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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Health Literacy And Type 2 Diabetes In Barbados, Coralene Quimby-Worrell Feb 2019

Health Literacy And Type 2 Diabetes In Barbados, Coralene Quimby-Worrell

The Qualitative Report

IIn this qualitative instrumental single case study, I explored how patients living with Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Barbados manage the disease and what role health literacy might play. Purposeful sampling aided in selecting the sample for the study. The sample was 23 participants who were 40 years and older, diagnosed with T2D, living in Barbados, and attending the Endocrine Center for treatment. Participants responded to 13 open ended questions used to answer the research questions. Information was coded using NVivo 10 software and the software provided the themes based on the participants’ responses to the interview questions. The ...


State Roles In Promoting Community Life Engagement: Themes From The State Employment Leadership Network’S Working Group, Jennifer Sullivan Sulewski, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Feb 2019

State Roles In Promoting Community Life Engagement: Themes From The State Employment Leadership Network’S Working Group, Jennifer Sullivan Sulewski, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

As states focus on expanding integrated employment opportunities for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and phasing out sheltered work, they are finding a need to concurrently examine Community Life Engagement (CLE) supports as a wrap-around to ensure individuals’ engagement in the community is maintained and they continue to receive sufficient levels of support, despite fluctuations in job status and hours. In January through June of 2017, the State Employment Leadership Network (SELN) hosted a working group of member states to discuss ideas and share strategies for encouraging quality CLE supports while maintaining a focus on Employment First (see ...


A Roadmap To Competitive Integrated Employment: Strategies For Provider Transformation, Esther Kamau, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Feb 2019

A Roadmap To Competitive Integrated Employment: Strategies For Provider Transformation, Esther Kamau, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

Competitive integrated employment is defined within the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA, 2014) as full-time or part-time work at minimum wage or higher, with wages and benefits similar to those without disabilities performing the same work, and fully integrated with coworkers without disabilities. The Act requires that states ensure employment is offered as a priority outcome for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). As a result, providers who offer employment support to people with IDD have been working to phase out sheltered workshops and transform to offer competitive integrated employment.


A Qualitative Metasynthesis Of Published Research Exploring The Pregnancy And Resettlement Experience Among Refugee Women, Diana M. Kingsbury, Sheryl L. Chatfield Feb 2019

A Qualitative Metasynthesis Of Published Research Exploring The Pregnancy And Resettlement Experience Among Refugee Women, Diana M. Kingsbury, Sheryl L. Chatfield

The Qualitative Report

The number of refugees and asylum seekers throughout the world continues to increase, leading to increasing challenges in meeting healthcare needs of these individuals. Women’s antenatal health is of particular concern due to their vulnerability to sexual violence and the substantial proportion of refugees consisting of women and girls of or nearing reproductive age. The purpose of this qualitative metasynthesis was to integrate and interpret findings from previously published research reports in which authors explored aspects of pregnancy among resettled refugee women. Following a systematic search process, we used Dedoose qualitative data analysis software to manage the process of ...


Betrayed Partners And Men With Poisoned Souls: Interview With A Former Sex Buyer In Germany, Ingeborg Kraus Feb 2019

Betrayed Partners And Men With Poisoned Souls: Interview With A Former Sex Buyer In Germany, Ingeborg Kraus

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Mlk Book Read 2019 (Research Materials), Holy Cross Libraries Jan 2019

Mlk Book Read 2019 (Research Materials), Holy Cross Libraries

Library Resources for Campus Events

A bibliography of resources available through the Holy Cross Libraries which provide additional information related to the MLK Winter Book Read, based on the best-seller “Brother, I'm Dying" by Edwidge Danticat.


“If You Fall Down, You Get Back Up”: Creating A Space For Testimony And Witnessing By Urban Indigenous Women And Girls, Elizabeth Cooper, S Michelle Driedger Jan 2019

“If You Fall Down, You Get Back Up”: Creating A Space For Testimony And Witnessing By Urban Indigenous Women And Girls, Elizabeth Cooper, S Michelle Driedger

The International Indigenous Policy Journal

Historical trauma and the negative effects of colonialism continue to be played out within Canadian culture. These processes have a deleterious effect on physical and psychological health outcomes among Indigenous Peoples. Through the creation of a safe space as part of a decolonizing, participatory activity program spanning 7 weeks, First Nations and Metis women and girls (aged 8-12) were able to begin to unpack what it means to be happy, healthy, and safe, and what is needed to actualize these goals. A community engaged, asset-based workshop approach provided a forum for participants to discuss the impact of traumatic experiences on ...


Exploring The Cultural Perceptions Of Physical Activity Among Transnational Nigerian Immigrants, Kelechi D. Ibe-Lamberts, Daudet Ilunga Tshiswaka, Abi Fapohunda Jan 2019

Exploring The Cultural Perceptions Of Physical Activity Among Transnational Nigerian Immigrants, Kelechi D. Ibe-Lamberts, Daudet Ilunga Tshiswaka, Abi Fapohunda

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Background: Transnational Nigerian Immigrants, as other Transnational African Immigrants, are a subset of African immigrants with the unique ability to sustain multi-national ties. These ties could potentially affect health behavior choices and participation in physical activity. Physical Activity has the potential to improve health and prevent chronic diseases; however, there is a lack of literature regarding physical activity and its determinants within the Transnational African Immigrant population in general. This study investigated the cultural factors that shape Transnational Nigerian Immigrants’ perceptions and attitudes towards physical activity.

Methods: Semi-structured, individual interviews supported by photo-elicitation were conducted on 24 Transnational Nigerian Immigrants ...


Prehypertensive Risk Among African-American Undergraduates: Do The Extra Pounds Really Matter?, Cecile N. Yancu, Amber Debono, Anna K. Lee, Correll Mcrae, Daphne Witherspoon Jan 2019

Prehypertensive Risk Among African-American Undergraduates: Do The Extra Pounds Really Matter?, Cecile N. Yancu, Amber Debono, Anna K. Lee, Correll Mcrae, Daphne Witherspoon

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

The objective of this study is to examine prehypertension among young African American adults and evaluate the predictive value of easily obtained standard measures of adiposity. Data for this study of 155 primarily African-American undergraduates was collected between April 2010-11. Participants provided family health history and anthropometric measures, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist to hip (WHR) ratio. Percentages were calculated for demographics. The average systolic blood pressure measured over two time periods within a single semester generated prehypertension rates. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression examined the impact of BMI, WHR, weight, and family medical history on ...


Online Blaming And Intimate Partner Violence: A Content Analysis Of Social Media Comments, Jason Whiting, Rachael Dansby Olufowote, Jaclyn D. Cravens-Pickens, Alyssa Banford Witting Jan 2019

Online Blaming And Intimate Partner Violence: A Content Analysis Of Social Media Comments, Jason Whiting, Rachael Dansby Olufowote, Jaclyn D. Cravens-Pickens, Alyssa Banford Witting

The Qualitative Report

Social media has become a ubiquitous form of interacting and sharing information. However, comments on social media sites are often aggressive and contemptuous, especially when topics are controversial or politically charged. For example, discussion of intimate partner violence (IPV) tends to provoke strong reactions from outsiders, who make angry or blaming remarks about those involved. Although IPV is common, it has not been widely discussed in popular media until recent years when high-profile cases of abuse have come to light. In 2016, a celebrity accusation of domestic violence led to thousands of comments on social media, with outsiders weighing in ...


Financial Barriers And Utilization Of Medical Services In Prison: An Examination Of Co-Payments, Personal Assets, And Individual Characteristics, Brian R. Wyant Phd, Holly M. Harner Jan 2019

Financial Barriers And Utilization Of Medical Services In Prison: An Examination Of Co-Payments, Personal Assets, And Individual Characteristics, Brian R. Wyant Phd, Holly M. Harner

Journal for Evidence-based Practice in Correctional Health

Although research has found that requiring incarcerated individuals to pay fees for medical service decreases use, there are still important unanswered questions about this association: 1) Is the copayment fee a barrier to those seeking medical attention? 2) If so, what individual factors are associated with viewing the copayments as the reason to avoid seeing a medical professional? Using 2012 survey data collected from 45 incarcerated persons housed in a maximum security prison on the East Coast, it was discovered that over 70% of the men surveyed reported avoiding medical services at least once in the past three months due ...


Reducing The Waiting List For New Referrals To The Ent Outpatient Department, Jana Crowley Jan 2019

Reducing The Waiting List For New Referrals To The Ent Outpatient Department, Jana Crowley

Jana Crowley


Introduction: Lengthy outpatient waiting lists are a global healthcare concern affecting most hospital specialities in Ireland. The result is a delay in treatment and suboptimal outcomes for newly referred patients[1]. Simultaneously, patients requiring long-term follow-up care exist amid this overburdened system.
 
Aims & Objectives: This quality improvement project plan was created in part fulfilment of the MSc in Physician Associate Studies. It concentrates on improving waiting times for new ENT patients by the creation of a non-physician-led ‘microsuction clinic’, which aims to streamline patients requiring regular care. The objectives were to Investigate the volume of new patients awaiting an appointment ...


Participant Experiences In Christian-Based Recovery, Joshua Mjolsness Jan 2019

Participant Experiences In Christian-Based Recovery, Joshua Mjolsness

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Health care leaders are challenged with addressing addiction and the treatment of addiction. Many studies have been conducted around addiction treatment; however, no studies have been conducted on Christian-based recovery programs that use the same approach regardless of the addiction. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the experiences of participants in a Christian-based recovery program that uses the same approach for all addictions. The social learning theory provided the framework for this study. Data were collected by interviewing participants of the Christian-based recovery program Free Grace Recovery (FGR). Eight participants selected had a variety of reasons for ...


Cancer Treatment Decision Making In Aging Minorities, Patrice Kemp Jan 2019

Cancer Treatment Decision Making In Aging Minorities, Patrice Kemp

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Cancer incidence is high for aging minority and underserved populations, yet research is limited about patient-provider communications with aging racial and ethnic minority populations. Achieving high-quality cancer care is crucial to reducing health disparities for this population. However, potential shortages in professional health personnel, the cost to treat cancer, a strained health care system, and large aging populations contribute to the problem. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the personal experiences of aging minorities during cancer treatment decision making when communicating with their cancer care providers. Purposive sampling methods were used to recruit 10 minority women and ...


Associations Between Income, Acculturation, Country Of Origin, And Type Ii Diabetes Among African Immigrants To Ontario, Canada, Girma Aman Goshe Jan 2019

Associations Between Income, Acculturation, Country Of Origin, And Type Ii Diabetes Among African Immigrants To Ontario, Canada, Girma Aman Goshe

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Diabetes has become a longstanding public health challenge around the world. Over the last 3 decades, the number of people with Type II diabetes (T2DM) has grown to an epidemic level in Canada. Prior research indicated African immigrants residing in Ontario, Canada experienced a 2â??4 times higher prevalence of T2DM than Canadian-born individuals. The social determinants of health theoretical framework guided this study assessing the relationship of the risk factors with T2DM. A quantitative, cross-sectional design was employed using the 2007â??2014 Canadian Community Health Survey data. The random sample included 1,526 African immigrants residing in Ontario, Canada ...


Unmet Support Needs Of Informal Caregivers Of Older Adults, Julie Ann Smith Hinders Jan 2019

Unmet Support Needs Of Informal Caregivers Of Older Adults, Julie Ann Smith Hinders

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Due to projected growth of the 65-and-older population and concerns of an impending care gap, reliance on informal caregivers is expected to increase. Improving support for informal caregivers is viewed as a national priority, yet research related to the unmet support needs of informal caregivers is limited. The purpose of this cross-sectional correlational study was to examine predictive relationships between contextual factors (caregiving relationship and type of illness) and environmental factors (rurality) and the unmet support needs (classes, service access, support groups, counseling, and respite) of informal caregivers of older adults. The theoretical framework was Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory ...


Supporting Employment Consultants In Their Work With Job Seekers. A Longitudinal Study, Alberto Migliore, John Butterworth, Oliver Lyons, Kelly Nye-Lengerman, Paul Foos, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Dec 2018

Supporting Employment Consultants In Their Work With Job Seekers. A Longitudinal Study, Alberto Migliore, John Butterworth, Oliver Lyons, Kelly Nye-Lengerman, Paul Foos, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

BACKGROUND: A key step for increasing the employment outcomes of job seekers with disabilities includes ensuring that employment consultants who assist them have the tools to succeed, including feedback about how they are performing. OBJECTIVE: Supporting employment consultants in their work with job seekers by providing feedback about the implementation of the support strategies recommended in the literature. METHODS: Sixty-one employment consultants completed a daily survey for one year, on their smartphones. RESULTS: Providing supports that lead to hire represented 30% of the employment consultants’ work time. When providing supports that lead to hire, most of the primary interactions were ...


Environmental Factors That Influence Physical Activity Participation In Children And Youth: A Synthesis Of The Literature, Jarrod Nash Dec 2018

Environmental Factors That Influence Physical Activity Participation In Children And Youth: A Synthesis Of The Literature, Jarrod Nash

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Physical activity participation in children and youth is widely regarded as important to ensure proper health. There are many environmental factors that contribute to children and youth being able to participate in physical activity on a daily basis. This synthesis reviewed literature regarding environmental factors that influence physical activity participation in children and youth. Data was collected using the EBSCOHOST search engine, found on The College at Brockport’s Drake Memorial Library online research website. Key words in SPORTDiscus and Academic Search Complete databases were combined to obtain 10 studies that focused on this synthesis’s purpose and research questions ...


“A New Way Of Thinking”: Frantz Fanon’S True Opinion On Violence, Caroline D. Renko Dec 2018

“A New Way Of Thinking”: Frantz Fanon’S True Opinion On Violence, Caroline D. Renko

The Downtown Review

In an attempt to clear Frantz Fanon’s name, on account of his opinion on the role of violence in decolonizing a nation, this paper focuses on two important chapters in his last book, The Wretched of the Earth. By closely reading his articulation of the Algerian war and the wounds brought on by mental illness at such a time, Fanon’s true opinion concerning violence becomes clear. For too long, he has been seen and used as a proponent for inciting violence, but this is a misconception that has been perpetuated by devaluing the importance of his descriptions of ...


Using Picture-Story Books To Help Families Understand Turbulent Parental Emotions In Families With Small Children, Anne Sved Williams, Marie Jonsson-Harrison Dec 2018

Using Picture-Story Books To Help Families Understand Turbulent Parental Emotions In Families With Small Children, Anne Sved Williams, Marie Jonsson-Harrison

Journal of Parent and Family Mental Health

A parent’s struggle to manage their emotions may have significant impact on small children. Helping a child understand in the here and now about what is going on for the parent, without blaming that parent or the child, may be useful for the child. It may also lead the child to seek different models of managing emotions and self-concepts. Reading books with children, or bibliotherapy, could be useful for parents who experience stress-related “meltdowns” or perhaps live with mental health conditions such as borderline personality disorder, and for those working with small children in educational, child care or child ...


One-Sentence, One-Word: An Innovative Data Collection Method To Enhance Exploration Of The Lived Experiences, Shannon L. Sibbald, Dylan Brennan, Aleksandra Zecevic Dec 2018

One-Sentence, One-Word: An Innovative Data Collection Method To Enhance Exploration Of The Lived Experiences, Shannon L. Sibbald, Dylan Brennan, Aleksandra Zecevic

The Qualitative Report

Experienced-based methods are growing in popularity and are increasingly being utilized in a variety of research programs and investigations. They enable researchers and participants to co-design research strategies and outcomes and subsequently propose solutions to potential problems in the partnership. By applying an experience-based methods lens, we sought to augment traditional qualitative interviewing methodologies by using a novel method we named “one-sentence, one-word” (1S1W). To apply our 1S1W method, we used a phenomenological study that examined the relationship between the risk of falling and the desire of master athletes to engage in competitive sports. Participants reflected and recorded their subjective ...


Effects Of A Robotic Cat On Agitation And Quality Of Life In Individuals With Dementia In A Long- Term Care Facility, Jillian Nicole Marsilio, Samantha Virginia Mckittrick, Lisa Renee Umbell, Melissa Ann Garner, Sharon Maiewski, Jeanne Wenos Dec 2018

Effects Of A Robotic Cat On Agitation And Quality Of Life In Individuals With Dementia In A Long- Term Care Facility, Jillian Nicole Marsilio, Samantha Virginia Mckittrick, Lisa Renee Umbell, Melissa Ann Garner, Sharon Maiewski, Jeanne Wenos

Physician Assistant Capstones

Study Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine whether introducing a robotic companion cat into a long term care facility may improve affect and, subsequently, increase participation for residents with dementia, and to determine potential benefits for caregiver roles and relationships with individuals with dementia.

Background: The number of people with dementia is growing, and the behavioral and psychological side effects are negatively affecting the quality of life for these people as well as their caregivers. Additional research is needed to help develop and confirm the use of nonpharmacological treatment for dementia with therapeutic robots.

Study Subjects: Research ...


A Randomized Controlled Trial Of A Modified Cystoscopy Technique, Khalil Hetou Dec 2018

A Randomized Controlled Trial Of A Modified Cystoscopy Technique, Khalil Hetou

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Introduction

Pain, anxiety and embarrassment are well documented feelings in patients undergoing ambulatory diagnostic cystoscopy. In this study, we explored utilizing Peak-end theory in improving pain perception in patients undergoing diagnostic cystoscopy.

Materials and Methods

We conducted a randomized clinical trial at the London Health Sciences Center for patients undergoing an ambulatory diagnostic cystoscopy for the first time. Males and females as well as allocation ratios were 1:1. The control arm received a standard cystoscopy. In the intervention arm the cystoscope was left for additional 2 minutes without further manipulation in the bladder before scope removal. The primary outcome ...


A Public Health Argument Against Arming Teachers, David I. Swedler Dec 2018

A Public Health Argument Against Arming Teachers, David I. Swedler

Health Behavior Research

The peer-reviewed scientific literature does not support the idea that arming teachers will prevent school shootings. In this commentary, I draw on the criminal justice, injury prevention, and firearm safety literature to demonstrate how arming teachers will do more harm than good.


A Multicase Study Exploring Women’S Narratives Of Infertility: Implications For Counselors, Staci L. Born, Christin L. Carotta, Kristine Ramsay-Seaner Dec 2018

A Multicase Study Exploring Women’S Narratives Of Infertility: Implications For Counselors, Staci L. Born, Christin L. Carotta, Kristine Ramsay-Seaner

The Qualitative Report

Infertility affects 6.7 million women in the United States (Chandra, Copen, & Stephen, 2013). Women’s experiences with infertility are not only influenced by biological health factors, but also by social, cultural, and personal variables. Given the prevalence and complexity of infertility, additional research is needed to further examine the nuances of women’s experiences. The purpose of this multicase study, as informed by four individual cases, was to explore how women construct their infertility narratives. Review of reflective journals found five common elements: (1) Emotional Rollercoaster, (2) Mind-Body (Dis)Connection, (3) Secret Identity, (4) Supportive vs. Constrained Communication Patterns ...


Healthy Food Options At Dollar Discount Stores Are Equivalent In Quality And Lower In Price Compared To Grocery Stores: An Examination In Las Vegas, Nv, Courtney Coughenour, Timothy J. Bungum, M. Nikki Regalado Dec 2018

Healthy Food Options At Dollar Discount Stores Are Equivalent In Quality And Lower In Price Compared To Grocery Stores: An Examination In Las Vegas, Nv, Courtney Coughenour, Timothy J. Bungum, M. Nikki Regalado

Community Health Sciences Faculty Publications

Food deserts indicate limited access to and affordability of healthy foods. One potential mediator is the availability of healthy food in non-traditional outlets such as dollar-discount stores, stores selling produce at the fixed $1 price. The purpose of this study was to compare availability, quality, price differences in ‘healthier’ versus ‘regular’ food choices, price per each food item, and summary score in dollar-discount stores to grocery stores in Las Vegas using the NEMS-S; a protocol consisting of three subscores—availability, quality, price of healthier versus regular food, and a summary score. [...] see article for full abstract


Establishing Trust In Hiv/Hcv Research Among People Who Inject Drugs (Pwid): Insights From Empirical Research, Roberto Abadie, Shira Goldenberg, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Celia B. Fisher Dec 2018

Establishing Trust In Hiv/Hcv Research Among People Who Inject Drugs (Pwid): Insights From Empirical Research, Roberto Abadie, Shira Goldenberg, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Celia B. Fisher

Sociology Department, Faculty Publications

Background — The establishment of trust between researchers and participants is critical to advance HIV and HCV prevention particularly among people who inject drugs (PWID) and other marginalized populations, yet empirical research on how to establish and maintain trust in the course of community health research is lacking. This paper documents ideas about trust between research participants and researchers amongst a sub-sample of PWID who were enrolled in a large, multi-year community health study of social networks and HIV/HCV risk that was recently conducted in rural Puerto Rico.

Methods — Qualitative research was nested within a multi-year Social Network and HIV ...


Project Renew Worcester, Danni Yue, Amy Zhang, Jing Han, Omid Ashrafi, Yiming Xu Dec 2018

Project Renew Worcester, Danni Yue, Amy Zhang, Jing Han, Omid Ashrafi, Yiming Xu

School of Professional Studies

n The client for this capstone project is RENEW Worcester which is a fledgling solar power project whose main goals are to bring renewable energy in the form of solar power into local, primarily low-income communities and are committed to the mission of making the transition off of fossil fuels to clean, renewable power. Based in Worcester, Massachusetts, they are a local chapter of Co-op Power which is a consumer-owned sustainable energy cooperative (co-op) made up of numerous different local chapters all over the New England area as well as the state of New York. The problem that we will ...


"Integrated Science 3002a: Big Bike Giveaway: Changing London's Environment, Health, And Economy One Bike At A Time", Jermiah Joseph, Katelyn Melo, Devanshi Shukla, Tony Nguyen, Katherine Teeter Dec 2018

"Integrated Science 3002a: Big Bike Giveaway: Changing London's Environment, Health, And Economy One Bike At A Time", Jermiah Joseph, Katelyn Melo, Devanshi Shukla, Tony Nguyen, Katherine Teeter

Community Engaged Learning Final Projects

There are significant benefits that manifest when an individual chooses to ride a bicycle as their primary mode of transportation. To investigate these benefits, the environmental, health, economic, and social impacts of biking were evaluated through research and data analyses. This revealed that numerous advantages can be obtained at an individual and local scale through citizens choosing to adopt a biking lifestyle. However, it was found that many Londoners are deterred from biking due to poor biking infrastructure. This paper calls into question the current cycling framework in London and it’s limitations on achieving the numerous benefits that biking ...


Values Vs. Self-Interest As Determinants Of Attitudes: Through A Construal Level Theory Lens, (Sometimes) Self-Interest Wins, Austin D. Eubanks Dec 2018

Values Vs. Self-Interest As Determinants Of Attitudes: Through A Construal Level Theory Lens, (Sometimes) Self-Interest Wins, Austin D. Eubanks

Theses and Dissertations

The present study (n = 335) attempted to conceptually replicate Hunt, Kim, Borgida, and Chaiken (2010) with a high-powered design to investigate whether values and self-interest differentially impact attitudes depending on psychological distance. Participants were assigned to complete a task that made self- or other-focused values more accessible, then indicated their attitudes about a student fee increase at a university to fund scholarships the participants would not be eligible to receive (thus going against their own financial self-interest for the well being of someone else). The memo describing the fee increase was manipulated such that the increase would be occurring at ...