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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Mechanical Properties Of Canine Patella-Ligament-Tibia Segment., Jeffery Biskup, Andy Freeman, W Camisa, J Innes, Michael Conzemius Jan 2104

Mechanical Properties Of Canine Patella-Ligament-Tibia Segment., Jeffery Biskup, Andy Freeman, W Camisa, J Innes, Michael Conzemius

Jeffery Biskup, DVM, DACVS

OBJECTIVE: To test the ex vivo mechanical properties of canine patella-ligament-tibia (PLT) segment and establish the relationship between donor size and PLT dimensions to the mechanical properties of PLT grafts.STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo mechanical testing study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Canine PLT segments (n = 21 dogs; 42 PLT). METHODS:Morphometric measurements of PLT segments were taken from computed tomography (CT) images and compared with results obtained using calipers. PLT were tested to failure at a rate of 100% length/s. Mechanical properties and failure mode were recorded. RESULTS: PLT width and thickness (P < .001 for both) measured by calipers were significantly lower than those taken from CT images. Thirty-five (83%) specimens failed by avulsion fracture from the patella, 1 failed mid-ligament, and 6 failed by tibial fracture. Dog weight and PLT length had the strongest Pearson's r value when correlated with load at failure (r = 0.73, 0.81, respectively). CONCLUSION:Dog weight and PLT length were the best predictors of load at failure. PLT failure load of dogs weighing >25 kg were similar to those reported for ...


Association Of Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Use With Opioid Prescribing And Health Outcomes: A Comparison Of Program Users And Non-Users, Richard A. Deyo, Jody Hallvik, Christi Hildebran, Miguel Marino, Rachel Springer, Jessica M. Irvine, Nicole O'Kane, Joshua Van Otterloo, Dagan A. Wright, Gillian Leichtling, Lisa M. Millet, Jody Carson, Wayne Wakeland Oct 2018

Association Of Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Use With Opioid Prescribing And Health Outcomes: A Comparison Of Program Users And Non-Users, Richard A. Deyo, Jody Hallvik, Christi Hildebran, Miguel Marino, Rachel Springer, Jessica M. Irvine, Nicole O'Kane, Joshua Van Otterloo, Dagan A. Wright, Gillian Leichtling, Lisa M. Millet, Jody Carson, Wayne Wakeland

Wayne W. Wakeland

Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are a response to the prescription opioid epidemic, but their impacts on prescribing and health outcomes remain unclear, with conflicting reports. We sought to determine if prescriber use of Oregon's prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) led to fewer high-risk opioid prescriptions or overdose events. We conducted a retrospective cohort study from October, 2011 through October, 2014, using statewide PDMP data, hospitalization registry, and vital records.Early PDMP registrants (n=927) were matched with clinicians who never registered during the study period, using baseline prescribing metrics in a propensity score. Generalized estimating equations were used ...


Occupational Therapy’S Emerging Role With Transitioning Adolescents In Foster Care, A. Paul-Ward, Carol A. Lambdin-Pattavina May 2018

Occupational Therapy’S Emerging Role With Transitioning Adolescents In Foster Care, A. Paul-Ward, Carol A. Lambdin-Pattavina

Carol Lambdin-Pattavina

The American Occupational Therapy Association’s Centennial Vision advocates for an emphasis on intervention and prevention services for children, young people, the aging, and those with severe and persistent mental illness. This article discusses mental health issues among adolescents in foster care, a population that would greatly benefit from occupational therapy services emphasizing skill development in the areas of independent living, vocation, and health. Additionally, current intervention modalities used by other disciplines with adolescents in foster care are explored. Finally, a pilot study demonstrating the opportunities for occupational therapists to influence the long-term outcomes of adolescents in foster care is ...


Bone Conduction Transmission And Head‐Shadow Effects For Unilateral Hearing Losses Fit With Transcranial Cic Hearing Aids, Marc A. Fagelson, Colleen Noe, Jennifer Blevins, Owen Murnane Apr 2018

Bone Conduction Transmission And Head‐Shadow Effects For Unilateral Hearing Losses Fit With Transcranial Cic Hearing Aids, Marc A. Fagelson, Colleen Noe, Jennifer Blevins, Owen Murnane

Owen D. Murnane

Bone conduction transmission and head‐shadow effects were determined with transcranial completely‐in‐the‐canal (TCCIC) CROS hearing aids. Five subjects with documented profound unilateral hearing loss and experience with traditional CROS/BICROS fittings (TCROS) were tested with a CIC hearing aid placed in their poorer ear. Peak SPL was measured at the tympanic membrane and ranged from 105–115 dB SPL at 2000 Hz. Pure‐tone crossover thresholds and functional gain tested at frequencies from 250–8000 Hz varied considerably more than the SPL measures. The pure‐tone results indicated that sensitivity in the better ear was moderately associated ...


Gap Discrimination And Speech Perception In Noise, Marc A. Fagelson Apr 2018

Gap Discrimination And Speech Perception In Noise, Marc A. Fagelson

Marc A. Fagelson

The relation between discrimination of silent gaps and speech‐in‐noise perception was measured in 20 normal‐hearing listeners using speech‐shaped noise as both the gap markers and the noise source for speech testing. In the gap discrimination experiment, subjects compared silent gaps marked by 60 dB SPL 250‐ms noise bursts to standards of either 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, or 200 ms. The gap results were most similar to those reported by Abel [S. M. Abel, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 52, 519–524 (1972)] as ΔT/T decreased non‐monotonically with increased gap length. In a second ...


Physician-Pharmacist Communication: Quotes, Quandaries And Quality, Nicholas E. Hagemeier Feb 2018

Physician-Pharmacist Communication: Quotes, Quandaries And Quality, Nicholas E. Hagemeier

Nicholas E. Hagemeier

No abstract provided.


On Stratified Bivariate Ranked Set Sampling With Optimal Allocation For Naïve And Ratio Estimators, Lili Yu, Hani M. Samawi, Daniel Linder, Arpita Chatterjee, Yisong Huang, Robert L. Vogel Oct 2017

On Stratified Bivariate Ranked Set Sampling With Optimal Allocation For Naïve And Ratio Estimators, Lili Yu, Hani M. Samawi, Daniel Linder, Arpita Chatterjee, Yisong Huang, Robert L. Vogel

Robert L. Vogel

The purpose of the current work is to introduce stratified bivariate ranked set sampling (SBVRSS) and investigate its performance for estimating the population mean using both naïve and ratio methods. The properties of the proposed estimator are derived along with the optimal allocation with respect to stratification. We conduct a simulation study to demonstrate the relative efficiency of SBVRSS as compared to stratified bivariate simple random sampling (SBVSRS) for ratio estimation. Data that consist of weights and bilirubin levels in the blood of 120 babies are used to illustrate the procedure on a real data set. Based on our simulation ...


In-House Daily Consensus Conference: An Important Quality Control/Quality Assurance Activity--Experience At A Major Referral Center., Amna Khurshid, Zubair Ahmad, Asim Qureshi May 2017

In-House Daily Consensus Conference: An Important Quality Control/Quality Assurance Activity--Experience At A Major Referral Center., Amna Khurshid, Zubair Ahmad, Asim Qureshi

Zubair Ahmad

Background:For every practicing histopathologist, improvement of diagnostic accuracy is an important objective. Personal consults are an important component of quality control (QC)/quality assurance (QA) in our Section of Histopathology. In addition, the College of American Pathologists recommends a daily in-house consensus conference, which is a prospective system by which all difficult and problematic cases are reviewed and discussed and signed out by consensus. Design: In-house consensus conference is held daily using a multi-headed microscope. This collegial session is run by the seniormost consultant in the section and is attended by all histopathology consultants and residents. The consultants and ...


Treat The Cause: Evidence-Based Practice, James M. Rippe, Michael Greger, David L. Katz, John H. Kelly, Margaret Moore, Darren Morton Apr 2017

Treat The Cause: Evidence-Based Practice, James M. Rippe, Michael Greger, David L. Katz, John H. Kelly, Margaret Moore, Darren Morton

Darren Morton

Darren was invited by the board of the American College of Lifestyle Medicine to represent the Australasian Lifestyle Medicine perspective on the opening panel of the 2014 American College of Lifestyle Medicine conference in San Diego (Nov, 2014). The dialogue, intended for an international audience, was later published as the mentioned journal article.


The Transcriptional Response To Oxidative Stress During Vertebrate Development: Effects Of Tert-Butylhydroquinone And 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin, Mark E. Hahn, Andrew G. Mcarthur, Sibel I. Karchner, Diana G. Franks, Matthew J. Jenny, Alicia R. Timme-Laragy, John J. Stegeman, Bruce R. Woodin, Michael J. Cipriano, Elwood Linney Dec 2016

The Transcriptional Response To Oxidative Stress During Vertebrate Development: Effects Of Tert-Butylhydroquinone And 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin, Mark E. Hahn, Andrew G. Mcarthur, Sibel I. Karchner, Diana G. Franks, Matthew J. Jenny, Alicia R. Timme-Laragy, John J. Stegeman, Bruce R. Woodin, Michael J. Cipriano, Elwood Linney

Alicia R. Timme-Laragy

Oxidative stress is an important mechanism of chemical toxicity, contributing to teratogenesis and to cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Developing animals may be especially sensitive to chemicals causing oxidative stress. The developmental expression and inducibility of anti-oxidant defenses through activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) affect susceptibility to oxidants, but the embryonic response to oxidants is not well understood. To assess the response to chemically mediated oxidative stress and how it may vary during development, zebrafish embryos, eleutheroembryos, or larvae at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 days post fertilization (dpf) were exposed to DMSO (0.1%), tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ; 10 ...


Social Media And Alcohol Use: Adverse Impact Of Facebook And Twitter On College Students, Gulzar H. Shah, Moya L. Alfonso, Nina Jolani Nov 2016

Social Media And Alcohol Use: Adverse Impact Of Facebook And Twitter On College Students, Gulzar H. Shah, Moya L. Alfonso, Nina Jolani

Gulzar H. Shah

The use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) has become an integral part of daily life, particularly for adolescents. The chapter examines the negative impact of social networking sites and how they may expose alcohol-related consumption and behavior to young adults, especially college students. In particular, the focus is on the use of two specific social networking sites, Facebook and Twitter, and their association with alcohol use. The review of existing literature reveals that the depiction of alcohol use on social networking sites has a deleterious effect on alcohol use through the creation of positive social norms toward use and abuse ...


Moving Forward With Hospital Cleaning, Brett G. Mitchell, Stephanie Dancer, Ramon Shaban, Nicholas Graves Oct 2016

Moving Forward With Hospital Cleaning, Brett G. Mitchell, Stephanie Dancer, Ramon Shaban, Nicholas Graves

Brett Mitchell

It is encouraging to see the development of new innovations in the area of hospital cleaning.1 However, there remains a fundamental question to answer when evaluating changes in cleaning practice. This question is, “Does a novel cleaning strategy reduce the risk of health care-associated infection and is it a cost-effective use of scarce health care resources?” Lack of evidence on patient outcome remains the single most important deficit when proposing changes to routine cleaning practice. It is also true to say that the role of cleaning itself for controlling health care-associated infection is still hotly debated.


Healthcare-Associated Infections: Getting The Balance Right In Safety And Quality V. Public Reporting, Brett G. Mitchell Oct 2016

Healthcare-Associated Infections: Getting The Balance Right In Safety And Quality V. Public Reporting, Brett G. Mitchell

Brett Mitchell

Healthcare settings are dangerous places. For those receiving care, the risk of unintended harm from healthcare failures continues to be significant. Given this, there is a need to monitor standards in healthcare, not only to identify potential issues, but also to plan and evaluate interventions aimed at improving healthcare standards. Public reporting of performance standards is one aspect to monitoring standards, but not the only one. Public reporting also brings with it challenges. This perspective explores the recent move to publicly report one healthcare-associated infection (HAI) on the MyHospitals website and comments on the broader issue of using existing HAI ...


Evaluation Of Student Nurses' Perception Of Preparedness For Oral Medication Administration In Clinical Practice: A Collaborative Study, Christina Aggar, Sonja Dawson Oct 2016

Evaluation Of Student Nurses' Perception Of Preparedness For Oral Medication Administration In Clinical Practice: A Collaborative Study, Christina Aggar, Sonja Dawson

Sonja Dawson

Background Attainment of oral medication administration skills and competency for student nurses is challenging and medication errors are common. The ability of nurses to master a clinical skill is dependent upon educational instruction and practice. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate nursing students' perception of preparedness for oral medication administration in two practice environments and determine possible relationship between student demographics and their perceived preparedness for oral medication administration. Design This was a cross sectional, exploratory study. Participants Eighty-eight second year students from a baccalaureate nursing course from two metropolitan Australian tertiary institutions participated. Methods Student nurses ...


Impact Of A Prevention Bundle On Clostridium Difficile Infection Rates In A Hospital In The Southeastern United States, Bionca M. Davis, Jingjing Yin, Doug Blomberg, Isaac Chun-Hai Fung Oct 2016

Impact Of A Prevention Bundle On Clostridium Difficile Infection Rates In A Hospital In The Southeastern United States, Bionca M. Davis, Jingjing Yin, Doug Blomberg, Isaac Chun-Hai Fung

Jingjing Yin

No abstract provided.


Comparison Of The J-1 Visa Waiver And Loan Repayment Programs In The Recruitment And Retention Of Physicians In Rural Nebraska, Samuel T. Opoku, Bettye A. Apenteng, Ge Lin, Li-Wu Chen, David Palm, Thomas Rauner Sep 2016

Comparison Of The J-1 Visa Waiver And Loan Repayment Programs In The Recruitment And Retention Of Physicians In Rural Nebraska, Samuel T. Opoku, Bettye A. Apenteng, Ge Lin, Li-Wu Chen, David Palm, Thomas Rauner

Bettye A. Apenteng

Purpose

There is a dearth of literature evaluating the effectiveness of programs aimed at recruiting and retaining physicians in rural Nebraska. Taking advantage of the Nebraska Health Professional Tracking System, this study attempts to comparatively assess the effectiveness of the J-1 visa waiver and state loan repayment programs in the recruitment and retention of physicians in rural Nebraska.

Methods

A mixed methods approach was used. We tracked 240 physicians who enrolled in the J-1 visa waiver and state loan repayment programs between 1996 and 2012 until 2013. In addition, key informant interviews were conducted to obtain perspectives on the recruitment ...


Neutralizing Antibodies Against West Nile Virus Identified Directly From Human B Cells By Single-Cell Analysis And Next Generation Sequencing, K. Tsioris, N. T. Gupta, A. O. Ogunniyi, R. M. Zimnisky, F. Qian, Y. Yao, X. Wang, J. N. Stern, R. Chari, A. W. Briggs Sep 2016

Neutralizing Antibodies Against West Nile Virus Identified Directly From Human B Cells By Single-Cell Analysis And Next Generation Sequencing, K. Tsioris, N. T. Gupta, A. O. Ogunniyi, R. M. Zimnisky, F. Qian, Y. Yao, X. Wang, J. N. Stern, R. Chari, A. W. Briggs

Joel N.H. Stern

West Nile virus (WNV) infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease that can lead to severe neurological illness and currently has no available treatment or vaccine. Using microengraving, an integrated single-cell analysis method, we analyzed a cohort of subjects infected with WNV - recently infected and post-convalescent subjects - and efficiently identified four novel WNV neutralizing antibodies. We also assessed the humoral response to WNV on a single-cell and repertoire level by integrating next generation sequencing (NGS) into our analysis. The results from single-cell analysis indicate persistence of WNV-specific memory B cells and antibody-secreting cells in post-convalescent subjects. These cells exhibited class-switched antibody ...


Advancing Drug Delivery Systems For The Treatment Of Multiple Sclerosis, I. Tabansky, M. D. Messina, C. Bangeranye, J. Goldstein, K. M. Blitz-Shabbir, S. Machado, V. Jeganathan, P. Wright, S. Najjar, J. N. Stern Sep 2016

Advancing Drug Delivery Systems For The Treatment Of Multiple Sclerosis, I. Tabansky, M. D. Messina, C. Bangeranye, J. Goldstein, K. M. Blitz-Shabbir, S. Machado, V. Jeganathan, P. Wright, S. Najjar, J. N. Stern

Joel N.H. Stern

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. It is characterized by demyelination of neurons and loss of neuronal axons and oligodendrocytes. In MS, auto-reactive T cells and B cells cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), causing perivenous demyelinating lesions that form multiple discrete inflammatory demyelinated plaques located primarily in the white matter. In chronic MS, cortical demyelination and progressive axonal transections develop. Treatment for MS can be stratified into disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) and symptomatic therapy. DMTs aim to decrease circulating immune cells or to prevent these cells from crossing the BBB and reduce the ...


The Thyroid Hormone Receptor-Associated Protein Trap220 Is Required At Distinct Embryonic Stages In Placental, Cardiac, And Hepatic Development, Christian Landles, Sara Chalk, Jennifer H. Steel, Ian Rosewell, Bradley Spencer- Dene, El-Nasir Lalani, Malcolm G. Parker Aug 2016

The Thyroid Hormone Receptor-Associated Protein Trap220 Is Required At Distinct Embryonic Stages In Placental, Cardiac, And Hepatic Development, Christian Landles, Sara Chalk, Jennifer H. Steel, Ian Rosewell, Bradley Spencer- Dene, El-Nasir Lalani, Malcolm G. Parker

El Nasir Lalani

Recent work indicates that thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein 220 (TRAP220), a subunit of the multiprotein TRAP coactivator complex, is essential for embryonic survival. We have generated TRAP220 conditional null mice that are hypomorphic and express the gene at reduced levels. In contrast to TRAP220 null mice, which die at embryonic d 11.5 (E11.5), hypomorphic mice survive until E13.5. The reduced expression in hypomorphs results in hepatic necrosis, defects in hematopoiesis, and hypoplasia of the ventricular myocardium, similar to that observed in TRAP220 null embryos at an earlier stage. The embryonic lethality of null embryos at E11.5 ...


Reactive Biliary Epithelium: The Product Of A Pluripotential Stem Cell Compartment?, Matthew Golding, Catherine Sarraf, El-Nasir Lalani, Malcolm R. Alison Aug 2016

Reactive Biliary Epithelium: The Product Of A Pluripotential Stem Cell Compartment?, Matthew Golding, Catherine Sarraf, El-Nasir Lalani, Malcolm R. Alison

El Nasir Lalani

Liver parenchymal cells (hepatocytes) have a low rate of turnover, but can nevertheless mount a rapid and efficient regenerative response. However, in some cases of extreme hepatotoxicity hepatocyte proliferation is restricted or even abolished, and instead biliary epithelial cells, commonly referred to as ductular oval cells, migrate into the periportal and midzonal parenchyma. Initially these cells behave as authentic biliary epithelium with expression of the biliary cytokeratin intermediate filaments, but then show hepatocytic traits such as alpha fetoprotein and albumin synthesis. Thereafter these biliary ducts rapidly vanish to be replaced by either small hepatocytes or intestinal-type cells. The proliferation and ...


Phosphorylation Of Both Egfr And Erbb2 Is A Reliable Predictor Of Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation In Response To Egf, Soha Salama El Sheikh, Jan Domin, Paul Abel, Gordon Stamp, El-Nasir Lalani Aug 2016

Phosphorylation Of Both Egfr And Erbb2 Is A Reliable Predictor Of Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation In Response To Egf, Soha Salama El Sheikh, Jan Domin, Paul Abel, Gordon Stamp, El-Nasir Lalani

El Nasir Lalani

Despite multiple reports of overexpression in prostate cancer (PC), the reliance of PC cells on activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling to phosphoinositide 3'-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt/PTEN) and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathways has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we compared the role of EGF-mediated signaling in nonmalignant (BPH-1, PNT1A, and PNT1 B) and PC cell lines (DU145, PC3, LNCaP, and CWR22Rv1). EGF-induced proliferation was observed in all EGFR-expressing PC cells except PC3, indicating that EGFR expression does not unequivocally trigger proliferation following EGF stimulation. ErbB2 recruitment potentiated EGF-induced signals ...


Muc1: A Genetic Susceptibility To Infertility?, Andrew W. Horne, John O. White, Raul A. Margara, Ross Williams, Robert Ml Winston, El-Nasir Lalani Aug 2016

Muc1: A Genetic Susceptibility To Infertility?, Andrew W. Horne, John O. White, Raul A. Margara, Ross Williams, Robert Ml Winston, El-Nasir Lalani

El Nasir Lalani

No abstract provided.


Molecular Cloning And Expression Of Human Tumor-Associated Polymorphic Epithelial Mucin, Gendler S. J, Lancaster C. A, Taylor Papadimitriou J, Duhig T, Peat N, Burchell J, Pemberton L, El-Nasir Lalani, Wilson D Aug 2016

Molecular Cloning And Expression Of Human Tumor-Associated Polymorphic Epithelial Mucin, Gendler S. J, Lancaster C. A, Taylor Papadimitriou J, Duhig T, Peat N, Burchell J, Pemberton L, El-Nasir Lalani, Wilson D

El Nasir Lalani

Human mammary cells present on the cell surface a polymorphic epithelial mucin (PEM) which is developmentally regulated and aberrantly expressed in tumors. PEM carries tumor-associated epitopes recognized by the monoclonal antibodies HMFG-1, HMFG-2, and SM-3. Previously isolated partial cDNA clones revealed that the core protein contained a large domain consisting of variable numbers of 20-amino acid repeat units. We now report the full sequence for PEM, as deduced from cDNA sequences. The encoded protein consists of three distinct regions: the amino terminus consisting of a putative signal peptide and degenerate repeats; the major portion of the protein which is the ...


Muc1 In Normal And Impaired Spermatogenesis, Folker E. Franke, Sigurd Kraus, Claus Eiermann, Katharina Pauls, El-Nasir Lalani, Martin Bergmann Aug 2016

Muc1 In Normal And Impaired Spermatogenesis, Folker E. Franke, Sigurd Kraus, Claus Eiermann, Katharina Pauls, El-Nasir Lalani, Martin Bergmann

El Nasir Lalani

The MUC1 mucin [also known as episialin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) or polymorphic epithelial mucin (PEM)] is a component of the mucosal glycocalyx, contributing to anti-adhesive and protective cell functions. MUC1 has been shown in a variety of epithelial cell types in the reproductive tracts of males and females, but this is the first report of its expression in human testis and non-epithelial cells of the germ cell lineage. Analysing 65 testes with normal or impaired spermatogenesis, we identified MUC1 protein in maturing germ cells by immunohistochemistry using the monoclonal antibodies HMFG1, HMFG2 and SM3 binding to different glycosylation variants ...


Human Muc1 Mucin: A Potent Glandular Morphogen, Mark J. Hudson, Gordon W. Stamp, Khurram S. Chaudhary, Robert Hewitt, Andrew P. Stubbs, Paul D. Abel, El-Nasir Lalani Aug 2016

Human Muc1 Mucin: A Potent Glandular Morphogen, Mark J. Hudson, Gordon W. Stamp, Khurram S. Chaudhary, Robert Hewitt, Andrew P. Stubbs, Paul D. Abel, El-Nasir Lalani

El Nasir Lalani

Human MUC1 mucin is a high-molecular-weight transmembrane glycoprotein, which is apically expressed in the majority of glandular epithelia. During embryonic development, changes in the pattern of MUC1 mucin expression coincide with the onset of glandular differentiation. This mucin is also frequently overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated in carcinomas. To investigate the potential role of MUC1 mucin in morphogenesis, a full length MUC1 cDNA was transfected into murine mammary adenocarcinoma (410.4) and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. This generated four clonal cell lines. Western blotting, FACS analysis, and immunohistochemistry confirmed expression of MUC1. All four MUC1-expressing clones demonstrated altered morphogenesis when ...


Expression Of The Androgen Receptor, Pakt, And Ppten In Breast Cancer And Their Potential In Prognostication, Aisha Sultana, Romana Idress, Zulfiqar Ali Naqvi, Iqbal Azam Syed, Shaista Khan, Anwar Ali Siddiqui, El-Nasir Lalani Aug 2016

Expression Of The Androgen Receptor, Pakt, And Ppten In Breast Cancer And Their Potential In Prognostication, Aisha Sultana, Romana Idress, Zulfiqar Ali Naqvi, Iqbal Azam Syed, Shaista Khan, Anwar Ali Siddiqui, El-Nasir Lalani

El Nasir Lalani

Background

Importance of androgen receptor (AR) as an independent prognostic marker in Pakistani women with breast cancer (BCa) remains unexplored. Our aim was to identify the expression and potential prognostic value of AR, its upstream regulator (pAkt) and target gene (pPTEN) in invasive BCa.

Methods

This study used a cohort of 200 Pakistani women with invasive BCa diagnosed during 2002-2011. Expression of AR, pAkt and pPTEN was determined on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. The association of AR, pAkt and pPTEN with clinicopathological parameters was determined. Survival analyses were undertaken on patients with ≥ 5 years of follow-up ...


Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Of Unstained Tissues: Early Results In Human Breast Cancer, Paul J Tadrous Paul J Tadrous Paul J Tadrous, Jan Siegel Jan Siegel, Paul Mw French Paul Mw French Paul Mw French, Sami Shousha Sami Shousha, El-Nasir Lalani, Gordon Wh Stamp Gordon Wh Stamp Gordon Wh Stamp Aug 2016

Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Of Unstained Tissues: Early Results In Human Breast Cancer, Paul J Tadrous Paul J Tadrous Paul J Tadrous, Jan Siegel Jan Siegel, Paul Mw French Paul Mw French Paul Mw French, Sami Shousha Sami Shousha, El-Nasir Lalani, Gordon Wh Stamp Gordon Wh Stamp Gordon Wh Stamp

El Nasir Lalani

Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) depends on the fluorescence decay differences between tissues to generate image contrast. In the present study FLIM has been applied to fixed (but unstained) breast cancer tissues to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for histopathological assessment. As the FLIM method relies on natural autofluorescence, it may be possible to circumvent tissue processing altogether and so FLIM has the potential to be a powerful new method of in vivo tissue imaging via an endoscopic or per-operative approach in a variety of organs, as well as a research tool for in vivo animal models of disease. Unstained ...


Evaluation Of Inter-Observer Variability In The Grading Of Oral Dysplasia Using Two Different Grading Systems, R. T. Srinivasan, D. Snead, P. Matthews, H. Williams, K. Webster, D. Griffin, El-Nasir Lalani, H. Mehanna Aug 2016

Evaluation Of Inter-Observer Variability In The Grading Of Oral Dysplasia Using Two Different Grading Systems, R. T. Srinivasan, D. Snead, P. Matthews, H. Williams, K. Webster, D. Griffin, El-Nasir Lalani, H. Mehanna

El Nasir Lalani

Objectives

To compare the inter-observer variability in grading of oral dysplasia between two consultant pathologists specialising in head and neck cancer, and one non-specialist, using both the WHO classification 2005 and the Binary Grading system (proposed by Kujanet al. 2005).

Methods

Eighty archived oral biopsy slides consisting of cases with different grades of dysplasia treated and followed up in a tertiary regional centre, were reviewed by three pathologists, blinded to the initial diagnosis and the clinical outcome. The H&E slides were graded according to the criteria of both systems. Inter-observer reliability and variation were computed with kappa coefficient ...


Correlation Between Androgen Receptor Expression And Fgf8 Mrna Levels In Patients With Prostate Cancer And Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy, Q Wang, G W H Stamp, S Powell, P Abel, M Laniado, C Mahony, El-Nasir Lalani, J Waxman Aug 2016

Correlation Between Androgen Receptor Expression And Fgf8 Mrna Levels In Patients With Prostate Cancer And Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy, Q Wang, G W H Stamp, S Powell, P Abel, M Laniado, C Mahony, El-Nasir Lalani, J Waxman

El Nasir Lalani

Aim: To investigate the correlation between androgen receptor expression and fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) mRNA levels.

Methods: 39 human prostate cancers and 14 benign prostatic hypertrophy specimens were examined immunohistochemically for androgen receptor expression and by in situ hybridisation and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for FGF8 expression.

Results: In 39 tumours there was a statistically significant negative correlation between tumour grade and FGF8 expression and a positive correlation between FGF8 and androgen receptor expression. All 14 benign hypertrophy specimens expressed moderate to high levels of FGF8 and androgen receptor.

Conclusions: Loss of FGF8 may be a factor involved ...


Cytoplasmic Induction And Over-Expression Of Cyclooxygenase-2 In Human Prostate Cancer: Implications For Prevention And Treatment, S. Madaan, P. D. Abel, K. S. Chaudhary, R. Hewitt, M. A. Stott, G. W.H. Stamp, El-Nasir Lalani Aug 2016

Cytoplasmic Induction And Over-Expression Of Cyclooxygenase-2 In Human Prostate Cancer: Implications For Prevention And Treatment, S. Madaan, P. D. Abel, K. S. Chaudhary, R. Hewitt, M. A. Stott, G. W.H. Stamp, El-Nasir Lalani

El Nasir Lalani

Objective: To assess the level and morphological distribution of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 in human prostates and to determine any association with the Gleason grade of prostate cancer.

Materials and Methods: The study comprised 30 samples from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 82 with prostate cancer. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the expression of COX-1 and -2, and 13 samples were also assessed using immunoblotting (six BPH and seven cancers).

Results: For both BPH and prostate cancer, COX-1 expression was primarily in the fibromuscular stroma, with variable weak cytoplasmic expression in glandular/neoplastic epithelial cells. In contrast ...