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Articles 1 - 30 of 1066

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

The Comparison Of Endothelial Permeability At 48 Hours Post Skeletal Muscle Injury In Male And Female Mice At Various Ages, Sabrina Tusavitz May 2020

The Comparison Of Endothelial Permeability At 48 Hours Post Skeletal Muscle Injury In Male And Female Mice At Various Ages, Sabrina Tusavitz

Health and Exercise Physiology Honors Papers

We compared endothelial permeability at 48 hours post skeletal muscle injury in male and female mice at 1 month, 2 months, 3, 6 and 12 months of age. We hypothesized that the female mice would show more permeability at 48 hours post injury than the male mice at all ages. Our findings were more complicated as permeability following injury trends down with age in females, and up with age in males. These findings could be beneficial for medical professionals to tailor an injured athlete’s treatment to their age and sex since there are permeability and therefore possibly inflammation differences.


Examining Permeability And Contractility Of Skeletal Muscle In Castrated Male Mice, Evan Scott Apr 2020

Examining Permeability And Contractility Of Skeletal Muscle In Castrated Male Mice, Evan Scott

Health and Exercise Physiology Honors Papers

A common method of treating skeletal muscle injury is temperature therapy. Temperature affects one of the initial aspects of skeletal muscle healing, the increasing of vascular permeability. Previous data accumulated from the Ursinus College Skeletal Muscle Lab suggests that vascular permeability following temperature therapy is different between the anatomically intact male and female mice. However, there have not been any studies to date that are able determine the cause of these permeability differences following temperature treatment. In addition, it is currently unclear how increased vascular permeability affects skeletal muscle healing. A possible cause for these differences is the increased presence ...


Microrna199b Regulates Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cells Maintenance, Aldona A. Karaczyn, Edward Jachimowicz, Jaspreet S. Kohli, Pradeep Sathyanarayana Apr 2020

Microrna199b Regulates Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cells Maintenance, Aldona A. Karaczyn, Edward Jachimowicz, Jaspreet S. Kohli, Pradeep Sathyanarayana

Costas T. Lambrew Research Retreat 2020

The preservation of hematopoieticstem cell pool in bone marrow (BM) is crucial for sustained hematopoiesisin adults. Studies assessing adult hematopoieticstem cells functionality had been shown that for example loss of quiescence impairs hematopoieticstem cells maintenance. Although, miR‐199b is frequently down‐regulated in acute myeloid leukemia, its role in hematopoieticstem cells quiescence, self‐renewal and differentiation is poorly understood. Our laboratory investigated the role of miR‐199b in hematopoieticstem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) fate using miR‐199b‐5p global deletion mouse model. Characterization of miR‐199b expression pattern among normal HSPC populations revealed that miR‐199b is enriched in LT ...


Loss Of Vitamin A Stores Impairs Cardiac Workload And Function Under Stress Conditions, Amanda J. Favreau‐Lessard, Maryann Asson‐Batres, Douglas B. Sawyer, Ilka Pinz Apr 2020

Loss Of Vitamin A Stores Impairs Cardiac Workload And Function Under Stress Conditions, Amanda J. Favreau‐Lessard, Maryann Asson‐Batres, Douglas B. Sawyer, Ilka Pinz

Costas T. Lambrew Research Retreat 2020

Study Objectives: Assess cardiac function under baseline and cardiac stress conditions in mice with and without hepatic vitamin A stores.


Lean Phenotype Induced By Methionine Restriction In Mice Is Associated With Proteomic Changes In Perivascular Adipose Tissue, Bethany H. Fortier, Calvin Ph Vary, Robert A. Koza, Gene P. Ables, Lucy Liaw Apr 2020

Lean Phenotype Induced By Methionine Restriction In Mice Is Associated With Proteomic Changes In Perivascular Adipose Tissue, Bethany H. Fortier, Calvin Ph Vary, Robert A. Koza, Gene P. Ables, Lucy Liaw

Costas T. Lambrew Research Retreat 2020

Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds blood vessels, is thermogenic, and secretes adipokines that can be vasoprotective. During aging and obesity, PVAT loses its thermogenic capacity, shows increased inflammation, and secretes proatherogenic cytokines. Our collaborative research has previously shown that dietary methionine restriction (MetR) in mice can decrease adiposity, improve glucose sensitivity, and induce PVAT to become more thermogenic. To identify initiating signals from PVAT that correspond to thermogenic conversion, we challenged male C57BL/6 mice with a high fat diet (HFD, 60 kcal% fat, 0.86% methionine) until they weighed >45g (~12 weeks of age). Weight matched mice were then ...


Implementation Of Crispr/Cas Editing Analysis Tool Ice To Detect Multiple Edited Alleles In Mice, Larisa Ryzhova, Anne Harrington, Samantha White, Lucy Liaw Apr 2020

Implementation Of Crispr/Cas Editing Analysis Tool Ice To Detect Multiple Edited Alleles In Mice, Larisa Ryzhova, Anne Harrington, Samantha White, Lucy Liaw

Costas T. Lambrew Research Retreat 2020

There is high demand for the development of experimental mouse models to study physiological processes and human diseases. CRISPR/Cas technology has offered a relatively efficient way to generate modifications in the mouse genome. However, this methodology often creates multiple, diverse genetic alterations, even when a strategy for a very specific targeted mutation is implemented. It is also rare that F0 mice will have single modified allele, and commonly, resultant mice are mosaic, containing multiple genomic modifications. In order to reduce the time and resources required to screen F0 mice and to detect somatic mosaicism, we implemented use of the ...


Flexibility And Constraint In Preimplantation Gene Regulation In Mouse, Colin C. Conine, Marina Krykbaeva, Lina Song, Robert C. Brewster, Nir Friedman, Oliver J. Rando Mar 2020

Flexibility And Constraint In Preimplantation Gene Regulation In Mouse, Colin C. Conine, Marina Krykbaeva, Lina Song, Robert C. Brewster, Nir Friedman, Oliver J. Rando

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Although many features of embryonic development exhibit remarkable stability in the face of environmental perturbations, it is also clear that some aspects of early embryogenesis can be modulated by non-genetic influences during and after fertilization. Among potential perturbations experienced during reproduction, understanding the consequences of differing ex vivo fertilization methods at a molecular level is imperative for comprehending both the basic biology of early development and the potential consequences of assisted reproduction. Here, we set out to explore stable and flexible aspects of preimplantation gene expression using single-embryo RNA-sequencing of mouse embryos fertilized by natural mating, in vitro fertilization, or ...


Immune Checkpoint Modulation Enhances Hiv-1 Antibody Induction., Todd Bradley, Masayuki Kuraoka, Chen-Hao Yeh, Ming Tian, Huan Chen, Derek W Cain, Xuejun Chen, Cheng Cheng, Ali H Ellebedy, Robert Parks, Maggie Barr, Laura L. Sutherland, Richard M. Scearce, Cindy M. Bowman, Hilary Bouton-Verville, Sampa Santra, Kevin Wiehe, Mark G. Lewis, Ane Ogbe, Persephone Borrow, David Montefiori, Mattia Bonsignori, M Anthony Moody, Laurent Verkoczy, Kevin O. Saunders, Rafi Ahmed, John R. Mascola, Garnett Kelsoe, Frederick W. Alt, Barton F. Haynes Feb 2020

Immune Checkpoint Modulation Enhances Hiv-1 Antibody Induction., Todd Bradley, Masayuki Kuraoka, Chen-Hao Yeh, Ming Tian, Huan Chen, Derek W Cain, Xuejun Chen, Cheng Cheng, Ali H Ellebedy, Robert Parks, Maggie Barr, Laura L. Sutherland, Richard M. Scearce, Cindy M. Bowman, Hilary Bouton-Verville, Sampa Santra, Kevin Wiehe, Mark G. Lewis, Ane Ogbe, Persephone Borrow, David Montefiori, Mattia Bonsignori, M Anthony Moody, Laurent Verkoczy, Kevin O. Saunders, Rafi Ahmed, John R. Mascola, Garnett Kelsoe, Frederick W. Alt, Barton F. Haynes

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Eliciting protective titers of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a goal of HIV-1 vaccine development, but current vaccine strategies have yet to induce bnAbs in humans. Many bnAbs isolated from HIV-1-infected individuals are encoded by immunoglobulin gene rearrangments with infrequent naive B cell precursors and with unusual genetic features that may be subject to host regulatory control. Here, we administer antibodies targeting immune cell regulatory receptors CTLA-4, PD-1 or OX40 along with HIV envelope (Env) vaccines to rhesus macaques and bnAb immunoglobulin knock-in (KI) mice expressing diverse precursors of CD4 binding site HIV-1 bnAbs. CTLA-4 blockade augments HIV-1 Env ...


Dormant Pathogenic Cd4(+) T Cells Are Prevalent In The Peripheral Repertoire Of Healthy Mice, Anna Cebula, Michal Kuczma, Edyta Szurek, Maciej Pietrzak, Natasha Savage, Wessam R. Elhefnawy, Grzegorz Rempala, Piotr Kraj, Leszek Ignatowicz Oct 2019

Dormant Pathogenic Cd4(+) T Cells Are Prevalent In The Peripheral Repertoire Of Healthy Mice, Anna Cebula, Michal Kuczma, Edyta Szurek, Maciej Pietrzak, Natasha Savage, Wessam R. Elhefnawy, Grzegorz Rempala, Piotr Kraj, Leszek Ignatowicz

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Thymic central tolerance eliminates most immature T cells with autoreactive T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize self MHC/peptide complexes. Regardless, an unknown number of autoreactive CD4+Foxp3 T cells escape negative selection and in the periphery require continuous suppression by CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory cells (Tregs). Here, we compare immune repertoires of Treg-deficient and Treg-sufficient mice to find Tregs continuously constraining one-third of mature CD4+Foxp3 cells from converting to pathogenic effectors in healthy mice. These dormant pathogenic clones frequently express TCRs activatable by ubiquitous autoantigens presented by class II MHCs on conventional dendritic cells, including selfpeptides that select them ...


Developing Drug Therapies: Cognitive Damage In Mice Following Brain Radiation, Rachel Yuska Aug 2019

Developing Drug Therapies: Cognitive Damage In Mice Following Brain Radiation, Rachel Yuska

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Pediatric brain cancer patients are at a high risk for radiation-induced cognitive impairment due to white matter changes in the brain. Half of six-month radiotherapy survivors develop significant changes in white matter. Previous research has shown that a mouse model can be used to show similar cognitive and behavioral deficits in human patients. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of two drug therapies, Donepezil and 3,3-Diindolylmethane (DIM), that could be used to either protect the brain from radiation injury or cure the cognitive injury and behavioral deficits that result from whole-brain irradiation. This project consisted ...


Pathologic Gene Network Rewiring Implicates Ppp1r3a As A Central Regulator In Pressure Overload Heart Failure., Pablo Cordero, Victoria N Parikh, Elizabeth T Chin, Ayca Erbilgin, Michael J Gloudemans, Ching Shang, Yong Huang, Alex C Chang, Kevin S Smith, Frederick Dewey, Kathia Zaleta, Michael Morley, Jeff Brandimarto, Nicole Glazer, Daryl Waggott, Aleksandra Pavlovic, Mingming Zhao, Christine S Moravec, W H Wilson Tang, Jamie Skreen, Christine Malloy, Sridhar Hannenhalli, Hongzhe Li, Scott Ritter, Mingyao Li, Daniel Bernstein, Andrew Connolly, Hakon Hakonarson, Aldons J Lusis, Kenneth B Margulies, Anna A Depaoli-Roach, Stephen B Montgomery, Matthew T Wheeler, Thomas Cappola, Euan A Ashley Jun 2019

Pathologic Gene Network Rewiring Implicates Ppp1r3a As A Central Regulator In Pressure Overload Heart Failure., Pablo Cordero, Victoria N Parikh, Elizabeth T Chin, Ayca Erbilgin, Michael J Gloudemans, Ching Shang, Yong Huang, Alex C Chang, Kevin S Smith, Frederick Dewey, Kathia Zaleta, Michael Morley, Jeff Brandimarto, Nicole Glazer, Daryl Waggott, Aleksandra Pavlovic, Mingming Zhao, Christine S Moravec, W H Wilson Tang, Jamie Skreen, Christine Malloy, Sridhar Hannenhalli, Hongzhe Li, Scott Ritter, Mingyao Li, Daniel Bernstein, Andrew Connolly, Hakon Hakonarson, Aldons J Lusis, Kenneth B Margulies, Anna A Depaoli-Roach, Stephen B Montgomery, Matthew T Wheeler, Thomas Cappola, Euan A Ashley

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Heart failure is a leading cause of mortality, yet our understanding of the genetic interactions underlying this disease remains incomplete. Here, we harvest 1352 healthy and failing human hearts directly from transplant center operating rooms, and obtain genome-wide genotyping and gene expression measurements for a subset of 313. We build failing and non-failing cardiac regulatory gene networks, revealing important regulators and cardiac expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). PPP1R3A emerges as a regulator whose network connectivity changes significantly between health and disease. RNA sequencing after PPP1R3A knockdown validates network-based predictions, and highlights metabolic pathway regulation associated with increased cardiomyocyte size and ...


Xx Sex Chromosome Complement Promotes Atherosclerosis In Mice, Yasir Alsiraj, Xuqi Chen, Sean E. Thatcher, Ryan E. Temel, Lei Cai, Eric M. Blalock, Wendy Katz, Heba M. Ali, Michael C. Petriello, Pan Deng, Andrew J. Morris, Xuping Wang, Aldons J. Lusis, Arthur P. Arnold, Karen Reue, Katherine L. Thompson, Patrick Tso, Lisa A. Cassis Jun 2019

Xx Sex Chromosome Complement Promotes Atherosclerosis In Mice, Yasir Alsiraj, Xuqi Chen, Sean E. Thatcher, Ryan E. Temel, Lei Cai, Eric M. Blalock, Wendy Katz, Heba M. Ali, Michael C. Petriello, Pan Deng, Andrew J. Morris, Xuping Wang, Aldons J. Lusis, Arthur P. Arnold, Karen Reue, Katherine L. Thompson, Patrick Tso, Lisa A. Cassis

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Men and women differ in circulating lipids and coronary artery disease (CAD). While sex hormones such as estrogens decrease CAD risk, hormone replacement therapy increases risk. Biological sex is determined by sex hormones and chromosomes, but effects of sex chromosomes on circulating lipids and atherosclerosis are unknown. Here, we use mouse models to separate effects of sex chromosomes and hormones on atherosclerosis, circulating lipids and intestinal fat metabolism. We assess atherosclerosis in multiple models and experimental paradigms that distinguish effects of sex chromosomes, and male or female gonads. Pro-atherogenic lipids and atherosclerosis are greater in XX than XY mice, indicating ...


Cyclin C Regulated Oxidative Stress Responsive Transcriptome In Mus Musculus Embryonic Fibroblasts, David C Stieg, Kai-Ti Chang, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich Jun 2019

Cyclin C Regulated Oxidative Stress Responsive Transcriptome In Mus Musculus Embryonic Fibroblasts, David C Stieg, Kai-Ti Chang, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

The transcriptional changes that occur in response to oxidative stress help direct the decision to maintain cell viability or enter a cell death pathway. Cyclin C-Cdk8 is a conserved kinase that associates with the RNA polymerase II Mediator complex that stimulates or represses transcription depending on the locus. In response to oxidative stress, cyclin C, but not Cdk8, displays partial translocation into the cytoplasm. These findings open the possibility that cyclin C relocalization is a regulatory mechanism governing oxidative stress-induced transcriptional changes. In the present study, the cyclin C-dependent transcriptome was determined and compared to transcriptional changes occurring in oxidatively ...


Generation Of Functional Human Adipose Tissue In Mice From Primed Progenitor Cells, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Jorge Lujan-Hernandez, So Yun Min, Tiffany Desouza, Patrick Teebagy, Anand Desai, Heather Tessier, Robert Slamin, Leah Siegel-Reamer, Cara Berg, Angel Baez, Janice F. Lalikos, Silvia Corvera Jun 2019

Generation Of Functional Human Adipose Tissue In Mice From Primed Progenitor Cells, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Jorge Lujan-Hernandez, So Yun Min, Tiffany Desouza, Patrick Teebagy, Anand Desai, Heather Tessier, Robert Slamin, Leah Siegel-Reamer, Cara Berg, Angel Baez, Janice F. Lalikos, Silvia Corvera

Senior Scholars Program

Adipose tissue (AT) is used extensively in reconstructive and regenerative therapies, but transplanted fat often undergoes cell death, leading to inflammation, calcification, and requirement for further revision surgery. Previously, we have found that mesenchymal progenitor cells within human AT can proliferate in three-dimensional culture under proangiogenic conditions. These cells (primed ADipose progenitor cells, PADS) robustly differentiate into adipocytes in vitro (ad-PADS). The goal of this study is to determine whether ad-PADS can form structured AT in vivo, with potential for use in surgical applications. Grafts formed from ad-PADS were compared to grafts formed from AT obtained by liposuction after implantation ...


A High-Throughput Screen Indicates Gemcitabine And Jak Inhibitors May Be Useful For Treating Pediatric Aml, Christina D. Drenberg, Anang Shelat, Jinjun Dang, Anitria Cotton, Shelley J. Orwick, Mengyu Li, Jae Yoon Jeon, Qiang Fu, Daelynn R. Buelow, Marissa Pioso, Shuiying Hu, Hiroto Inaba, Raul C. Ribeiro, Jeffrey E. Rubnitz, Tanja A. Gruber, R. Kiplin Guy, Sharyn D Baker May 2019

A High-Throughput Screen Indicates Gemcitabine And Jak Inhibitors May Be Useful For Treating Pediatric Aml, Christina D. Drenberg, Anang Shelat, Jinjun Dang, Anitria Cotton, Shelley J. Orwick, Mengyu Li, Jae Yoon Jeon, Qiang Fu, Daelynn R. Buelow, Marissa Pioso, Shuiying Hu, Hiroto Inaba, Raul C. Ribeiro, Jeffrey E. Rubnitz, Tanja A. Gruber, R. Kiplin Guy, Sharyn D Baker

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Improvement in survival has been achieved for children and adolescents with AML but is largely attributed to enhanced supportive care as opposed to the development of better treatment regimens. High risk subtypes continue to have poor outcomes with event free survival rates < 40% despite the use of high intensity chemotherapy in combination with hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Here we combine high-throughput screening, intracellular accumulation assays, and in vivo efficacy studies to identify therapeutic strategies for pediatric AML. We report therapeutics not currently used to treat AML, gemcitabine and cabazitaxel, have broad anti-leukemic activity across subtypes and are more effective relative to the AML standard of care, cytarabine, both in vitro and in vivo. JAK inhibitors are selective for acute megakaryoblastic leukemia and significantly prolong survival in multiple preclinical models. Our approach provides advances in the development of treatment strategies for pediatric AML.


Gasdermin Pores Permeabilize Mitochondria To Augment Caspase-3 Activation During Apoptosis And Inflammasome Activation., Corey Rogers, Dan A. Erkes, Alexandria Nardone, Andrew E. Aplin, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Emad S. Alnemri Apr 2019

Gasdermin Pores Permeabilize Mitochondria To Augment Caspase-3 Activation During Apoptosis And Inflammasome Activation., Corey Rogers, Dan A. Erkes, Alexandria Nardone, Andrew E. Aplin, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Emad S. Alnemri

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Gasdermin E (GSDME/DFNA5) cleavage by caspase-3 liberates the GSDME-N domain, which mediates pyroptosis by forming pores in the plasma membrane. Here we show that GSDME-N also permeabilizes the mitochondrial membrane, releasing cytochrome c and activating the apoptosome. Cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation in response to intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic stimuli are significantly reduced in GSDME-deficient cells comparing with wild type cells. GSDME deficiency also accelerates cell growth in culture and in a mouse model of melanoma. Phosphomimetic mutation of the highly conserved phosphorylatable Thr6 residue of GSDME, inhibits its pore-forming activity, thus uncovering a potential mechanism by which ...


Proteomic Alterations Of Hdl In Youth With Type 1 Diabetes And Their Associations With Glycemic Control: A Case-Control Study, Evgenia Gourgari, Junfeng Ma, Martin P. Playford, Nehal N. Mehta, Radoslav Goldman, Alan T. Remaley, Scott M. Gordon Mar 2019

Proteomic Alterations Of Hdl In Youth With Type 1 Diabetes And Their Associations With Glycemic Control: A Case-Control Study, Evgenia Gourgari, Junfeng Ma, Martin P. Playford, Nehal N. Mehta, Radoslav Goldman, Alan T. Remaley, Scott M. Gordon

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

Background: Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) typically have normal or even elevated plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations; however, HDL protein composition can be altered without a change in cholesterol content. Alteration of the HDL proteome can result in dysfunctional HDL particles with reduced ability to protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to compare the HDL proteomes of youth with T1DM and healthy controls (HC) and to evaluate the influence of glycemic control on HDL protein composition.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional case–control study. Blood samples were obtained from patients with T1DM ...


Development And Validation Of A Rapid Method For The Detection Of Latrunculol A In Plasma., Jiajiu Shaw, Frederick A. Valeriote, Joseph Media, Tyler A. Johnson, Taro Amagata, Karen Tenney, Phillip Crews Mar 2019

Development And Validation Of A Rapid Method For The Detection Of Latrunculol A In Plasma., Jiajiu Shaw, Frederick A. Valeriote, Joseph Media, Tyler A. Johnson, Taro Amagata, Karen Tenney, Phillip Crews

Tyler Johnson

Latrunculol A is a recently discovered 6,7-dihydroxy analog of the potent actin inhibitor latrunculin A. Latrunculol A has exhibited greater cytotoxicity than latrunculin A against both murine and human colon tumor cell lines in vitro. Currently, there are no reports regarding the bioavailability of latrunculol A in vivo. This study was undertaken as a prelude to pharmacokinetic assessments and it is the first work where bioavailability of latrunculol A was studied. In the present work, a simple plasma preparation and a rapid HPLC method have been developed. Mouse plasma containing latrunculol A was first treated by acetonitrile and then ...


Neoantigen Screening Identifies Broad Tp53 Mutant Immunogenicity In Patients With Epithelial Cancers., Parisa Malekzadeh, Anna Pasetto, Paul F Robbins, Maria R Parkhurst, Biman C Paria, Li Jia, Jared J Gartner, Victoria Hill, Zhiya Yu, Nicholas P Restifo, Abraham Sachs, Eric Tran, Winifred Lo, Robert Pt Somerville, Steven A Rosenberg, Drew C Deniger Mar 2019

Neoantigen Screening Identifies Broad Tp53 Mutant Immunogenicity In Patients With Epithelial Cancers., Parisa Malekzadeh, Anna Pasetto, Paul F Robbins, Maria R Parkhurst, Biman C Paria, Li Jia, Jared J Gartner, Victoria Hill, Zhiya Yu, Nicholas P Restifo, Abraham Sachs, Eric Tran, Winifred Lo, Robert Pt Somerville, Steven A Rosenberg, Drew C Deniger

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

No abstract provided.


Myxobacteria Versus Sponge-Derived Alkaloids: The Bengamide Family Identified As Potent Immune Modulating Agents By Scrutiny Of Lc-Ms/Elsd Libraries., Tyler A. Johnson, Johann Sohn, Yvette M Vaske, Kimberly N White, Tanya L Cohen, Helene C Vervoort, Karen Tenney, Frederick A Valeriote, Leonard F Bjeldanes, Phillip Crews Feb 2019

Myxobacteria Versus Sponge-Derived Alkaloids: The Bengamide Family Identified As Potent Immune Modulating Agents By Scrutiny Of Lc-Ms/Elsd Libraries., Tyler A. Johnson, Johann Sohn, Yvette M Vaske, Kimberly N White, Tanya L Cohen, Helene C Vervoort, Karen Tenney, Frederick A Valeriote, Leonard F Bjeldanes, Phillip Crews

Tyler Johnson

A nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) luciferase assay has been employed to identify the bengamides, previously known for their anti-tumor activity, as a new class of immune modulators. A unique element of this study was that the bengamide analogs were isolated from two disparate sources, Myxococcus virescens (bacterium) and Jaspis coriacea (sponge). Comparative LC-MS/ELSD and NMR analysis facilitated the isolation of M. viriscens derived samples of bengamide E (8) and two congeners, bengamide E' (13) and F' (14) each isolated as an insperable mixture of diastereomers. Additional compounds drawn from the UC, Santa Cruz repository allowed expansion of the structure activity ...


Lipophilic Stinging Nettle Extracts Possess Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Are Not Cytotoxic And May Be Superior To Traditional Tinctures For Treating Inflammatory Disorders., Tyler A. Johnson, Johann Sohn, Wayne D Inman, Leonard F Bjeldanes, Keith Rayburn Feb 2019

Lipophilic Stinging Nettle Extracts Possess Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Are Not Cytotoxic And May Be Superior To Traditional Tinctures For Treating Inflammatory Disorders., Tyler A. Johnson, Johann Sohn, Wayne D Inman, Leonard F Bjeldanes, Keith Rayburn

Tyler Johnson

Extracts of four plant portions (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) of Urtica dioica (the stinging nettle) were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) involving water, hexanes, methanol and dichloromethane. The extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in an NF-κB luciferase and MTT assay using macrophage immune (RAW264.7) cells. A standardized commercial ethanol extract of nettle leaves was also evaluated. The methanolic extract of the flowering portions displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity on par with a standard compound celastrol (1) but were moderately cytotoxic. Alternatively, the polar extracts (water, methanol, ethanol) of the roots, stems and leaves displayed ...


Pretreatment With A Heat-Killed Probiotic Modulates The Nlrp3 Inflammasome And Attenuates Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer In Mice., I-Che Chung, Chun-Nan Ouyang, Sheng-Ning Yuan, Hsin-Chung Lin, Kuo-Yang Huang, Pao-Shu Wu, Chia-Yuan Liu, Kuen-Jou Tsai, Lai-Keng Loi, Yu-Jen Chen, An-Ko Chung, David M. Ojcius, Yu-Sun Chang, Lih-Chyang Chen Feb 2019

Pretreatment With A Heat-Killed Probiotic Modulates The Nlrp3 Inflammasome And Attenuates Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer In Mice., I-Che Chung, Chun-Nan Ouyang, Sheng-Ning Yuan, Hsin-Chung Lin, Kuo-Yang Huang, Pao-Shu Wu, Chia-Yuan Liu, Kuen-Jou Tsai, Lai-Keng Loi, Yu-Jen Chen, An-Ko Chung, David M. Ojcius, Yu-Sun Chang, Lih-Chyang Chen

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Inflammation contributes to cancer development and inflammatory bowel disease is an important risk factor for CRC. The aim of this study is to assess whether a widely used probiotic Enterococcus faecalis can modulate the NLRP3 inflammasome and protect against colitis and colitis-associated CRC. We studied the effect of heat-killed cells of E. faecalis on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in THP-1-derived macrophages. Pretreatment of E. faecalis or NLRP3 siRNA can inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages in response to fecal content or commensal microbes, P. mirabilis or E. coli, according to ...


Different Genetic Mechanisms Mediate Spontaneous Versus Uvr-Induced Malignant Melanoma, Blake Ferguson, Herlina Y. Handoko, Pamela Mukhopadhyay, Arash Chitsazan, Lois Balmer, Grant Morahan, Graeme J. Walker Jan 2019

Different Genetic Mechanisms Mediate Spontaneous Versus Uvr-Induced Malignant Melanoma, Blake Ferguson, Herlina Y. Handoko, Pamela Mukhopadhyay, Arash Chitsazan, Lois Balmer, Grant Morahan, Graeme J. Walker

ECU Publications Post 2013

Genetic variation conferring resistance and susceptibility to carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis is frequently studied in mice. We have now turned this idea to melanoma using the collaborative cross (CC), a resource of mouse strains designed to discover genes for complex diseases. We studied melanoma-prone transgenic progeny across seventy CC genetic backgrounds. We mapped a strong quantitative trait locus for rapid onset spontaneous melanoma onset to Prkdc, a gene involved in detection and repair of DNA damage. In contrast, rapid onset UVR-induced melanoma was linked to the ribosomal subunit gene Rrp15. Ribosome biogenesis was upregulated in skin shortly after UVR exposure. Mechanistically, variation ...


Disruption Of The Hippocampal And Hypothalamic Blood-Brain Barrier In A Diet-Induced Obese Model Of Type Ii Diabetes: Prevention And Treatment By The Mitochondrial Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor, Topiramate, Therese S. Salameh, William G. Mortell, Aric F. Logsdon, D. Allan Butterfield, William A. Banks Jan 2019

Disruption Of The Hippocampal And Hypothalamic Blood-Brain Barrier In A Diet-Induced Obese Model Of Type Ii Diabetes: Prevention And Treatment By The Mitochondrial Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor, Topiramate, Therese S. Salameh, William G. Mortell, Aric F. Logsdon, D. Allan Butterfield, William A. Banks

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Background: Type II diabetes is a vascular risk factor for cognitive impairment and increased risk of dementia. Disruption of the blood–retinal barrier (BRB) and blood–brain barrier (BBB) are hallmarks of subsequent retinal edema and central nervous system dysfunction. However, the mechanisms by which diet or metabolic syndrome induces dysfunction are not understood. A proposed mechanism is an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase (mCA) decreases ROS and oxidative stress. In this study, topiramate, a mCA inhibitor, was examined for its ability to protect the BRB and BBB in diet-induced obese ...


Star-Related Lipid Transfer Protein 10 (Stard10): A Novel Key Player In Alcohol-Induced Breast Cancer Progression, Andrea Floris, Jia Luo, Jacqueline A. Frank, Jennifer Zhou, Sandro Orrù, Michela Biancolella, Sabina Pucci, Augusto Orlandi, Paolo Campagna, Antonella Balzano, Komal Ramani, Maria Lauda Tomasi Jan 2019

Star-Related Lipid Transfer Protein 10 (Stard10): A Novel Key Player In Alcohol-Induced Breast Cancer Progression, Andrea Floris, Jia Luo, Jacqueline A. Frank, Jennifer Zhou, Sandro Orrù, Michela Biancolella, Sabina Pucci, Augusto Orlandi, Paolo Campagna, Antonella Balzano, Komal Ramani, Maria Lauda Tomasi

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Ethanol abuse promotes breast cancer development, metastasis and recurrence stimulating mammary tumorigenesis by mechanisms that remain unclear. Normally, 35% of breast cancer is Erb-B2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 2 (ERBB2)-positive that predisposes to poor prognosis and relapse, while ethanol drinking leads to invasion of their ERBB2 positive cells triggering the phosphorylation status of mitogen-activated protein kinase. StAR-related lipid transfer protein 10 (STARD10) is a lipid transporter of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); changes on membrane composition of PC and PE occur before the morphological tumorigenic events. Interestingly, STARD10 has been described to be highly expressed in 35–40% of ...


Ctcf Governs The Identity And Migration Of Mge-Derived Cortical Interneurons., Adrienne Elbert, Daniel Vogt, Ashley Watson, Michael Levy, Yan Jiang, Emilie Brûlé, Megan E Rowland, John Rubenstein, Nathalie G Bérubé Jan 2019

Ctcf Governs The Identity And Migration Of Mge-Derived Cortical Interneurons., Adrienne Elbert, Daniel Vogt, Ashley Watson, Michael Levy, Yan Jiang, Emilie Brûlé, Megan E Rowland, John Rubenstein, Nathalie G Bérubé

Paediatrics Publications

The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a central regulator of chromatin topology recently linked to neurodevelopmental disorders such as intellectual disability, autism, and schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to identify novel roles of CTCF in the developing mouse brain. We provide evidence that CTCF is required for the expression of the LIM homeodomain factor LHX6 involved in fate determination of cortical interneurons (CINs) that originate in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE). Conditional


Cardiac Effects Of Huntington’S Disease In Murine Models, Daniel David Child Jan 2019

Cardiac Effects Of Huntington’S Disease In Murine Models, Daniel David Child

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disease known for its severe neurologic phenotype. However, the causative protein in HD, mutant huntingtin (mHTT), is widely expressed across tissue types and may have profound consequences for peripheral organs. Notably, heart disease is the second leading cause of death in HD patients, but if or how cardiac mHTT expression causes pathology is still unknown. Here, I characterize the cardiac phenotype in two HD mouse models and show that dysregulated mTORC1 activity is a key underlying mechanism. I show that normal heart growth is limited in HD mouse models, with mass regulated ...


The Loss Of Atrx Increases Susceptibility To Pancreatic Injury And Oncogenic Kras In Female But Not Male Mice., Claire C Young, Ryan M Baker, Christopher J Howlett, Todd Hryciw, Joshua E Herman, Douglas Higgs, Richard Gibbons, Howard Crawford, Arthur Brown, Christopher L Pin Jan 2019

The Loss Of Atrx Increases Susceptibility To Pancreatic Injury And Oncogenic Kras In Female But Not Male Mice., Claire C Young, Ryan M Baker, Christopher J Howlett, Todd Hryciw, Joshua E Herman, Douglas Higgs, Richard Gibbons, Howard Crawford, Arthur Brown, Christopher L Pin

Paediatrics Publications

Background

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer death in North America, accounting for >30,000 deaths annually. Although somatic activating mutations in KRAS appear in 97% of PDAC patients, additional factors are required to initiate PDAC. Because mutations in genes encoding chromatin remodelling proteins have been implicated in KRAS-mediated PDAC, we investigated whether loss of chromatin remodeler ɑ-thalassemia, mental-retardation, X-linked (ATRX) affects oncogenic KRAS’s ability to promote PDAC. ATRX affects DNA replication, repair, and gene expression and is implicated in other cancers including glioblastomas and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The hypothesis was that deletion of ...


Inflammatory Serine Proteases Play A Critical Role In The Early Pathogenesis Of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy., Mikhail A Kolpakov, Kunal Sikder, Amrita Sarkar, Shaswati Chaki, Sanket K Shukla, Xinji Guo, Zhao Qi, Carlos Barbery, Abdelkarim Sabri, Khadija Rafiq Jan 2019

Inflammatory Serine Proteases Play A Critical Role In The Early Pathogenesis Of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy., Mikhail A Kolpakov, Kunal Sikder, Amrita Sarkar, Shaswati Chaki, Sanket K Shukla, Xinji Guo, Zhao Qi, Carlos Barbery, Abdelkarim Sabri, Khadija Rafiq

Center for Translational Medicine Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by structural and functional alterations that can lead to heart failure. Several mechanisms are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of DCM, however, the molecular mechanism that links inflammation to DCM is incompletely understood. To learn about this mechanism, we investigated the role of inflammatory serine proteases (ISPs) during the development of DCM.

METHODS: Eight weeks old mice with deletion of dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI), an enzyme involved in the maturation of major ISPs, and wild type (WT) mice controls were injected with streptozotocin (50 mg/kg for 5 days intraperitoneally) and ...


Pancreas Of Coxsackievirus-Infected Dams And Their Challenged Pups: A Complex Issue, Sona Sarmirova, Maria Borsanyiova, Brigita Benkoova, Michaela Pospisilova, Rajkumar Rajasekaran, Katarina Berakova, Pavol Gomolcak, Jay Reddy, Shubhada Bopegamage Jan 2019

Pancreas Of Coxsackievirus-Infected Dams And Their Challenged Pups: A Complex Issue, Sona Sarmirova, Maria Borsanyiova, Brigita Benkoova, Michaela Pospisilova, Rajkumar Rajasekaran, Katarina Berakova, Pavol Gomolcak, Jay Reddy, Shubhada Bopegamage

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Enteroviral infections are frequent, often asymptomatic in humans and during gravidity. The present study is an extension of our previous investigations where we had shown pancreatitis in challenged pups of CVB4-E2-infected dams. Present investigation describes the effect of gestational infection with this virus on the pancreas of both dams and their challenged pups. Gravid CD1 outbred mice were orally infected with CVB4-E2 virus at different gestation times. Pups were challenged orally with the same virus after 25 days of birth. Organs were collected at selected intervals postinfection (p.i.), and replicating virus and viral-RNA copies were analyzed. Additional readouts included ...