vaccine strategies have yet to induce bnAbs in humans. Many bnAbs isolated from HIV-1-infected individuals are encoded by immunoglobulin gene rearrangments with infrequent naive B cell precursors and with unusual genetic features that may be subject to host regulatory control. Here, we administer antibodies targeting immune cell regulatory receptors CTLA-4, PD-1 or OX40 along with HIV envelope (Env) vaccines to rhesus macaques and bnAb immunoglobulin knock-in (KI) mice expressing diverse precursors of CD4 binding site HIV-1 bnAbs. CTLA-4 blockade augments HIV-1 Env ...


Impaired Meningeal Lymphatic Vessel Development Worsens Stroke Outcome, Pavel Yanev, Katherine Poinsatte, Devon Hominick, Noor Khurana, Kielen R. Zuurbier, Marcus Berndt, Erik J. Plautz, Michael T. Dellinger, Ann M. Stowe Feb 2020

Impaired Meningeal Lymphatic Vessel Development Worsens Stroke Outcome, Pavel Yanev, Katherine Poinsatte, Devon Hominick, Noor Khurana, Kielen R. Zuurbier, Marcus Berndt, Erik J. Plautz, Michael T. Dellinger, Ann M. Stowe

Neurology Faculty Publications

The discovery of meningeal lymphatic vessels (LVs) has sparked interest in identifying their role in diseases of the central nervous system. Similar to peripheral LVs, meningeal LVs depend on vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR3) signaling for development. Here we characterize the effect of stroke on meningeal LVs, and the impact of meningeal lymphatic hypoplasia on post-stroke outcomes. We show that photothrombosis (PT), but not transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo), induces meningeal lymphangiogenesis in young male C57Bl/J6 mice. We also show that Vegfr3wt/mut mice develop significantly fewer meningeal LVs than Vegfr3wt/wt mice. Again, meningeal ...


Short-Chain Fatty Acids Improve Poststroke Recovery Via Immunological Mechanisms, Rebecca Sadler, Julia V. Cramer, Steffanie Heindl, Sarantos Kostidis, Dene Betz, Kielen R. Zuurbier, Bernd H. Northoff, Marieke Heijink, Mark P. Goldberg, Erik J. Plautz, Stefan Roth, Rainer Malik, Martin Dichgans, Lesca M. Holdt, Corinne Benakis, Martin Giera, Ann M. Stowe, Arthur Liesz Jan 2020

Short-Chain Fatty Acids Improve Poststroke Recovery Via Immunological Mechanisms, Rebecca Sadler, Julia V. Cramer, Steffanie Heindl, Sarantos Kostidis, Dene Betz, Kielen R. Zuurbier, Bernd H. Northoff, Marieke Heijink, Mark P. Goldberg, Erik J. Plautz, Stefan Roth, Rainer Malik, Martin Dichgans, Lesca M. Holdt, Corinne Benakis, Martin Giera, Ann M. Stowe, Arthur Liesz

Neurology Faculty Publications

Recovery after stroke is a multicellular process encompassing neurons, resident immune cells, and brain-invading cells. Stroke alters the gut microbiome, which in turn has considerable impact on stroke outcome. However, the mechanisms underlying gut–brain interaction and implications for long-term recovery are largely elusive. Here, we tested the hypothesis that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), key bioactive microbial metabolites, are the missing link along the gut–brain axis and might be able to modulate recovery after experimental stroke. SCFA supplementation in the drinking water of male mice significantly improved recovery of affected limb motor function. Using in vivo wide-field calcium imaging ...


Deficient Histone H3 Propionylation By Brpf1-Kat6 Complexes In Neurodevelopmental Disorders And Cancer., Kezhi Yan, Justine Rousseau, Keren Machol, Laura A. Cross, Katherine E. Agre, Cynthia Forster Gibson, Anne Goverde, Kendra Engleman, Hannah Verdin, Elfride De Baere, Lorraine Potocki, Dihong Zhou, Maxime Cadieux-Dion, Gary A. Bellus, Monisa D. Wagner, Rebecca J. Hale, Natacha Esber, Alan F. Riley, Benjamin D. Solomon, Megan T. Cho, Kirsty Mcwalter, Roy Eyal, Meagan K. Hainlen, Bryce A. Mendelsohn, Hillary M. Porter, Brendan C. Lanpher, Andrea M. Lewis, Juliann Savatt, Isabelle Thiffault, Bert Callewaert, Philippe M. Campeau, Xiang-Jiao Yang Jan 2020

Deficient Histone H3 Propionylation By Brpf1-Kat6 Complexes In Neurodevelopmental Disorders And Cancer., Kezhi Yan, Justine Rousseau, Keren Machol, Laura A. Cross, Katherine E. Agre, Cynthia Forster Gibson, Anne Goverde, Kendra Engleman, Hannah Verdin, Elfride De Baere, Lorraine Potocki, Dihong Zhou, Maxime Cadieux-Dion, Gary A. Bellus, Monisa D. Wagner, Rebecca J. Hale, Natacha Esber, Alan F. Riley, Benjamin D. Solomon, Megan T. Cho, Kirsty Mcwalter, Roy Eyal, Meagan K. Hainlen, Bryce A. Mendelsohn, Hillary M. Porter, Brendan C. Lanpher, Andrea M. Lewis, Juliann Savatt, Isabelle Thiffault, Bert Callewaert, Philippe M. Campeau, Xiang-Jiao Yang

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Lysine acetyltransferase 6A (KAT6A) and its paralog KAT6B form stoichiometric complexes with bromodomain- and PHD finger-containing protein 1 (BRPF1) for acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 23 (H3K23). We report that these complexes also catalyze H3K23 propionylation in vitro and in vivo. Immunofluorescence microscopy and ATAC-See revealed the association of this modification with active chromatin. Brpf1 deletion obliterates the acylation in mouse embryos and fibroblasts. Moreover, we identify BRPF1 variants in 12 previously unidentified cases of syndromic intellectual disability and demonstrate that these cases and known BRPF1 variants impair H3K23 propionylation. Cardiac anomalies are present in a subset of the ...


Establishing A Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Model In Mice And Rats Using Left Anterior Descending Artery Ligation And Isolated Heart Experiments, Alexander Papa Jan 2020

Establishing A Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Model In Mice And Rats Using Left Anterior Descending Artery Ligation And Isolated Heart Experiments, Alexander Papa

PCOM Biomedical Studies Student Scholarship

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of death globally, with over 730,000 cases each year in the United States alone. Factors involved in the prognosis of an MI include identification of the artery occluded, the time to reperfusion, the size of the infarct, and the degree of cardiomyocyte death. Thus, the treatment of MI typically involves targeting one or more of these factors. Timely opening of an occluded artery to reperfuse the ischemic tissue remains the mainstay treatment through either thrombolytic therapy, arterial stenting, or percutaneous coronary intervention. However, reperfusion itself may cause further damage through the generation ...


The Gut-Brain Axis: Assessment Of Ecnl-Dopa In Mice And Dogs, Charlotte Halley Jan 2020

The Gut-Brain Axis: Assessment Of Ecnl-Dopa In Mice And Dogs, Charlotte Halley

Creative Components

The gut-brain axis is becoming a hot topic in the research world for its possible role in many disorders and diseases. As we take a deeper dive in to its role in neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s disease, we present evidence of a strategy of using genetically engineered probiotic to help regulate and maintain levels of L-DOPA, the gold standard of treatment used in Parkinson’s disease patients. Evidence from trials with mice and dogs present significant findings that prove that a small change like adding a modified E. Coli probiotic may be all the change needed to provide a ...


Chronic Muscle Weakness And Mitochondrial Dysfunction In The Absence Of Sustained Atrophy In A Preclinical Sepsis Model, Allison M. Owen, Samir P. Patel, Jeffrey D. Smith, Beverly K. Balasuriya, Stephanie F. Mori, Gregory S. Hawk, Arnold J. Stromberg, Naohide Kuriyama, Masao Kaneki, Alexander G. Rabchevsky, Timothy A. Butterfield, Karyn A. Esser, Charlotte A. Peterson, Marlene E. Starr, Hiroshi Saito Dec 2019

Chronic Muscle Weakness And Mitochondrial Dysfunction In The Absence Of Sustained Atrophy In A Preclinical Sepsis Model, Allison M. Owen, Samir P. Patel, Jeffrey D. Smith, Beverly K. Balasuriya, Stephanie F. Mori, Gregory S. Hawk, Arnold J. Stromberg, Naohide Kuriyama, Masao Kaneki, Alexander G. Rabchevsky, Timothy A. Butterfield, Karyn A. Esser, Charlotte A. Peterson, Marlene E. Starr, Hiroshi Saito

Physiology Faculty Publications

Chronic critical illness is a global clinical issue affecting millions of sepsis survivors annually. Survivors report chronic skeletal muscle weakness and development of new functional limitations that persist for years. To delineate mechanisms of sepsis-induced chronic weakness, we first surpassed a critical barrier by establishing a murine model of sepsis with ICU-like interventions that allows for the study of survivors. We show that sepsis survivors have profound weakness for at least 1 month, even after recovery of muscle mass. Abnormal mitochondrial ultrastructure, impaired respiration and electron transport chain activities, and persistent protein oxidative damage were evident in the muscle of ...


Interleukin 1 Alpha Administration Is Neuroprotective And Neuro-Restorative Following Experimental Ischemic Stroke, Kathleen E. Salmeron, Michael E. Maniskas, Danielle N. Edwards, Raymond Wong, Ivana Rajkovic, Amanda L. Trout, Abir A. Rahman, Samantha Hamilton, Justin F. Fraser, Emmanuel Pinteaux, Gregory J. Bix Nov 2019

Interleukin 1 Alpha Administration Is Neuroprotective And Neuro-Restorative Following Experimental Ischemic Stroke, Kathleen E. Salmeron, Michael E. Maniskas, Danielle N. Edwards, Raymond Wong, Ivana Rajkovic, Amanda L. Trout, Abir A. Rahman, Samantha Hamilton, Justin F. Fraser, Emmanuel Pinteaux, Gregory J. Bix

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Stroke remains a leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite recent treatment breakthroughs. A primary event in stroke pathogenesis is the development of a potent and deleterious local and peripheral inflammatory response regulated by the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1). While the role of IL-1β (main released isoform) has been well studied in stroke, the role of the IL-1α isoform remains largely unknown. With increasing utilization of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) or thrombectomy to pharmacologically or mechanically remove ischemic stroke causing blood clots, respectively, there is interest in pairing successful cerebrovascular recanalization with neurotherapeutic pharmacological interventions (Fraser et ...


Sirna Targeting And Treatment Of Gastrointestinal Diseases., Rachel Chevalier Nov 2019

Sirna Targeting And Treatment Of Gastrointestinal Diseases., Rachel Chevalier

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

RNA interference via small interfering RNA (siRNA) offers opportunities to precisely target genes that contribute to gastrointestinal (GI) pathologies, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac, and esophageal scarring. Delivering the siRNA to the GI tract proves challenging as the harsh environment of the intestines degrades the siRNA before it can reach its target or blocks its entry into its site of action in the cytoplasm. Additionally, the GI tract is large and disease is often localized to a specific site. This review discusses polymer and lipid-based delivery systems for protection and targeting of siRNA therapies to the GI tract to ...


Lymphatic Mimicry In Maternal Endothelial Cells Promotes Placental Spiral Artery Remodeling., John B. Pawlak, László Bálint, Lillian Lim, Wanshu Ma, Reema B. Davis, Zoltán Benyó, Michael J. Soares, Guillermo Oliver, Mark L. Kahn, Zoltán Jakus, Kathleen M. Caron Nov 2019

Lymphatic Mimicry In Maternal Endothelial Cells Promotes Placental Spiral Artery Remodeling., John B. Pawlak, László Bálint, Lillian Lim, Wanshu Ma, Reema B. Davis, Zoltán Benyó, Michael J. Soares, Guillermo Oliver, Mark L. Kahn, Zoltán Jakus, Kathleen M. Caron

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Molecular heterogeneity of endothelial cells underlies their highly specialized functions during changing physiological conditions within diverse vascular beds. For example, placental spiral arteries (SAs) undergo remarkable remodeling to meet the ever-growing demands of the fetus - a process which is deficient in preeclampsia. The extent to which maternal endothelial cells coordinate with immune cells and pregnancy hormones to promote SA remodeling remains largely unknown. Here we found that remodeled SAs expressed the lymphatic markers PROX1, LYVE1, and VEGFR3, mimicking lymphatic identity. Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, which are required for SA remodeling and secrete VEGFC, were both sufficient and necessary for ...


Dormant Pathogenic Cd4(+) T Cells Are Prevalent In The Peripheral Repertoire Of Healthy Mice, Anna Cebula, Michal Kuczma, Edyta Szurek, Maciej Pietrzak, Natasha Savage, Wessam R. Elhefnawy, Grzegorz Rempala, Piotr Kraj, Leszek Ignatowicz Oct 2019

Dormant Pathogenic Cd4(+) T Cells Are Prevalent In The Peripheral Repertoire Of Healthy Mice, Anna Cebula, Michal Kuczma, Edyta Szurek, Maciej Pietrzak, Natasha Savage, Wessam R. Elhefnawy, Grzegorz Rempala, Piotr Kraj, Leszek Ignatowicz

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Thymic central tolerance eliminates most immature T cells with autoreactive T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize self MHC/peptide complexes. Regardless, an unknown number of autoreactive CD4+Foxp3 T cells escape negative selection and in the periphery require continuous suppression by CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory cells (Tregs). Here, we compare immune repertoires of Treg-deficient and Treg-sufficient mice to find Tregs continuously constraining one-third of mature CD4+Foxp3 cells from converting to pathogenic effectors in healthy mice. These dormant pathogenic clones frequently express TCRs activatable by ubiquitous autoantigens presented by class II MHCs on conventional dendritic cells, including selfpeptides that select them ...


Developing Drug Therapies: Cognitive Damage In Mice Following Brain Radiation, Rachel Yuska Aug 2019

Developing Drug Therapies: Cognitive Damage In Mice Following Brain Radiation, Rachel Yuska

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Pediatric brain cancer patients are at a high risk for radiation-induced cognitive impairment due to white matter changes in the brain. Half of six-month radiotherapy survivors develop significant changes in white matter. Previous research has shown that a mouse model can be used to show similar cognitive and behavioral deficits in human patients. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of two drug therapies, Donepezil and 3,3-Diindolylmethane (DIM), that could be used to either protect the brain from radiation injury or cure the cognitive injury and behavioral deficits that result from whole-brain irradiation. This project consisted ...


Imaging Of Glucose Metabolism By 13c-Mri Distinguishes Pancreatic Cancer Subtypes In Mice, Shun Kishimoto, Jeffrey R. Brender, Daniel R. Crooks, Shingo Matsumoto, Tomohiro Seki, Nobu Oshima, Hellmut Merkle, Penghui Lin, Galen Reed, Albert P. Chen, Jan Henrik Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jeeva Munasinghe, Keita Saito, Kazutoshi Yamamoto, Peter L. Choyke, James Mitchell, Andrew N. Lane, Teresa W. M. Fan, W. Marston Linehan, Murali C. Krishna Aug 2019

Imaging Of Glucose Metabolism By 13c-Mri Distinguishes Pancreatic Cancer Subtypes In Mice, Shun Kishimoto, Jeffrey R. Brender, Daniel R. Crooks, Shingo Matsumoto, Tomohiro Seki, Nobu Oshima, Hellmut Merkle, Penghui Lin, Galen Reed, Albert P. Chen, Jan Henrik Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jeeva Munasinghe, Keita Saito, Kazutoshi Yamamoto, Peter L. Choyke, James Mitchell, Andrew N. Lane, Teresa W. M. Fan, W. Marston Linehan, Murali C. Krishna

Center for Environmental and Systems Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Metabolic differences among and within tumors can be an important determinant in cancer treatment outcome. However, methods for determining these differences non-invasively in vivo is lacking. Using pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma as a model, we demonstrate that tumor xenografts with a similar genetic background can be distinguished by their differing rates of the metabolism of 13C labeled glucose tracers, which can be imaged without hyperpolarization by using newly developed techniques for noise suppression. Using this method, cancer subtypes that appeared to have similar metabolic profiles based on steady state metabolic measurement can be distinguished from each other. The metabolic maps from ...


In Vivo Effectiveness And Safety Of Probiotics On Prophylaxis And Treatment Of Oral Candidiasis: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Lijun Hu, Mimi Zhou, Andrew L. Young, Weiwei Zhao, Zhimin Yan Jul 2019

In Vivo Effectiveness And Safety Of Probiotics On Prophylaxis And Treatment Of Oral Candidiasis: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Lijun Hu, Mimi Zhou, Andrew L. Young, Weiwei Zhao, Zhimin Yan

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

BACKGROUND: To systematically review and assess the in vivo effectiveness and safety of probiotics for prophylaxis and treating oral candidiasis.

METHODS: A literature search for studies published in English until August 1, 2018 was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Randomized controlled clinical trials and experimental mouse animal model studies comparing probiotics (at any dosage and in any form) with control groups (placebo, blank control or other agents) and reporting outcomes of the prophylactic and therapeutic effects were considered for inclusion. A descriptive study and, potentially, a meta-analysis were planned.

RESULTS: Six randomized ...


Pathologic Gene Network Rewiring Implicates Ppp1r3a As A Central Regulator In Pressure Overload Heart Failure., Pablo Cordero, Victoria N Parikh, Elizabeth T Chin, Ayca Erbilgin, Michael J Gloudemans, Ching Shang, Yong Huang, Alex C Chang, Kevin S Smith, Frederick Dewey, Kathia Zaleta, Michael Morley, Jeff Brandimarto, Nicole Glazer, Daryl Waggott, Aleksandra Pavlovic, Mingming Zhao, Christine S Moravec, W H Wilson Tang, Jamie Skreen, Christine Malloy, Sridhar Hannenhalli, Hongzhe Li, Scott Ritter, Mingyao Li, Daniel Bernstein, Andrew Connolly, Hakon Hakonarson, Aldons J Lusis, Kenneth B Margulies, Anna A Depaoli-Roach, Stephen B Montgomery, Matthew T Wheeler, Thomas Cappola, Euan A Ashley Jun 2019

Pathologic Gene Network Rewiring Implicates Ppp1r3a As A Central Regulator In Pressure Overload Heart Failure., Pablo Cordero, Victoria N Parikh, Elizabeth T Chin, Ayca Erbilgin, Michael J Gloudemans, Ching Shang, Yong Huang, Alex C Chang, Kevin S Smith, Frederick Dewey, Kathia Zaleta, Michael Morley, Jeff Brandimarto, Nicole Glazer, Daryl Waggott, Aleksandra Pavlovic, Mingming Zhao, Christine S Moravec, W H Wilson Tang, Jamie Skreen, Christine Malloy, Sridhar Hannenhalli, Hongzhe Li, Scott Ritter, Mingyao Li, Daniel Bernstein, Andrew Connolly, Hakon Hakonarson, Aldons J Lusis, Kenneth B Margulies, Anna A Depaoli-Roach, Stephen B Montgomery, Matthew T Wheeler, Thomas Cappola, Euan A Ashley

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Heart failure is a leading cause of mortality, yet our understanding of the genetic interactions underlying this disease remains incomplete. Here, we harvest 1352 healthy and failing human hearts directly from transplant center operating rooms, and obtain genome-wide genotyping and gene expression measurements for a subset of 313. We build failing and non-failing cardiac regulatory gene networks, revealing important regulators and cardiac expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). PPP1R3A emerges as a regulator whose network connectivity changes significantly between health and disease. RNA sequencing after PPP1R3A knockdown validates network-based predictions, and highlights metabolic pathway regulation associated with increased cardiomyocyte size and ...