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Articles 1 - 30 of 1440

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Identifying Genetic Determinants Of Inflammatory Pain In Mice Using A Large-Scale Gene-Targeted Screen., Janine M Wotton, Emma Peterson, Ann M Flenniken, Rasneer S Bains, Surabi Veeraragavan, Lynette R Bower, Jason A. Bubier, Marc Parisien, Alexandr Bezginov, Hamed Haselimashhadi, Jeremy Mason, Michayla A Moore, Michelle E Stewart, Dave A Clary, Daniel J Delbarre, Laura C. Anderson, Abigail D'Souza, Leslie Goodwin, Mark E Harrison, Ziyue Huang, Matthew Mckay, Dawei Qu, Luis Santos, Subhiksha Srinivasan, Rachel Urban, Igor Vukobradovic, Christopher S Ward, Amelia M Willett, Robert E Braun, Steve D M Brown, Mary E Dickinson, Jason D Heaney, Vivek Kumar, K C Kent Lloyd, Ann-Marie Mallon, Colin Mckerlie, Stephen A. Murray, Lauryl M J Nutter, Helen Parkinson, John R Seavitt, Sara Wells, Rodney C Samaco, Elissa J Chesler, Damian Smedley, Luda Diatchenko, Kyle M Baumbauer, Erin E Young, Robert P Bonin, Silvia Mandillo, Jacqueline K White Jun 2022

Identifying Genetic Determinants Of Inflammatory Pain In Mice Using A Large-Scale Gene-Targeted Screen., Janine M Wotton, Emma Peterson, Ann M Flenniken, Rasneer S Bains, Surabi Veeraragavan, Lynette R Bower, Jason A. Bubier, Marc Parisien, Alexandr Bezginov, Hamed Haselimashhadi, Jeremy Mason, Michayla A Moore, Michelle E Stewart, Dave A Clary, Daniel J Delbarre, Laura C. Anderson, Abigail D'Souza, Leslie Goodwin, Mark E Harrison, Ziyue Huang, Matthew Mckay, Dawei Qu, Luis Santos, Subhiksha Srinivasan, Rachel Urban, Igor Vukobradovic, Christopher S Ward, Amelia M Willett, Robert E Braun, Steve D M Brown, Mary E Dickinson, Jason D Heaney, Vivek Kumar, K C Kent Lloyd, Ann-Marie Mallon, Colin Mckerlie, Stephen A. Murray, Lauryl M J Nutter, Helen Parkinson, John R Seavitt, Sara Wells, Rodney C Samaco, Elissa J Chesler, Damian Smedley, Luda Diatchenko, Kyle M Baumbauer, Erin E Young, Robert P Bonin, Silvia Mandillo, Jacqueline K White

Faculty Research 2022

ABSTRACT: Identifying the genetic determinants of pain is a scientific imperative given the magnitude of the global health burden that pain causes. Here, we report a genetic screen for nociception, performed under the auspices of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium. A biased set of 110 single-gene knockout mouse strains was screened for 1 or more nociception and hypersensitivity assays, including chemical nociception (formalin) and mechanical and thermal nociception (von Frey filaments and Hargreaves tests, respectively), with or without an inflammatory agent (complete Freund's adjuvant). We identified 13 single-gene knockout strains with altered nocifensive behavior in 1 or more assays ...


Musmorph, A Database Of Standardized Mouse Morphology Data For Morphometric Meta-Analyses., Jay Devine, Marta Vidal-García, Wei Liu, Amanda Neves, Lucas D Lo Vercio, Rebecca M Green, Heather A Richbourg, Marta Marchini, Colton M Unger, Audrey C Nickle, Bethany Radford, Nathan M Young, Paula N Gonzalez, Robert E Schuler, Alejandro Bugacov, Campbell Rolian, Christopher J Percival, Trevor Williams, Lee Niswander, Anne L Calof, Arthur D Lander, Axel Visel, Frank R Jirik, James M Cheverud, Ophir D Klein, Ramon Y Birnbaum, Amy E Merrill, Rebecca R Ackermann, Daniel Graf, Myriam Hemberger, Wendy Dean, Nils D Forkert, Stephen A. Murray, Henrik Westerberg, Ralph S Marcucio, Benedikt Hallgrímsson May 2022

Musmorph, A Database Of Standardized Mouse Morphology Data For Morphometric Meta-Analyses., Jay Devine, Marta Vidal-García, Wei Liu, Amanda Neves, Lucas D Lo Vercio, Rebecca M Green, Heather A Richbourg, Marta Marchini, Colton M Unger, Audrey C Nickle, Bethany Radford, Nathan M Young, Paula N Gonzalez, Robert E Schuler, Alejandro Bugacov, Campbell Rolian, Christopher J Percival, Trevor Williams, Lee Niswander, Anne L Calof, Arthur D Lander, Axel Visel, Frank R Jirik, James M Cheverud, Ophir D Klein, Ramon Y Birnbaum, Amy E Merrill, Rebecca R Ackermann, Daniel Graf, Myriam Hemberger, Wendy Dean, Nils D Forkert, Stephen A. Murray, Henrik Westerberg, Ralph S Marcucio, Benedikt Hallgrímsson

Faculty Research 2022

Complex morphological traits are the product of many genes with transient or lasting developmental effects that interact in anatomical context. Mouse models are a key resource for disentangling such effects, because they offer myriad tools for manipulating the genome in a controlled environment. Unfortunately, phenotypic data are often obtained using laboratory-specific protocols, resulting in self-contained datasets that are difficult to relate to one another for larger scale analyses. To enable meta-analyses of morphological variation, particularly in the craniofacial complex and brain, we created MusMorph, a database of standardized mouse morphology data spanning numerous genotypes and developmental stages, including E10.5 ...


Translational Approaches To Understanding Resilience To Alzheimer's Disease., Sarah M Neuner, Maria Telpoukhovskaia, Vilas Menon, Kristen M S O'Connell, Timothy J Hohman, Catherine Kaczorowski May 2022

Translational Approaches To Understanding Resilience To Alzheimer's Disease., Sarah M Neuner, Maria Telpoukhovskaia, Vilas Menon, Kristen M S O'Connell, Timothy J Hohman, Catherine Kaczorowski

Faculty Research 2022

Individuals who maintain cognitive function despite high levels of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated pathology are said to be 'resilient' to AD. Identifying mechanisms underlying resilience represents an exciting therapeutic opportunity. Human studies have identified a number of molecular and genetic factors associated with resilience, but the complexity of these cohorts prohibits a complete understanding of which factors are causal or simply correlated with resilience. Genetically and phenotypically diverse mouse models of AD provide new and translationally relevant opportunities to identify and prioritize new resilience mechanisms for further cross-species investigation. This review will discuss insights into resilience gained from both ...


A Bayesian Model Selection Approach To Mediation Analysis., Wesley L Crouse, Gregory R Keele, Madeleine S Gastonguay, Gary Churchill, William Valdar May 2022

A Bayesian Model Selection Approach To Mediation Analysis., Wesley L Crouse, Gregory R Keele, Madeleine S Gastonguay, Gary Churchill, William Valdar

Faculty Research 2022

Genetic studies often seek to establish a causal chain of events originating from genetic variation through to molecular and clinical phenotypes. When multiple phenotypes share a common genetic association, one phenotype may act as an intermediate for the genetic effects on the other. Alternatively, the phenotypes may be causally unrelated but share genetic loci. Mediation analysis represents a class of causal inference approaches used to determine which of these scenarios is most plausible. We have developed a general approach to mediation analysis based on Bayesian model selection and have implemented it in an R package, bmediatR. Bayesian model selection provides ...


Evaluation Of Biochemical And Pathological Parameters At Different Doses Of Cisplatin In Experimental Animal Model: Toxicological Study On An Antineoplastic Drug, Farhana Sultana, Muhammed Mohibul Islam, Mohammad Nurul Amin, Nusrat Jahan, Asma Kabir, Talha Bin Emran, Bibek Chandra Sutradhar, Sujan Banik Apr 2022

Evaluation Of Biochemical And Pathological Parameters At Different Doses Of Cisplatin In Experimental Animal Model: Toxicological Study On An Antineoplastic Drug, Farhana Sultana, Muhammed Mohibul Islam, Mohammad Nurul Amin, Nusrat Jahan, Asma Kabir, Talha Bin Emran, Bibek Chandra Sutradhar, Sujan Banik

Makara Journal of Health Research

Background: This study aimed to assess the effect of cisplatin-induced toxicities on biochemical and pathological parameters such as body, liver, and kidney weights, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and blood cells (RBCs and WBCs) in white Swiss albino mice.

Methods: Cisplatin’s potential toxic effects on body, liver, and kidney weights were evaluated using standard laboratory methods. Blood biochemical levels such as BUN, creatinine, and ALT levels were determined by an auto-hemolyzer using commercial diagnostic kits. Blood cells (RBCs and WBCs) were counted under a microscope by a hemocytometer.

Results: Cisplatin’s potential toxic effects on body ...


A Periplasmic Cinched Protein Is Required For Siderophore Secretion And Virulence Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis., Lei Zhang, James E Kent, Meredith Whitaker, David C Young, Dominik Herrmann, Alexander E Aleshin, Ying-Hui Ko, Gino Cingolani, Jamil S Saad, D Branch Moody, Francesca M Marassi, Sabine Ehrt, Michael Niederweis Apr 2022

A Periplasmic Cinched Protein Is Required For Siderophore Secretion And Virulence Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis., Lei Zhang, James E Kent, Meredith Whitaker, David C Young, Dominik Herrmann, Alexander E Aleshin, Ying-Hui Ko, Gino Cingolani, Jamil S Saad, D Branch Moody, Francesca M Marassi, Sabine Ehrt, Michael Niederweis

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Iron is essential for growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. To acquire iron from the host, M. tuberculosis uses the siderophores called mycobactins and carboxymycobactins. Here, we show that the rv0455c gene is essential for M. tuberculosis to grow in low-iron medium and that secretion of both mycobactins and carboxymycobactins is drastically reduced in the rv0455c deletion mutant. Both water-soluble and membrane-anchored Rv0455c are functional in siderophore secretion, supporting an intracellular role. Lack of Rv0455c results in siderophore toxicity, a phenotype observed for other siderophore secretion mutants, and severely impairs replication of M. tuberculosis in mice, demonstrating ...


G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 5 Regulates Thrombin Signaling In Platelets Via Par-1., Kate Downes, Xuefei Zhao, Nicholas S Gleadall, Harriet Mckinney, Carly Kempster, Joana Batista, Patrick L Thomas, Matthew Cooper, James V Michael, Roman Kreuzhuber, Katherine Wedderburn, Kathryn Waller, Bianca Varney, Hippolyte Verdier, Neline Kriek, Sofie E Ashford, Kathleen E Stirrups, Joanne L Dunster, Steven E Mckenzie, Willem H Ouwehand, Jonathan M Gibbins, Jing Yang, William J Astle, Peisong Ma Apr 2022

G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 5 Regulates Thrombin Signaling In Platelets Via Par-1., Kate Downes, Xuefei Zhao, Nicholas S Gleadall, Harriet Mckinney, Carly Kempster, Joana Batista, Patrick L Thomas, Matthew Cooper, James V Michael, Roman Kreuzhuber, Katherine Wedderburn, Kathryn Waller, Bianca Varney, Hippolyte Verdier, Neline Kriek, Sofie E Ashford, Kathleen E Stirrups, Joanne L Dunster, Steven E Mckenzie, Willem H Ouwehand, Jonathan M Gibbins, Jing Yang, William J Astle, Peisong Ma

Cardeza Foundation for Hematologic Research

The interindividual variation in the functional response of platelets to activation by agonists is heritable. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of quantitative measures of platelet function have identified fewer than 20 distinctly associated variants, some with unknown mechanisms. Here, we report GWASs of pathway-specific functional responses to agonism by adenosine 5'-diphosphate, a glycoprotein VI-specific collagen mimetic, and thrombin receptor-agonist peptides, each specific to 1 of the G protein-coupled receptors PAR-1 and PAR-4, in subsets of 1562 individuals. We identified an association (P = 2.75 × 10-40) between a common intronic variant, rs10886430, in the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 gene (GRK5 ...


A Mouse Model With Widespread Expression Of The C9orf72-Linked Glycine-Arginine Dipeptide Displays Non-Lethal Als/Ftd-Like Phenotypes, Brandie Morris Verdone, Maria Elena Cicardi, Xinmei Wen, Sindhu Sriramoji, Katelyn Russell, Shashirekha S Markandaiah, Brigid K Jensen, Karthik Krishnamurthy, Aaron R. Haeusler, Piera Pasinelli, Davide Trotti Apr 2022

A Mouse Model With Widespread Expression Of The C9orf72-Linked Glycine-Arginine Dipeptide Displays Non-Lethal Als/Ftd-Like Phenotypes, Brandie Morris Verdone, Maria Elena Cicardi, Xinmei Wen, Sindhu Sriramoji, Katelyn Russell, Shashirekha S Markandaiah, Brigid K Jensen, Karthik Krishnamurthy, Aaron R. Haeusler, Piera Pasinelli, Davide Trotti

Department of Neuroscience Faculty Papers

Translation of the hexanucleotide G4C2 expansion associated with C9orf72 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (ALS/FTD) produces five different dipeptide repeat protein (DPR) species that can confer toxicity. There is yet much to learn about the contribution of a single DPR to disease pathogenesis. We show here that a short repeat length is sufficient for the DPR poly-GR to confer neurotoxicity in vitro, a phenomenon previously unobserved. This toxicity is also reported in vivo in our novel knock-in mouse model characterized by widespread central nervous system (CNS) expression of the short-length poly-GR. We observe sex-specific chronic ALS/FTD-like phenotypes ...


Efficient Targeted Transgenesis Of Large Donor Dna Into Multiple Mouse Genetic Backgrounds Using Bacteriophage Bxb1 Integrase., Benjamin E. Low, Vishnu Hosur, Simon Lesbirel, Michael V. Wiles Mar 2022

Efficient Targeted Transgenesis Of Large Donor Dna Into Multiple Mouse Genetic Backgrounds Using Bacteriophage Bxb1 Integrase., Benjamin E. Low, Vishnu Hosur, Simon Lesbirel, Michael V. Wiles

Faculty Research 2022

The development of mouse models of human disease and synthetic biology research by targeted transgenesis of large DNA constructs represent a significant genetic engineering hurdle. We developed an efficient, precise, single-copy integration of large transgenes directly into zygotes using multiple mouse genetic backgrounds. We used in vivo Bxb1 mediated recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) with a transgene "landing pad" composed of dual heterologous Bxb1 attachment (att) sites in cis, within the Gt(ROSA)26Sor safe harbor locus. RMCE of donor was achieved by microinjection of vector DNA carrying cognate attachment sites flanking the donor transgene with Bxb1-integrase mRNA. This approach achieves ...


Uncontrolled Mitochondrial Calcium Uptake Underlies The Pathogenesis Of Neurodegeneration In Micu1-Deficient Mice And Patients, Raghavendra Singh, Adam Bartok, Melanie Paillard, Ashley L. Tyburski, Melanie B Elliott, György Hajnóczky Mar 2022

Uncontrolled Mitochondrial Calcium Uptake Underlies The Pathogenesis Of Neurodegeneration In Micu1-Deficient Mice And Patients, Raghavendra Singh, Adam Bartok, Melanie Paillard, Ashley L. Tyburski, Melanie B Elliott, György Hajnóczky

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Dysregulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is mediated via the calcium uniporter complex that is primarily regulated by MICU1, a Ca2+-sensing gatekeeper. Recently, human patients with MICU1 loss-of-function mutations were diagnosed with neuromuscular and cognitive impairments. While studies in patient-derived cells revealed altered mitochondrial calcium signaling, the neuronal pathogenesis was difficult to study. To fill this void, we created a neuron-specific MICU1-KO mouse model. These animals show progressive, abnormal motor and cognitive phenotypes likely caused by the degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord and the cortex. We found increased ...


Transcriptional Control Of Retinal Ganglion Cell Death After Axonal Injury., Stephanie B Syc-Mazurek, Hongtian Stanley Yang, Olivia J Marola, Gareth R Howell, Richard T Libby Mar 2022

Transcriptional Control Of Retinal Ganglion Cell Death After Axonal Injury., Stephanie B Syc-Mazurek, Hongtian Stanley Yang, Olivia J Marola, Gareth R Howell, Richard T Libby

Faculty Research 2022

Injury to the axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is a key pathological event in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. The transcription factors JUN (the target of the c-Jun N-terminal kinases, JNKs) and DDIT3/CHOP (a mediator of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response) have been shown to control the majority of proapoptotic signaling after mechanical axonal injury in RGCs and in other models of neurodegeneration. The downstream transcriptional networks controlled by JUN and DDIT3, which are critical for RGC death, however, are not well defined. To determine these networks, RNA was isolated from the retinas of wild-type mice and mice deficient in Jun ...


Adult Mouse Fibroblasts Retain Organ-Specific Transcriptomic Identity., Elvira Forte, Mirana Ramialison, Hieu T Nim, Madison Mara, Jacky Y Li, Rachel Cohn, Sandra Daigle, Sarah Boyd, Edouard G Stanley, Andrew G Elefanty, J Travis Hinson, Mauro W Costa, Nadia Rosenthal, Milena B Furtado Mar 2022

Adult Mouse Fibroblasts Retain Organ-Specific Transcriptomic Identity., Elvira Forte, Mirana Ramialison, Hieu T Nim, Madison Mara, Jacky Y Li, Rachel Cohn, Sandra Daigle, Sarah Boyd, Edouard G Stanley, Andrew G Elefanty, J Travis Hinson, Mauro W Costa, Nadia Rosenthal, Milena B Furtado

Faculty Research 2022

Organ fibroblasts are essential components of homeostatic and diseased tissues. They participate in sculpting the extracellular matrix, sensing the microenvironment, and communicating with other resident cells. Recent studies have revealed transcriptomic heterogeneity among fibroblasts within and between organs. To dissect the basis of interorgan heterogeneity, we compare the gene expression of murine fibroblasts from different tissues (tail, skin, lung, liver, heart, kidney, and gonads) and show that they display distinct positional and organ-specific transcriptome signatures that reflect their embryonic origins. We demonstrate that expression of genes typically attributed to the surrounding parenchyma by fibroblasts is established in embryonic development and ...


The Europdx Data Portal: An Open Platform For Patient-Derived Cancer Xenograft Data Sharing And Visualization., Zdenka Dudová, Nathalie Conte, Jeremy Mason, Dalibor Stuchlík, Radim Peša, Csaba Halmagyi, Zinaida Perova, Abayomi Mosaku, Ross Thorne, Alex Follette, Ľuboslav Pivarč, Radim Šašinka, Muhammad Usman, Steven Neuhauser, Dale A. Begley, Debra M Krupke, Massimiliano Frassà, Alessandro Fiori, Riccardo Corsi, Luca Vezzadini, Claudio Isella, Andrea Bertotti, Carol J Bult, Helen Parkinson, Enzo Medico, Terrence Meehan, Aleš Křenek Feb 2022

The Europdx Data Portal: An Open Platform For Patient-Derived Cancer Xenograft Data Sharing And Visualization., Zdenka Dudová, Nathalie Conte, Jeremy Mason, Dalibor Stuchlík, Radim Peša, Csaba Halmagyi, Zinaida Perova, Abayomi Mosaku, Ross Thorne, Alex Follette, Ľuboslav Pivarč, Radim Šašinka, Muhammad Usman, Steven Neuhauser, Dale A. Begley, Debra M Krupke, Massimiliano Frassà, Alessandro Fiori, Riccardo Corsi, Luca Vezzadini, Claudio Isella, Andrea Bertotti, Carol J Bult, Helen Parkinson, Enzo Medico, Terrence Meehan, Aleš Křenek

Faculty Research 2022

BACKGROUND: Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) mice models play an important role in preclinical trials and personalized medicine. Sharing data on the models is highly valuable for numerous reasons - ethical, economical, research cross validation etc. The EurOPDX Consortium was established 8 years ago to share such information and avoid duplicating efforts in developing new PDX mice models and unify approaches to support preclinical research. EurOPDX Data Portal is the unified data sharing platform adopted by the Consortium.

MAIN BODY: In this paper we describe the main features of the EurOPDX Data Portal ( https://dataportal.europdx.eu/ ), its architecture and possible utilization by ...


Similarly Efficacious Anti-Malarial Drugs Sj733 And Pyronaridine Differ In Their Ability To Remove Circulating Parasites In Mice, Arya Sheelanair, Aleksandra S. Romanczuk, Rosemary A. Aogo, Rohit Nemai Haldar, Lianne I. M. Lansink, Deborah Cromer, Yandira G. Salinas, R. Kiplin Guy, James S. Mccarthy, Miles P. Davenport, Ashraful Haque, David S. Khoury Feb 2022

Similarly Efficacious Anti-Malarial Drugs Sj733 And Pyronaridine Differ In Their Ability To Remove Circulating Parasites In Mice, Arya Sheelanair, Aleksandra S. Romanczuk, Rosemary A. Aogo, Rohit Nemai Haldar, Lianne I. M. Lansink, Deborah Cromer, Yandira G. Salinas, R. Kiplin Guy, James S. Mccarthy, Miles P. Davenport, Ashraful Haque, David S. Khoury

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been a mainstay for malaria prevention and treatment. However, emergence of drug resistance has incentivised development of new drugs. Defining the kinetics with which circulating parasitized red blood cells (pRBC) are lost after drug treatment, referred to as the "parasite clearance curve", has been critical for assessing drug efficacy; yet underlying mechanisms remain partly unresolved. The clearance curve may be shaped both by the rate at which drugs kill parasites, and the rate at which drug-affected parasites are removed from circulation.

METHODS: In this context, two anti-malarials, SJ733, and an ACT partner drug, pyronaridine ...


Selective Elimination Of Pluripotent Stem Cells By Pikfyve Specific Inhibitors., Arup R Chakraborty, Alex Vassilev, Sushil K Jaiswal, Constandina E O'Connell, John F Ahrens, Barbara S Mallon, Martin Pera, Melvin L Depamphilis Feb 2022

Selective Elimination Of Pluripotent Stem Cells By Pikfyve Specific Inhibitors., Arup R Chakraborty, Alex Vassilev, Sushil K Jaiswal, Constandina E O'Connell, John F Ahrens, Barbara S Mallon, Martin Pera, Melvin L Depamphilis

Faculty Research 2022

Inhibition of PIKfyve phosphoinositide kinase selectively kills autophagy-dependent cancer cells by disrupting lysosome homeostasis. Here, we show that PIKfyve inhibitors can also selectively eliminate pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells (ECCs), embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells under conditions where differentiated cells remain viable. PIKfyve inhibitors prevented lysosome fission, induced autophagosome accumulation, and reduced cell proliferation in both pluripotent and differentiated cells, but they induced death only in pluripotent cells. The ability of PIKfyve inhibitors to distinguish between pluripotent and differentiated cells was confirmed with xenografts derived from ECCs. Pretreatment of ECCs with the PIKfyve specific inhibitor WX8 suppressed their ...


Retraction Note: Obesity-Induced Adipokine Imbalance Impairs Mouse Pulmonary Vascular Endothelial Function And Primes The Lung For Injury, Dilip Shah, Freddy Romero, Michelle Duong, Nadan Wang, Bishnuhari Paudyal, Benjamin T Suratt, Caleb B Kallen, Jianxin Sun, Ying Zhu, Kenneth Walsh, Ross Summer Feb 2022

Retraction Note: Obesity-Induced Adipokine Imbalance Impairs Mouse Pulmonary Vascular Endothelial Function And Primes The Lung For Injury, Dilip Shah, Freddy Romero, Michelle Duong, Nadan Wang, Bishnuhari Paudyal, Benjamin T Suratt, Caleb B Kallen, Jianxin Sun, Ying Zhu, Kenneth Walsh, Ross Summer

Center for Translational Medicine Faculty Papers

The Authors have retracted this Article. Afer publication of this Article, concerns have been raised about irregularities in the western blot data. In particular, the following bands appear to be duplicated: – Fig. 1e HFD/p-Src lane 1 and 3; – Fig. 4c NCD/Ve-cadherin lane 1 and 3 – Fig. 5e HFD+APN/ICAM-1 lane 1 and 2 – Fig. 5f HFD/beta-catenin lane 2 and HFD+APN/beta-catenin lane 1 – Fig. S1d HFD/beta-catenin all lanes – Fig. S4c NCD/beta-catenin lane 1 and 3. Additionally, the beta-catenin subpanel in Fig. 5f was subsequently reused in another study [1] and described as showing ...


Consensus Recommendation For Mouse Models Of Ocular Hypertension To Study Aqueous Humor Outflow And Its Mechanisms., Colleen M Mcdowell, Krishnakumar Kizhatil, Michael H Elliott, Darryl R Overby, Joseph Van Batenburg-Sherwood, J Cameron Millar, Markus H Kuehn, Gulab Zode, Ted S Acott, Michael G Anderson, Sanjoy K Bhattacharya, Jacques A Bertrand, Terete Borras, Diane E Bovenkamp, Lin Cheng, John Danias, Michael Lucio De Ieso, Yiqin Du, Jennifer A Faralli, Rudolf Fuchshofer, Preethi S Ganapathy, Haiyan Gong, Samuel Herberg, Humberto Hernandez, Peter Humphries, Simon W M John, Paul L Kaufman, Kate E Keller, Mary J Kelley, Ruth A Kelly, David Krizaj, Ajay Kumar, Brian C Leonard, Raquel L Lieberman, Paloma Liton, Yutao Liu, Katy C Liu, Navita N Lopez, Weiming Mao, Timur Mavlyutov, Fiona Mcdonnell, Gillian J Mclellan, Philip Mzyk, Andrews Nartey, Louis R Pasquale, Gaurang C Patel, Padmanabhan P Pattabiraman, Donna M Peters, Vijaykrishna Raghunathan, Ponugoti Vasantha Rao, Naga Rayana, Urmimala Raychaudhuri, Ester Reina-Torres, Ruiyi Ren, Douglas Rhee, Uttio Roy Chowdhury, John R Samples, E Griffen Samples, Najam Sharif, Joel S Schuman, Val C Sheffield, Cooper H Stevenson, Avinash Soundararajan, Preeti Subramanian, Chenna Kesavulu Sugali, Yang Sun, Carol B Toris, Karen Y Torrejon, Amir Vahabikashi, Janice A Vranka, Ting Wang, Colin E Willoughby, Chen Xin, Hongmin Yun, Hao F Zhang, Michael P Fautsch, Ernst R Tamm, Abbot F Clark, C Ross Ethier, W Daniel Stamer Feb 2022

Consensus Recommendation For Mouse Models Of Ocular Hypertension To Study Aqueous Humor Outflow And Its Mechanisms., Colleen M Mcdowell, Krishnakumar Kizhatil, Michael H Elliott, Darryl R Overby, Joseph Van Batenburg-Sherwood, J Cameron Millar, Markus H Kuehn, Gulab Zode, Ted S Acott, Michael G Anderson, Sanjoy K Bhattacharya, Jacques A Bertrand, Terete Borras, Diane E Bovenkamp, Lin Cheng, John Danias, Michael Lucio De Ieso, Yiqin Du, Jennifer A Faralli, Rudolf Fuchshofer, Preethi S Ganapathy, Haiyan Gong, Samuel Herberg, Humberto Hernandez, Peter Humphries, Simon W M John, Paul L Kaufman, Kate E Keller, Mary J Kelley, Ruth A Kelly, David Krizaj, Ajay Kumar, Brian C Leonard, Raquel L Lieberman, Paloma Liton, Yutao Liu, Katy C Liu, Navita N Lopez, Weiming Mao, Timur Mavlyutov, Fiona Mcdonnell, Gillian J Mclellan, Philip Mzyk, Andrews Nartey, Louis R Pasquale, Gaurang C Patel, Padmanabhan P Pattabiraman, Donna M Peters, Vijaykrishna Raghunathan, Ponugoti Vasantha Rao, Naga Rayana, Urmimala Raychaudhuri, Ester Reina-Torres, Ruiyi Ren, Douglas Rhee, Uttio Roy Chowdhury, John R Samples, E Griffen Samples, Najam Sharif, Joel S Schuman, Val C Sheffield, Cooper H Stevenson, Avinash Soundararajan, Preeti Subramanian, Chenna Kesavulu Sugali, Yang Sun, Carol B Toris, Karen Y Torrejon, Amir Vahabikashi, Janice A Vranka, Ting Wang, Colin E Willoughby, Chen Xin, Hongmin Yun, Hao F Zhang, Michael P Fautsch, Ernst R Tamm, Abbot F Clark, C Ross Ethier, W Daniel Stamer

Faculty Research 2022

Due to their similarities in anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology to humans, mice are a valuable model system to study the generation and mechanisms modulating conventional outflow resistance and thus intraocular pressure. In addition, mouse models are critical for understanding the complex nature of conventional outflow homeostasis and dysfunction that results in ocular hypertension. In this review, we describe a set of minimum acceptable standards for developing, characterizing, and utilizing mouse models of open-angle ocular hypertension. We expect that this set of standard practices will increase scientific rigor when using mouse models and will better enable researchers to replicate and build ...


Genetic Interaction Between Mfrp And Adipor1 Mutations Affect Retinal Disease Phenotypes, Navdeep Gogna, Sonia Weatherly, Fuxin Zhao, Gayle B. Collin, Jai Pinkney, Lisa Stone, Juergen K. Naggert, Gregory W. Carter, Patsy M. Nishina Jan 2022

Genetic Interaction Between Mfrp And Adipor1 Mutations Affect Retinal Disease Phenotypes, Navdeep Gogna, Sonia Weatherly, Fuxin Zhao, Gayle B. Collin, Jai Pinkney, Lisa Stone, Juergen K. Naggert, Gregory W. Carter, Patsy M. Nishina

Faculty Research 2022

Adipor1tm1Dgen and Mfrprd6 mutant mice share similar eye disease characteristics. Previously, studies established a functional relationship of ADIPOR1 and MFRP proteins in maintaining retinal lipidome homeostasis and visual function. However, the independent and/or interactive contribution of both genes to similar disease phenotypes, including fundus spots, decreased axial length, and photoreceptor degeneration has yet to be examined. We performed a gene-interaction study where homozygous Adipor1tm1Dgen and Mfrprd6 mice were bred together and the resulting doubly heterozygous F1 offspring were intercrossed to produce 210 F2 progeny. Four-month-old mice from all nine genotypic combinations obtained in the F2 ...


Gut Microbial Trimethylamine Is Elevated In Alcohol-Associated Hepatitis And Contributes To Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury In Mice, Robert N. Helsley, Tatsunori Miyata, Anagha Kadam, Venkateshwari Varadharajan, Naseer Sangwan, Emily C. Huang, Rakhee Banerjee, Amanda L. Brown, Kevin K. Fung, William J. Massey, Chase Neumann, Danny Orabi, Lucas J. Osborn, Rebecca C. Schugar, Megan R. Mcmullen, Annette Bellar, Kyle L. Poulsen, Adam Kim, Vai Pathak, Marko Mrdjen Jan 2022

Gut Microbial Trimethylamine Is Elevated In Alcohol-Associated Hepatitis And Contributes To Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury In Mice, Robert N. Helsley, Tatsunori Miyata, Anagha Kadam, Venkateshwari Varadharajan, Naseer Sangwan, Emily C. Huang, Rakhee Banerjee, Amanda L. Brown, Kevin K. Fung, William J. Massey, Chase Neumann, Danny Orabi, Lucas J. Osborn, Rebecca C. Schugar, Megan R. Mcmullen, Annette Bellar, Kyle L. Poulsen, Adam Kim, Vai Pathak, Marko Mrdjen

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

There is mounting evidence that microbes residing in the human intestine contribute to diverse alcohol-associated liver diseases (ALD) including the most deadly form known as alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH). However, mechanisms by which gut microbes synergize with excessive alcohol intake to promote liver injury are poorly understood. Furthermore, whether drugs that selectively target gut microbial metabolism can improve ALD has never been tested. We used liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to quantify the levels of microbe and host choline co-metabolites in healthy controls and AH patients, finding elevated levels of the microbial metabolite trimethylamine (TMA) in AH. In subsequent studies, we ...


Therapeutic Treatment With The Anti-Inflammatory Drug Candidate Mw151 May Partially Reduce Memory Impairment And Normalizes Hippocampal Metabolic Markers In A Mouse Model Of Comorbid Amyloid And Vascular Pathology, David J. Braun, David K. Powell, Christopher J. Mclouth, Saktimayee M. Roy, D. Martin Watterson, Linda J. Van Eldik Jan 2022

Therapeutic Treatment With The Anti-Inflammatory Drug Candidate Mw151 May Partially Reduce Memory Impairment And Normalizes Hippocampal Metabolic Markers In A Mouse Model Of Comorbid Amyloid And Vascular Pathology, David J. Braun, David K. Powell, Christopher J. Mclouth, Saktimayee M. Roy, D. Martin Watterson, Linda J. Van Eldik

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly, but therapeutic options are lacking. Despite long being able to effectively treat the ill-effects of pathology present in various rodent models of AD, translation of these strategies to the clinic has so far been disappointing. One potential contributor to this situation is the fact that the vast majority of AD patients have other dementia-contributing comorbid pathologies, the most common of which are vascular in nature. This situation is modeled relatively infrequently in basic AD research, and almost never in preclinical studies. As part of our efforts to ...


Langerhans Cells And Cdc1s Play Redundant Roles In Mrna-Lnp Induced Protective Anti-Influenza And Anti-Sars-Cov-2 Immune Responses, Sonia Ndeupen, Aurélie Bouteau, Christopher Herbst, Zhen Qin, Sonya Jacobsen, Nicholas E Powers, Zachary Hutchins, Drishya Kurup, Leila Zabihi Diba, Megan Watson, Holly Ramage, Botond Z. Igyártó Jan 2022

Langerhans Cells And Cdc1s Play Redundant Roles In Mrna-Lnp Induced Protective Anti-Influenza And Anti-Sars-Cov-2 Immune Responses, Sonia Ndeupen, Aurélie Bouteau, Christopher Herbst, Zhen Qin, Sonya Jacobsen, Nicholas E Powers, Zachary Hutchins, Drishya Kurup, Leila Zabihi Diba, Megan Watson, Holly Ramage, Botond Z. Igyártó

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Nucleoside modified mRNA combined with Acuitas Therapeutics' lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) has been shown to support robust humoral immune responses in many preclinical animal vaccine studies and later in humans with the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We recently showed that this platform is highly inflammatory due to the LNPs' ionizable lipid component. The inflammatory property is key to support the development of potent humoral immune responses. However, the mechanism by which this platform drives T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and humoral immune responses remains unknown. Here we show that lack of Langerhans cells or cDC1s neither significantly affected the induction of PR8 HA ...


Common Genetic Variants Contribute To Risk Of Transposition Of The Great Arteries., Doris Škorić-Milosavljević, Rafik Tadros, Fernanda M Bosada, Federico Tessadori, Jan Hendrik Van Weerd, Odilia I Woudstra, Fleur V Y Tjong, Najim Lahrouchi, Fanny Bajolle, Heather J Cordell, A J Agopian, Gillian M Blue, Daniela Q C M Barge-Schaapveld, Marc Gewillig, Christoph Preuss, Elisabeth M Lodder, Phil Barnett, Aho Ilgun, Leander Beekman, Karel Van Duijvenboden, Regina Bokenkamp, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Hubert W Vliegen, Thelma C Konings, Joost P Van Melle, Arie P J Van Dijk, Roland R J Van Kimmenade, Jolien W Roos-Hesselink, Gertjan T Sieswerda, Folkert Meijboom, Hashim Abdul-Khaliq, Felix Berger, Sven Dittrich, Marc-Phillip Hitz, Julia Moosmann, Frank-Thomas Riede, Stephan Schubert, Pilar Galan, Mark Lathrop, Hans M Munter, Ammar Al-Chalabi, Christopher E Shaw, Pamela J Shaw, Karen E Morrison, Jan H Veldink, Leonard H Van Den Berg, Sylvia Evans, Marcelo A Nobrega, Ivy Aneas, Milena Radivojkov-Blagojević, Thomas Meitinger, Erwin Oechslin, Tapas Mondal, Lynn Bergin, John F Smythe, Luis Altamirano-Diaz, Jane Lougheed, Berto J Bouma, Marie-A Chaix, Jennie Kline, Anne S Bassett, Gregor Andelfinger, Roel L F Van Der Palen, Patrice Bouvagnet, Sally-Ann B Clur, Jeroen Breckpot, Wilhelmina S Kerstjens-Frederikse, David S Winlaw, Ulrike M M Bauer, Seema Mital, Elizabeth Goldmuntz, Bernard Keavney, Damien Bonnet, Barbara J Mulder, Michael W T Tanck, Jeroen Bakkers, Vincent M Christoffels, Cornelis J Boogerd, Alex V Postma, Connie R Bezzina Jan 2022

Common Genetic Variants Contribute To Risk Of Transposition Of The Great Arteries., Doris Škorić-Milosavljević, Rafik Tadros, Fernanda M Bosada, Federico Tessadori, Jan Hendrik Van Weerd, Odilia I Woudstra, Fleur V Y Tjong, Najim Lahrouchi, Fanny Bajolle, Heather J Cordell, A J Agopian, Gillian M Blue, Daniela Q C M Barge-Schaapveld, Marc Gewillig, Christoph Preuss, Elisabeth M Lodder, Phil Barnett, Aho Ilgun, Leander Beekman, Karel Van Duijvenboden, Regina Bokenkamp, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Hubert W Vliegen, Thelma C Konings, Joost P Van Melle, Arie P J Van Dijk, Roland R J Van Kimmenade, Jolien W Roos-Hesselink, Gertjan T Sieswerda, Folkert Meijboom, Hashim Abdul-Khaliq, Felix Berger, Sven Dittrich, Marc-Phillip Hitz, Julia Moosmann, Frank-Thomas Riede, Stephan Schubert, Pilar Galan, Mark Lathrop, Hans M Munter, Ammar Al-Chalabi, Christopher E Shaw, Pamela J Shaw, Karen E Morrison, Jan H Veldink, Leonard H Van Den Berg, Sylvia Evans, Marcelo A Nobrega, Ivy Aneas, Milena Radivojkov-Blagojević, Thomas Meitinger, Erwin Oechslin, Tapas Mondal, Lynn Bergin, John F Smythe, Luis Altamirano-Diaz, Jane Lougheed, Berto J Bouma, Marie-A Chaix, Jennie Kline, Anne S Bassett, Gregor Andelfinger, Roel L F Van Der Palen, Patrice Bouvagnet, Sally-Ann B Clur, Jeroen Breckpot, Wilhelmina S Kerstjens-Frederikse, David S Winlaw, Ulrike M M Bauer, Seema Mital, Elizabeth Goldmuntz, Bernard Keavney, Damien Bonnet, Barbara J Mulder, Michael W T Tanck, Jeroen Bakkers, Vincent M Christoffels, Cornelis J Boogerd, Alex V Postma, Connie R Bezzina

Faculty Research 2022

RATIONALE: Dextro-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) is a severe congenital heart defect which affects approximately 1 in 4,000 live births. While there are several reports of D-TGA patients with rare variants in individual genes, the majority of D-TGA cases remain genetically elusive. Familial recurrence patterns and the observation that most cases with D-TGA are sporadic suggest a polygenic inheritance for the disorder, yet this remains unexplored.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the role of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in risk for D-TGA.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a genome-wide association study in an international set of 1 ...


Generation And Application Of Inducible Chimeric Rna, Yichen Luo, Liang Du, Zhimeng Yao, Fan Liu, Kai Li, Feifei Li, Jianlin Zhu, Robert P Coppes, Dianzheng Zhang, Yunlong Pan, Shegan Gao, Hao Zhang Jan 2022

Generation And Application Of Inducible Chimeric Rna, Yichen Luo, Liang Du, Zhimeng Yao, Fan Liu, Kai Li, Feifei Li, Jianlin Zhu, Robert P Coppes, Dianzheng Zhang, Yunlong Pan, Shegan Gao, Hao Zhang

PCOM Scholarly Papers

Chimeric RNAs (chiRNAs) play many previously unrecognized roles in different diseases including cancer. They can not only be used as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of various diseases but also serve as potential therapeutic targets. In order to better understand the roles of chiRNAs in pathogenesis, we inserted human sequences into mouse genome and established a knockin mouse model of the tamoxifen-inducible expression of ASTN2-PAPPA antisense chimeric RNA (A-PaschiRNA). Mice carrying the A-PaschiRNA knockin gene do not display any apparent abnormalities in growth, fertility, histological, hematopoietic, and biochemical indices. Using this model, we dissected the role of A-P ...


Stride-Level Analysis Of Mouse Open Field Behavior Using Deep-Learning-Based Pose Estimation., Keith Sheppard, Justin Gardin, Gautam S Sabnis, Asaf Peer, Megan Darrell, Sean P Deats, Brian Q Geuther, Cathleen Lutz, Vivek Kumar Jan 2022

Stride-Level Analysis Of Mouse Open Field Behavior Using Deep-Learning-Based Pose Estimation., Keith Sheppard, Justin Gardin, Gautam S Sabnis, Asaf Peer, Megan Darrell, Sean P Deats, Brian Q Geuther, Cathleen Lutz, Vivek Kumar

Faculty Research 2022

Gait and posture are often perturbed in many neurological, neuromuscular, and neuropsychiatric conditions. Rodents provide a tractable model for elucidating disease mechanisms and interventions. Here, we develop a neural-network-based assay that adopts the commonly used open field apparatus for mouse gait and posture analysis. We quantitate both with high precision across 62 strains of mice. We characterize four mutants with known gait deficits and demonstrate that multiple autism spectrum disorder (ASD) models show gait and posture deficits, implying this is a general feature of ASD. Mouse gait and posture measures are highly heritable and fall into three distinct classes. We ...


Uveitis-Mediated Immune Cell Invasion Through The Extracellular Matrix Of The Lens Capsule, Jodirae Dedreu, Sonali Pal-Ghosh, Mary J Mattapallil, Rachel R Caspi, Mary Ann Stepp, A Sue Menko Jan 2022

Uveitis-Mediated Immune Cell Invasion Through The Extracellular Matrix Of The Lens Capsule, Jodirae Dedreu, Sonali Pal-Ghosh, Mary J Mattapallil, Rachel R Caspi, Mary Ann Stepp, A Sue Menko

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

While the eye is considered an immune privileged site, its privilege is abrogated when immune cells are recruited from the surrounding vasculature in response to trauma, infection, aging, and autoimmune diseases like uveitis. Here, we investigate whether in uveitis immune cells become associated with the lens capsule and compromise its privilege in studies of C57BL/6J mice with experimental autoimmune uveitis. These studies show that at D14, the peak of uveitis in these mice, T cells, macrophages, and Ly6G/Ly6C+ immune cells associate with the lens basement membrane capsule, burrow into the capsule matrix, and remain integrated with the capsule ...


Alcohol Increases Lung Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Expression And Exacerbates Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Spike Protein Subunit 1–Induced Acute Lung Injury In K18-Hace2 Transgenic Mice, Pavel A. Solopov, Ruben Manuel Luciano Colunga Biancatelli, John D. Catravas Jan 2022

Alcohol Increases Lung Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Expression And Exacerbates Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Spike Protein Subunit 1–Induced Acute Lung Injury In K18-Hace2 Transgenic Mice, Pavel A. Solopov, Ruben Manuel Luciano Colunga Biancatelli, John D. Catravas

Bioelectrics Publications

During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, alcohol consumption increased markedly. Nearly one in four adults reported drinking more alcohol to cope with stress. Chronic alcohol abuse is now recognized as a factor complicating the course of acute respiratory distress syndrome. and increasing mortality. To investigate the mechanisms behind this interaction, we developed a combined acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic alcohol abuse mouse model by intratracheally instilling the S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S1SP) in K18-human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) transgenic mice that express the human ACE2 receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and are kept on an ...


Rickettsial Pathogen Perturbs Tick Circadian Gene To Infect The Vertebrate Host, Supreet Khanal, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Jan 2022

Rickettsial Pathogen Perturbs Tick Circadian Gene To Infect The Vertebrate Host, Supreet Khanal, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ixodes scapularis is a medically important tick that transmits several microbes to humans, including rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In nature, these ticks encounter several abiotic factors including changes in temperature, humidity, and light. Many organisms use endogenously generated circadian pathways to encounter abiotic factors. In this study, we provide evidence for the first time to show that A. phagocytophilum modulates the arthropod circadian gene for its transmission to the vertebrate host. We noted a circadian oscillation in the expression of arthropod clock, bmal1, period and timeless genes when ticks or tick cells were exposed to alternate 12 h light: 12 ...


An Artifact In Intracellular Cytokine Staining For Studying T Cell Responses And Its Alleviation., Zheng Gong, Qing Li, Jiayuan Shi, Guangwen Ren Jan 2022

An Artifact In Intracellular Cytokine Staining For Studying T Cell Responses And Its Alleviation., Zheng Gong, Qing Li, Jiayuan Shi, Guangwen Ren

Faculty Research 2022

Intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) is a widely employed ex vivo method for quantitative determination of the activation status of immune cells, most often applied to T cells. ICS test samples are commonly prepared from animal or human tissues as unpurified cell mixtures, and cell-specific cytokine signals are subsequently discriminated by gating strategies using flow cytometry. Here, we show that when ICS samples contain Ly6G+ neutrophils, neutrophils are ex vivo activated by an ICS reagent - phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) - which leads to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) release and death of cytokine-expressing T cells. This artifact is likely to result ...


Inflammatory Response To Sleep Fragmentation In Skeletal, Cardiac, And Smooth Muscle Tissues In Female Mice, Patton Allen Jan 2022

Inflammatory Response To Sleep Fragmentation In Skeletal, Cardiac, And Smooth Muscle Tissues In Female Mice, Patton Allen

Mahurin Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Sleep is a critical process that the body undergoes. When sleep is interrupted, so that an individual is awakened for some period before going back into sleep, the sleep can be described as fragmented. Studies in the past have shown that sleep fragmentation (SF) promotes an inflammatory environment, especially in the brain and peripheral tissue. However, studies have not been conducted to observe inflammatory responses in muscle. To examine this, C57BL/6J female mice were subjected to either a control group (no SF) or a SF group which involved using an automated SF chamber to disrupt sleep every 2 min ...


Inhibition Of Nadph Oxidase Blocks Netosis And Reduces Thrombosis In Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia, Halina H L Leung, Jose Perdomo, Zohra Ahmadi, Feng Yan, Steven E. Mckenzie, Beng H Chong Dec 2021

Inhibition Of Nadph Oxidase Blocks Netosis And Reduces Thrombosis In Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia, Halina H L Leung, Jose Perdomo, Zohra Ahmadi, Feng Yan, Steven E. Mckenzie, Beng H Chong

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is associated with severe and potentially lethal thrombotic complications. NETosis was recently shown to be an important driver of thrombosis in HIT. We investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 (NOX2) and their contributions to thrombus development in HIT. We showed that neutrophil activation by HIT immune complexes induced ROS-dependent NETosis. Analysis of thrombi formed in a microfluidics system showed ROS production in both platelets and neutrophils, and abundant neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and ROS distributed throughout the clot. Neutrophil-targeted ROS inhibition was sufficient to block HIT-induced NETosis ...