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Articles 1 - 30 of 1641

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu Apr 2018

Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The role of electrostatic interactions in the viral capsid assembly process was studied by comparing the assembly process of a truncated hepatitis B virus capsid protein Cp149 with its mutant protein D2N/D4N, which has the same conformational structure but four fewer charges per dimer. The capsid protein self-assembly was investigated under a wide range of protein surface charge densities by changing the protein concentration, buffer pH, and solution ionic strength. Lowering the protein charge density favored the capsid formation. However, lowering charge beyond a certain point resulted in capsid aggregation and precipitation. Interestingly, both the wild-type and D2N/D4N ...


Macrophage-Derived Il-1Β/Nf-Κb Signaling Mediates Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Cholestasis., Karim C El Kasmi, Padade M Vue, Aimee L Anderson, Michael W Devereaux, Swati Ghosh, Natarajan Balasubramaniyan, Sophie A Fillon, Carola Dahrenmoeller, Ayed Allawzi, Crystal Woods, Sarah Mckenna, Clyde J Wright, Linda Johnson, Angelo D'Alessandro, Julie A Reisz, Eva Nozik-Grayck, Frederick J Suchy, Ronald J Sokol Apr 2018

Macrophage-Derived Il-1Β/Nf-Κb Signaling Mediates Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Cholestasis., Karim C El Kasmi, Padade M Vue, Aimee L Anderson, Michael W Devereaux, Swati Ghosh, Natarajan Balasubramaniyan, Sophie A Fillon, Carola Dahrenmoeller, Ayed Allawzi, Crystal Woods, Sarah Mckenna, Clyde J Wright, Linda Johnson, Angelo D'Alessandro, Julie A Reisz, Eva Nozik-Grayck, Frederick J Suchy, Ronald J Sokol

Journal Articles and Abstracts

In infants intolerant of enteral feeding because of intestinal disease, parenteral nutrition may be associated with cholestasis, which can progress to end-stage liver disease. Here we show the function of hepatic macrophages and phytosterols in parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) pathogenesis using a mouse model that recapitulates the human pathophysiology and combines intestinal injury with parenteral nutrition. We combine genetic, molecular, and pharmacological approaches to identify an essential function of hepatic macrophages and IL-1β in PNAC. Pharmacological antagonism of IL-1 signaling or genetic deficiency in CCR2, caspase-1 and caspase-11, or IL-1 receptor (which binds both IL-1α and IL-1β) prevents PNAC in ...


Transcriptional Regulatory Networks Underlying Gene Expression Changes In Huntington's Disease., Seth A Ament, Jocelynn R Pearl, Jeffrey P Cantle, Robert M Bragg, Peter J Skene, Sydney R Coffey, Dani E Bergey, Vanessa C Wheeler, Marcy E Macdonald, Nitin S Baliga, Jim Rosinski, Leroy E Hood, Jeffrey B Carroll, Nathan D Price Mar 2018

Transcriptional Regulatory Networks Underlying Gene Expression Changes In Huntington's Disease., Seth A Ament, Jocelynn R Pearl, Jeffrey P Cantle, Robert M Bragg, Peter J Skene, Sydney R Coffey, Dani E Bergey, Vanessa C Wheeler, Marcy E Macdonald, Nitin S Baliga, Jim Rosinski, Leroy E Hood, Jeffrey B Carroll, Nathan D Price

Journal Articles and Abstracts

Transcriptional changes occur presymptomatically and throughout Huntington's disease (HD), motivating the study of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) in HD We reconstructed a genome-scale model for the target genes of 718 transcription factors (TFs) in the mouse striatum by integrating a model of genomic binding sites with transcriptome profiling of striatal tissue from HD mouse models. We identified 48 differentially expressed TF-target gene modules associated with age- and CAG repeat length-dependent gene expression changes in


Cyclin D1-Mediated Microrna Expression Signature Predicts Breast Cancer Outcome, Guangxue Wang, Michael Gormley, Jing Qiao, Qian Zhao, Min Wang, Gabriele Disante, Shengqiong Deng, Lin Dong, Timothy G. Pestell, Xiaoming Ju, Mathew C. Casimiro, Sankar Addya, Adam Ertel, Ayden Tozeren, Qinchuan Li, Zuoren Yu, Richard G. Pestell Mar 2018

Cyclin D1-Mediated Microrna Expression Signature Predicts Breast Cancer Outcome, Guangxue Wang, Michael Gormley, Jing Qiao, Qian Zhao, Min Wang, Gabriele Disante, Shengqiong Deng, Lin Dong, Timothy G. Pestell, Xiaoming Ju, Mathew C. Casimiro, Sankar Addya, Adam Ertel, Ayden Tozeren, Qinchuan Li, Zuoren Yu, Richard G. Pestell

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Background: Genetic classification of breast cancer based on the coding mRNA suggests the evolution of distinct subtypes. Whether the non-coding genome is altered concordantly with the coding genome and the mechanism by which the cell cycle directly controls the non-coding genome is poorly understood.

Methods: Herein, the miRNA signature maintained by endogenous cyclin D1 in human breast cancer cells was defined. In order to determine the clinical significance of the cyclin D1-mediated miRNA signature, we defined a miRNA expression superset from 459 breast cancer samples. We compared the coding and non-coding genome of breast cancer subtypes.

Results: Hierarchical clustering of ...


Nephron Segment-Specific Gene Expression Using Aav Vectors., Laureano D Asico, Santiago Cuevas, Xiaobo Ma, Pedro A Jose, Ines Armando, Prasad R Konkalmatt Feb 2018

Nephron Segment-Specific Gene Expression Using Aav Vectors., Laureano D Asico, Santiago Cuevas, Xiaobo Ma, Pedro A Jose, Ines Armando, Prasad R Konkalmatt

Medicine Faculty Publications

AAV9 vector provides efficient gene transfer in all segments of the renal nephron, with minimum expression in non-renal cells, when administered retrogradely via the ureter. It is important to restrict the transgene expression to the desired cell type within the kidney, so that the physiological endpoints represent the function of the transgene expressed in that specific cell type within kidney. We hypothesized that segment-specific gene expression within the kidney can be accomplished using the highly efficient AAV9 vectors carrying the promoters of genes that are expressed exclusively in the desired segment of the nephron in combination with administration by retrograde ...


Preparation Of Acute Brain Slices Using An Optimized N-Methyl-D-Glucamine Protective Recovery Method., Jonathan T Ting, Brian R Lee, Peter Chong, Gilberto Soler-Llavina, Charles Cobbs, Christof Koch, Hongkui Zeng, Ed Lein Feb 2018

Preparation Of Acute Brain Slices Using An Optimized N-Methyl-D-Glucamine Protective Recovery Method., Jonathan T Ting, Brian R Lee, Peter Chong, Gilberto Soler-Llavina, Charles Cobbs, Christof Koch, Hongkui Zeng, Ed Lein

Journal Articles and Abstracts

This protocol is a practical guide to the N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) protective recovery method of brain slice preparation. Numerous recent studies have validated the utility of this method for enhancing neuronal preservation and overall brain slice viability. The implementation of this technique by early adopters has facilitated detailed investigations into brain function using diverse experimental applications and spanning a wide range of animal ages, brain regions, and cell types. Steps are outlined for carrying out the protective recovery brain slice technique using an optimized NMDG artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) media formulation and enhanced procedure to reliably obtain healthy brain slices for ...


Silencing Of The Pink1 Gene Expression By Conditional Rnai Does Not Induce Dopaminergic Neuron Death In Mice., Hongxia Zhou, Björn H Falkenburger, Jörg B Schulz, Kim Tieu, Zuoshang Xu, Xu Gang Xia Feb 2018

Silencing Of The Pink1 Gene Expression By Conditional Rnai Does Not Induce Dopaminergic Neuron Death In Mice., Hongxia Zhou, Björn H Falkenburger, Jörg B Schulz, Kim Tieu, Zuoshang Xu, Xu Gang Xia

Kim Tieu

Transgenic RNAi, an alternative to the gene knockout approach, can induce hypomorphic phenotypes that resemble those of the gene knockout in mice. Conditional transgenic RNAi is an attractive choice of method for reverse genetics in vivo because it can achieve temporal and spatial silencing of targeted genes. Pol III promoters such as U6 are widely used to drive the expression of RNAi transgenes in animals. Tested in transgenic mice, a Cre-loxP inducible U6 promoter drove the broad expression of an shRNA against the Pink1 gene whose loss-of-functional mutations cause one form of familial Parkinson's disease. The expression of the ...


Temporal Changes In Innate Immune Signals In A Rat Model Of Alcohol Withdrawal In Emotional And Cardiorespiratory Homeostatic Nuclei., Kate Freeman, Anthony Brureau, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Mary M Staehle, Melanie M Brureau, Gregory E Gonye, Jan B Hoek, D Craig Hooper, James S Schwaber Feb 2018

Temporal Changes In Innate Immune Signals In A Rat Model Of Alcohol Withdrawal In Emotional And Cardiorespiratory Homeostatic Nuclei., Kate Freeman, Anthony Brureau, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Mary M Staehle, Melanie M Brureau, Gregory E Gonye, Jan B Hoek, D Craig Hooper, James S Schwaber

Mary Staehle

BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol use changes the brain's inflammatory state. However, there is little work examining the progression of the cytokine response during alcohol withdrawal, a period of profound autonomic and emotional upset. This study examines the inflammatory response in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC), brain regions neuroanatomically associated with affective and cardiorespiratory regulation in an in vivo rat model of withdrawal following a single chronic exposure.

METHODS: For qRT-PCR studies, we measured the expression of TNF-α, NOS-2, Ccl2 (MCP-1), MHC II invariant chain CD74, and the TNF receptor Tnfrsf1a in CeA and ...


Animals & Ethics 101: Thinking Critically About Animal Rights, Nathan Nobis Jan 2018

Animals & Ethics 101: Thinking Critically About Animal Rights, Nathan Nobis

Morehouse Faculty Publications

This book provides an overview of the current debates about the nature and extent of our moral obligations to animals. Which, if any, uses of animals are morally wrong, which are morally permissible (i.e., not wrong) and why? What, if any, moral obligations do we, individually and as a society (and a global community), have towards animals and why? How should animals be treated? Why?

We will explore the most influential and most developed answers to these questions – given by philosophers, scientists, and animal advocates and their critics – to try to determine which positions are supported by the best ...


Linkage, Whole Genome Sequence, And Biological Data Implicate Variants In Rab10 In Alzheimer's Disease Resilience., Perry G Ridge, Celeste M Karch, Simon Hsu, Ivan Arano, Craig C Teerlink, Mark T W Ebbert, Josue D Gonzalez Murcia, James M Farnham, Anna R Damato, Mariet Allen, Xue Wang, Oscar Harari, Victoria M Fernandez, Rita Guerreiro, Jose Bras, John Hardy, Ronald Munger, Maria Norton, Celeste Sassi, Andrew Singleton, Steven G Younkin, Dennis W Dickson, Todd E Golde, Nathan D Price, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Carlos Cruchaga, Alison M Goate, Christopher Corcoran, Joann Tschanz, Lisa A Cannon-Albright, John S K Kauwe Nov 2017

Linkage, Whole Genome Sequence, And Biological Data Implicate Variants In Rab10 In Alzheimer's Disease Resilience., Perry G Ridge, Celeste M Karch, Simon Hsu, Ivan Arano, Craig C Teerlink, Mark T W Ebbert, Josue D Gonzalez Murcia, James M Farnham, Anna R Damato, Mariet Allen, Xue Wang, Oscar Harari, Victoria M Fernandez, Rita Guerreiro, Jose Bras, John Hardy, Ronald Munger, Maria Norton, Celeste Sassi, Andrew Singleton, Steven G Younkin, Dennis W Dickson, Todd E Golde, Nathan D Price, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Carlos Cruchaga, Alison M Goate, Christopher Corcoran, Joann Tschanz, Lisa A Cannon-Albright, John S K Kauwe

Journal Articles and Abstracts

BACKGROUND: While age and the APOE ε4 allele are major risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), a small percentage of individuals with these risk factors exhibit AD resilience by living well beyond 75 years of age without any clinical symptoms of cognitive decline.

METHODS: We used over 200 "AD resilient" individuals and an innovative, pedigree-based approach to identify genetic variants that segregate with AD resilience. First, we performed linkage analyses in pedigrees with resilient individuals and a statistical excess of AD deaths. Second, we used whole genome sequences to identify candidate SNPs in significant linkage regions. Third, we replicated ...


Introducing Sit-Stand Desks Increases Classroom Standing Time Among University Students., Matthew Jerome, Kathleen F Janz, Barbara Baquero, Lucas J Carr Nov 2017

Introducing Sit-Stand Desks Increases Classroom Standing Time Among University Students., Matthew Jerome, Kathleen F Janz, Barbara Baquero, Lucas J Carr

Department of Health and Human Physiology Publications

Excessive sedentary behavior has been associated with many negative health outcomes. While an understudied health topic, there is evidence that university students are excessively sedentary. Sit-stand desks have been shown to reduce sedentary time among pre-university students (ages 5-18 years) and sedentary workers but have not been tested in university classrooms. This study tested the effects of introducing sit-stand desks into a university classroom on student's classroom sitting and standing behaviors. Using a cross-over design, students received access to both traditional seated desks and sit-stand desks for six weeks. Data were collected between September and December, 2016. We recruited ...


Identification Of A Novel Synaptic Protein, Tmtc3, Involved In Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia With Intellectual Disability And Epilepsy, Sali M K Farhan, Kevin C J Nixon, Michelle Everest, Tara N Edwards, Shirley Long, Dmitri Segal, Maria J Knip, Heleen H Arts, Rana Chakrabarti, Jian Wang, John F Robinson, Donald Lee, Seyed M Mirsattari, C Anthony Rupar, Victoria M Siu, Forge Canada Consortium, Michael O Poulter, Robert A Hegele, Jamie M Kramer Nov 2017

Identification Of A Novel Synaptic Protein, Tmtc3, Involved In Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia With Intellectual Disability And Epilepsy, Sali M K Farhan, Kevin C J Nixon, Michelle Everest, Tara N Edwards, Shirley Long, Dmitri Segal, Maria J Knip, Heleen H Arts, Rana Chakrabarti, Jian Wang, John F Robinson, Donald Lee, Seyed M Mirsattari, C Anthony Rupar, Victoria M Siu, Forge Canada Consortium, Michael O Poulter, Robert A Hegele, Jamie M Kramer

Paediatrics Publications

Defects in neuronal migration cause brain malformations, which are associated with intellectual disability (ID) and epilepsy. Using exome sequencing, we identified compound heterozygous variants (p.Arg71His and p. Leu729ThrfsTer6) in TMTC3, encoding transmembrane and tetratricopeptide repeat containing 3, in four siblings with nocturnal seizures and ID. Three of the four siblings have periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH), a common brain malformation caused by failure of neurons to migrate from the ventricular zone to the cortex. Expression analysis using patient-derived cells confirmed reduced TMTC3 transcript levels and loss of the TMTC3 protein compared to parental and control cells. As TMTC3 function is ...


Epigenetic Suppression Of Hippocampal Calbindin-D28k By Δfosb Drives Seizure-Related Cognitive Deficits., Jason C. You, Kavitha Muralidharan, Jin W. Park, Iraklis Petrof, Mark S. Pyfer, Brian F. Corbett, John J. Lafrancois, Yi Zheng, Xiaohong Zhang, Carrie A. Mohila, Daniel Yoshor, Robert A. Rissman, Eric J. Nestler, Helen E. Scharfman, Jeannie Chin Nov 2017

Epigenetic Suppression Of Hippocampal Calbindin-D28k By Δfosb Drives Seizure-Related Cognitive Deficits., Jason C. You, Kavitha Muralidharan, Jin W. Park, Iraklis Petrof, Mark S. Pyfer, Brian F. Corbett, John J. Lafrancois, Yi Zheng, Xiaohong Zhang, Carrie A. Mohila, Daniel Yoshor, Robert A. Rissman, Eric J. Nestler, Helen E. Scharfman, Jeannie Chin

Department of Neuroscience

The calcium-binding protein calbindin-D28k is critical for hippocampal function and cognition, but its expression is markedly decreased in various neurological disorders associated with epileptiform activity and seizures. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and epilepsy, both of which are accompanied by recurrent seizures, the severity of cognitive deficits reflects the degree of calbindin reduction in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). However, despite the importance of calbindin in both neuronal physiology and pathology, the regulatory mechanisms that control its expression in the hippocampus are poorly understood. Here we report an epigenetic mechanism through which seizures chronically suppress hippocampal calbindin expression and impair ...


Tnf-Α Promotes Nuclear Enrichment Of The Transcription Factor Tonebp/Nfat5 To Selectively Control Inflammatory But Not Osmoregulatory Responses In Nucleus Pulposus Cells., Zariel I. Johnson, Alexandra C. Doolittle, Joseph W. Snuggs, Irving M. Shapiro, Christine L. Le Maitre, Makarand V. Risbud Oct 2017

Tnf-Α Promotes Nuclear Enrichment Of The Transcription Factor Tonebp/Nfat5 To Selectively Control Inflammatory But Not Osmoregulatory Responses In Nucleus Pulposus Cells., Zariel I. Johnson, Alexandra C. Doolittle, Joseph W. Snuggs, Irving M. Shapiro, Christine L. Le Maitre, Makarand V. Risbud

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Faculty Papers

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) causes chronic back pain and is linked to production of proinflammatory molecules by nucleus pulposus (NP) and other disc cells. Activation of tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP)/NFAT5 by non-osmotic stimuli, including proinflammatory molecules, occurs in cells involved in immune response. However, whether inflammatory stimuli activate TonEBP in NP cells and whether TonEBP controls inflammation during IDD is unknown. We show that TNF-α, but not IL-1β or LPS, promoted nuclear enrichment of TonEBP protein. However, TNF-α-mediated activation of TonEBP did not cause induction of osmoregulatory genes. RNA sequencing showed that 8.5% of TNF-α transcriptional responses were ...


Nanoparticle Delivery Of Mir-34a Eradicates Long-Term-Cultured Breast Cancer Stem Cells Via Targeting C22orf28 Directly, Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P. Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie Oct 2017

Nanoparticle Delivery Of Mir-34a Eradicates Long-Term-Cultured Breast Cancer Stem Cells Via Targeting C22orf28 Directly, Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P. Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Rationale: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated as the seeds of therapeutic resistance and metastasis, due to their unique abilities of self-renew, wide differentiation potentials and resistance to most conventional therapies. It is a proactive strategy for cancer therapy to eradicate CSCs. Methods: Tumor tissue-derived breast CSCs (BCSC), including XM322 and XM607, were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS); while cell line-derived BCSC, including MDA-MB-231.SC and MCF-7.SC, were purified by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). Analyses of microRNA and mRNA expression array profiles were performed in multiple breast cell lines. The mentioned nanoparticles were constructed following the standard ...


Differentiation And Protective Capacity Of Virus-Specific Cd8, Vesselin T. Tomov, Olesya Palko, Chi Wai Lau, Ajinkya Pattekar, Yuhang Sun, Ralitza Tacheva, Bertram Bengsch, Sasikanth Manne, Gabriela L. Cosma, Laurence C. Eisenlohr, Timothy J. Nice, Herbert W. Virgin, E. John Wherry Oct 2017

Differentiation And Protective Capacity Of Virus-Specific Cd8, Vesselin T. Tomov, Olesya Palko, Chi Wai Lau, Ajinkya Pattekar, Yuhang Sun, Ralitza Tacheva, Bertram Bengsch, Sasikanth Manne, Gabriela L. Cosma, Laurence C. Eisenlohr, Timothy J. Nice, Herbert W. Virgin, E. John Wherry

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Noroviruses can establish chronic infections with active viral shedding in healthy humans but whether persistence is associated with adaptive immune dysfunction is unknown. We used genetically engineered strains of mouse norovirus (MNV) to investigate CD8+ T cell differentiation during chronic infection. We found that chronic infection drove MNV-specific tissue-resident memory (Trm) CD8+ T cells to a differentiation state resembling inflationary effector responses against latent cytomegalovirus with only limited evidence of exhaustion. These MNV-specific Trm cells remained highly functional yet appeared ignorant of ongoing viral replication. Pre-existing MNV-specific Trm cells provided partial protection against chronic infection but largely ceased to detect ...


Equine Arteritis Virus Elicits A Mucosal Antibody Response In The Reproductive Tract Of Persistently Infected Stallions, Mariano Carossino, Bettina Wagner, Alan T. Loynachan, R. Frank Cook, Igor F. Canisso, Lakshman Chelvarajan, Casey L. Edwards, Bora Nam, John F. Timoney, Peter J. Timoney, Udeni B. R. Balasuriya Oct 2017

Equine Arteritis Virus Elicits A Mucosal Antibody Response In The Reproductive Tract Of Persistently Infected Stallions, Mariano Carossino, Bettina Wagner, Alan T. Loynachan, R. Frank Cook, Igor F. Canisso, Lakshman Chelvarajan, Casey L. Edwards, Bora Nam, John F. Timoney, Peter J. Timoney, Udeni B. R. Balasuriya

Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has the ability to establish persistent infection in the reproductive tract of the stallion (carrier) and is continuously shed in its semen. We have recently demonstrated that EAV persists within stromal cells and a subset of lymphocytes in the stallion accessory sex glands in the presence of a significant local inflammatory response. In the present study, we demonstrated that EAV elicits a mucosal antibody response in the reproductive tract during persistent infection with homing of plasma cells into accessory sex glands. The EAV-specific immunoglobulin isotypes in seminal plasma included IgA, IgG1, IgG3/5, and IgG4/7 ...


Mutations In Keops-Complex Genes Cause Nephrotic Syndrome With Primary Microcephaly, Daniela A Braun, Jia Rao, Geraldine Mollet, David Schapiro, Marie-Claire Daugeron, Weizhen Tan, Olivier Gribouval, Olivia Boyer, Patrick Revy, Tilman Jobst-Schwan, Johanna Magdalena Schmidt, Jennifer A Lawson, Denny Schanze, Shazia Ashraf, Jeremy F P Ullmann, Charlotte A Hoogstraten, Nathalie Boddaert, Bruno Collinet, Gaëlle Martin, Dominique Liger, Svjetlana Lovric, Monica Furlano, I Chiara Guerrera, Oraly Sanchez-Ferras, Jennifer F Hu, Anne-Claire Boschat, Sylvia Sanquer, Björn Menten, Sarah Vergult, Nina De Rocker, Merlin Airik, Tobias Hermle, Shirlee Shril, Eugen Widmeier, Heon Yung Gee, Won-Il Choi, Carolin E Sadowski, Werner L Pabst, Jillian K Warejko, Ankana Daga, Tamara Basta, Verena Matejas, Karin Scharmann, Sandra D Kienast, Babak Behnam, Brendan Beeson, Amber Begtrup, Malcolm Bruce, Gaik-Siew Ch'ng, Shuan-Pei Lin, Jui-Hsing Chang, Chao-Huei Chen, Megan T Cho, Patrick M Gaffney, Patrick E Gipson, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Jameela A Kari, Yu-Yuan Ke, Cathy Kiraly-Borri, Wai-Ming Lai, Emmanuelle Lemyre, Rebecca Okashah Littlejohn, Amira Masri, Mastaneh Moghtaderi, Kazuyuki Nakamura, Fatih Ozaltin, Marleen Praet, Chitra Prasad, Agnieszka Prytula, Elizabeth R Roeder, Patrick Rump, Rhonda E Schnur, Takashi Shiihara, Manish D Sinha, Neveen A Soliman, Kenza Soulami, David A Sweetser, Wen-Hui Tsai, Jeng-Daw Tsai, Rezan Topaloglu, Udo Vester, David H Viskochil, Nithiwat Vatanavicharn, Jessica L Waxler, Klaas J Wierenga, Matthias T F Wolf, Sik-Nin Wong, Sebastian A Leidel, Gessica Truglio, Peter C Dedon, Annapurna Poduri, Shrikant Mane, Richard P Lifton, Maxime Bouchard, Peter Kannu, David Chitayat, Daniella Magen, Bert Callewaert, Herman Van Tilbeurgh, Martin Zenker, Corinne Antignac, Friedhelm Hildebrandt Oct 2017

Mutations In Keops-Complex Genes Cause Nephrotic Syndrome With Primary Microcephaly, Daniela A Braun, Jia Rao, Geraldine Mollet, David Schapiro, Marie-Claire Daugeron, Weizhen Tan, Olivier Gribouval, Olivia Boyer, Patrick Revy, Tilman Jobst-Schwan, Johanna Magdalena Schmidt, Jennifer A Lawson, Denny Schanze, Shazia Ashraf, Jeremy F P Ullmann, Charlotte A Hoogstraten, Nathalie Boddaert, Bruno Collinet, Gaëlle Martin, Dominique Liger, Svjetlana Lovric, Monica Furlano, I Chiara Guerrera, Oraly Sanchez-Ferras, Jennifer F Hu, Anne-Claire Boschat, Sylvia Sanquer, Björn Menten, Sarah Vergult, Nina De Rocker, Merlin Airik, Tobias Hermle, Shirlee Shril, Eugen Widmeier, Heon Yung Gee, Won-Il Choi, Carolin E Sadowski, Werner L Pabst, Jillian K Warejko, Ankana Daga, Tamara Basta, Verena Matejas, Karin Scharmann, Sandra D Kienast, Babak Behnam, Brendan Beeson, Amber Begtrup, Malcolm Bruce, Gaik-Siew Ch'ng, Shuan-Pei Lin, Jui-Hsing Chang, Chao-Huei Chen, Megan T Cho, Patrick M Gaffney, Patrick E Gipson, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Jameela A Kari, Yu-Yuan Ke, Cathy Kiraly-Borri, Wai-Ming Lai, Emmanuelle Lemyre, Rebecca Okashah Littlejohn, Amira Masri, Mastaneh Moghtaderi, Kazuyuki Nakamura, Fatih Ozaltin, Marleen Praet, Chitra Prasad, Agnieszka Prytula, Elizabeth R Roeder, Patrick Rump, Rhonda E Schnur, Takashi Shiihara, Manish D Sinha, Neveen A Soliman, Kenza Soulami, David A Sweetser, Wen-Hui Tsai, Jeng-Daw Tsai, Rezan Topaloglu, Udo Vester, David H Viskochil, Nithiwat Vatanavicharn, Jessica L Waxler, Klaas J Wierenga, Matthias T F Wolf, Sik-Nin Wong, Sebastian A Leidel, Gessica Truglio, Peter C Dedon, Annapurna Poduri, Shrikant Mane, Richard P Lifton, Maxime Bouchard, Peter Kannu, David Chitayat, Daniella Magen, Bert Callewaert, Herman Van Tilbeurgh, Martin Zenker, Corinne Antignac, Friedhelm Hildebrandt

Paediatrics Publications

Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by the combination of early-onset nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and microcephaly with brain anomalies. Here we identified recessive mutations in OSGEP, TP53RK, TPRKB, and LAGE3, genes encoding the four subunits of the KEOPS complex, in 37 individuals from 32 families with GAMOS. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout in zebrafish and mice recapitulated the human phenotype of primary microcephaly and resulted in early lethality. Knockdown of OSGEP, TP53RK, or TPRKB inhibited cell proliferation, which human mutations did not rescue. Furthermore, knockdown of these genes impaired protein translation, caused endoplasmic reticulum stress, activated DNA-damage-response signaling, and ultimately induced ...


The Trophic Life Cycle Stage Of The Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen Pneumocystis Murina Hinders The Ability Of Dendritic Cells To Stimulate Cd4+ T Cell Responses, Heather M. Evans, Andrew Simpson, Shu Shen, Arnold J. Stromberg, Carol L. Pickett, Beth A. Garvy Oct 2017

The Trophic Life Cycle Stage Of The Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen Pneumocystis Murina Hinders The Ability Of Dendritic Cells To Stimulate Cd4+ T Cell Responses, Heather M. Evans, Andrew Simpson, Shu Shen, Arnold J. Stromberg, Carol L. Pickett, Beth A. Garvy

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The life cycle of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Pneumocystis murina consists of a trophic stage and an ascus-like cystic stage. Infection with the cyst stage induces proinflammatory immune responses, while trophic forms suppress the cytokine response to multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including β-glucan. A targeted gene expression assay was used to evaluate the dendritic cell response following stimulation with trophic forms alone, with a normal mixture of trophic forms and cysts, or with β-glucan. We demonstrate that stimulation with trophic forms downregulated the expression of multiple genes normally associated with the response to infection, including genes encoding ...


Inhibition Of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Alters The Wound Epidermis And Enhances Auricular Cartilage Regeneration., Qian-Shi Zhang, Deepa S. Kurpad, My G. Mahoney, Marla J. Steinbeck, Theresa A. Freeman Oct 2017

Inhibition Of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Alters The Wound Epidermis And Enhances Auricular Cartilage Regeneration., Qian-Shi Zhang, Deepa S. Kurpad, My G. Mahoney, Marla J. Steinbeck, Theresa A. Freeman

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Faculty Papers

Why regeneration does not occur in mammals remains elusive. In lower vertebrates, epimorphic regeneration of the limb is directed by the wound epidermis, which controls blastema formation to promote regrowth of the appendage. Herein, we report that knockout (KO) or inhibition of Apoptosis Signal-regulated Kinase-1 (ASK1), also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5), after full thickness ear punch in mice prolongs keratinocyte activation within the wound epidermis and promotes regeneration of auricular cartilage. Histological analysis showed the ASK1 KO ears displayed enhanced protein markers associated with blastema formation, hole closure and regeneration of auricular cartilage. At seven ...


Decorin-Evoked Paternally Expressed Gene 3 (Peg3) Is An Upstream Regulator Of The Transcription Factor Eb (Tfeb) In Endothelial Cell Autophagy., Thomas Neill, Catherine Sharpe, Rick T. Owens, Renato V. Iozzo Sep 2017

Decorin-Evoked Paternally Expressed Gene 3 (Peg3) Is An Upstream Regulator Of The Transcription Factor Eb (Tfeb) In Endothelial Cell Autophagy., Thomas Neill, Catherine Sharpe, Rick T. Owens, Renato V. Iozzo

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Macroautophagy is a fundamental and evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that eradicates damaged and aging macromolecules and organelles in eukaryotic cells. Decorin, an archetypical small leucine-rich proteoglycan, initiates a protracted autophagic program downstream of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling that requires paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3). We have discovered that PEG3 is an upstream transcriptional regulator of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master transcription factor of lysosomal biogenesis, for decorin-evoked endothelial cell autophagy. We found a functional requirement of PEG3 for TFEB transcriptional induction and nuclear translocation in human umbilical vein endothelial and PAER2 cells. Mechanistically, inhibiting VEGFR2 or AMP-activated protein ...


Rabies Screen Reveals Gpe Control Of Cocaine-Triggered Plasticity., Kevin T. Beier, Christina K. Kim, Paul Hoerbelt, Lin Wai Hung, Boris D. Heifets, Katherine E. Deloach, Timothy J. Mosca, Sophie Neuner, Karl Deisseroth, Liqun Luo, Robert C. Malenka Sep 2017

Rabies Screen Reveals Gpe Control Of Cocaine-Triggered Plasticity., Kevin T. Beier, Christina K. Kim, Paul Hoerbelt, Lin Wai Hung, Boris D. Heifets, Katherine E. Deloach, Timothy J. Mosca, Sophie Neuner, Karl Deisseroth, Liqun Luo, Robert C. Malenka

Department of Neuroscience

Identification of neural circuit changes that contribute to behavioural plasticity has routinely been conducted on candidate circuits that were preselected on the basis of previous results. Here we present an unbiased method for identifying experience-triggered circuit-level changes in neuronal ensembles in mice. Using rabies virus monosynaptic tracing, we mapped cocaine-induced global changes in inputs onto neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Cocaine increased rabies-labelled inputs from the globus pallidus externus (GPe), a basal ganglia nucleus not previously known to participate in behavioural plasticity triggered by drugs of abuse. We demonstrated that cocaine increased GPe neuron activity, which accounted for the ...


Gucy2c Signaling Opposes The Acute Radiation-Induced Gi Syndrome., Peng Li, Evan Wuthrick, Jeff A. Rappaport, Crystal Kraft, Jieru E. Lin, Glen Marszalowicz, Adam E. Snook, Tingting Zhan, Terry M. Hyslop, Scott A. Waldman Sep 2017

Gucy2c Signaling Opposes The Acute Radiation-Induced Gi Syndrome., Peng Li, Evan Wuthrick, Jeff A. Rappaport, Crystal Kraft, Jieru E. Lin, Glen Marszalowicz, Adam E. Snook, Tingting Zhan, Terry M. Hyslop, Scott A. Waldman

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Faculty Papers

High doses of ionizing radiation induce acute damage to epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, mediating toxicities restricting the therapeutic efficacy of radiation in cancer and morbidity and mortality in nuclear disasters. No approved prophylaxis or therapy exists for these toxicities, in part reflecting an incomplete understanding of mechanisms contributing to the acute radiation-induced GI syndrome (RIGS). Guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) and its hormones guanylin and uroguanylin have recently emerged as one paracrine axis defending intestinal mucosal integrity against mutational, chemical, and inflammatory injury. Here, we reveal a role for the GUCY2C paracrine axis in compensatory mechanisms opposing RIGS ...


Posttranscriptional Regulation Of Parg Mrna By Hur Facilitates Dna Repair And Resistance To Parp Inhibitors, Saswati N. Chand, Mahsa Zarei, M. J. Schiewer, Akshay R. Sanan, Carmella Romeo, Shruti Lal, Joseph A. Cozzitorto, Avinoam Nevler, Laura Scolaro, Eric R. Londin, Wei Jiang, Nicole Meisner-Kober, Michael J. Pishvaian, Karen E. Knudsen, Charles Yeo, John M Pascal, Jordan M. Winter, Jonathan R. Brody Sep 2017

Posttranscriptional Regulation Of Parg Mrna By Hur Facilitates Dna Repair And Resistance To Parp Inhibitors, Saswati N. Chand, Mahsa Zarei, M. J. Schiewer, Akshay R. Sanan, Carmella Romeo, Shruti Lal, Joseph A. Cozzitorto, Avinoam Nevler, Laura Scolaro, Eric R. Londin, Wei Jiang, Nicole Meisner-Kober, Michael J. Pishvaian, Karen E. Knudsen, Charles Yeo, John M Pascal, Jordan M. Winter, Jonathan R. Brody

Department of Surgery Faculty Papers

The majority of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) rely on the mRNA stability factor HuR (ELAV-L1) to drive cancer growth and progression. Here, we show that CRISPR-Cas9–mediated silencing of the HuR locus increases the relative sensitivity of PDAC cells to PARP inhibitors (PARPi). PDAC cells treated with PARPi stimulated translocation of HuR from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, specifically promoting stabilization of a new target, poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) mRNA, by binding a unique sequence embedded in its 30 untranslated region. HuR-dependent upregulation of PARG expression facilitated DNA repair via hydrolysis of polyADP-ribose on related repair proteins. Accordingly, strategies ...


The Biogenesis Pathway Of Trna-Derived Pirnas In Bombyx Germ Cells., Shozo Honda, Takuya Kawamura, Phillipe Loher, Keisuke Morichika, Isidore Rigoutsos, Yohei Kirino, Phd Sep 2017

The Biogenesis Pathway Of Trna-Derived Pirnas In Bombyx Germ Cells., Shozo Honda, Takuya Kawamura, Phillipe Loher, Keisuke Morichika, Isidore Rigoutsos, Yohei Kirino, Phd

Computational Medicine Center Faculty Papers

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) function in translational machinery and further serves as a source of short non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). tRNA-derived ncRNAs show differential expression profiles and play roles in many biological processes beyond translation. Molecular mechanisms that shape and regulate their expression profiles are largely unknown. Here, we report the mechanism of biogenesis for tRNA-derived Piwi-interacting RNAs (td-piRNAs) expressed in Bombyx BmN4 cells. In the cells, two cytoplasmic tRNA species, tRNAAspGUC and tRNAHisGUG, served as major sources for td-piRNAs, which were derived from the 5'-part of the respective tRNAs. cP-RNA-seq identified the two tRNAs as major substrates for the 5 ...


Activating Transcription Factor 3 Promotes Loss Of The Acinar Cell Phenotype In Response To Cerulein-Induced Pancreatitis In Mice, Elena N Fazio, Claire C Young, Jelena Toma, Michael Levy, Kurt R Berger, Charis L Johnson, Rashid Mehmood, Patrick Swan, Alphonse Chu, Sean P Cregan, F Jeffrey Dilworth, Christopher J Howlett, Christopher L Pin Sep 2017

Activating Transcription Factor 3 Promotes Loss Of The Acinar Cell Phenotype In Response To Cerulein-Induced Pancreatitis In Mice, Elena N Fazio, Claire C Young, Jelena Toma, Michael Levy, Kurt R Berger, Charis L Johnson, Rashid Mehmood, Patrick Swan, Alphonse Chu, Sean P Cregan, F Jeffrey Dilworth, Christopher J Howlett, Christopher L Pin

Paediatrics Publications

Pancreatitis is a debilitating disease of the exocrine pancreas that, under chronic conditions, is a major susceptibility factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Although down-regulation of genes that promote the mature acinar cell fate is required to reduce injury associated with pancreatitis, the factors that promote this repression are unknown. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a key mediator of the unfolded protein response, a pathway rapidly activated during pancreatic insult. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing, we show that ATF3 is bound to the transcriptional regulatory regions of >30% of differentially expressed genes during the initiation of pancreatitis ...


Strain Specific Effects Of Low Level Lead Exposure On Associative Learning And Memory In Rats., Megha Verma, J. S. Schneider Sep 2017

Strain Specific Effects Of Low Level Lead Exposure On Associative Learning And Memory In Rats., Megha Verma, J. S. Schneider

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Exposure to lead (Pb) remains a significant public health concern. Lead exposure in early life impairs the normal development of numerous cognitive and neurobehavioral processes. Previous work has shown that the effects of developmental Pb exposure on gene expression patterns in the brain are modulated by various factors including the developmental timing of the exposure, level of exposure, sex, and genetic background. Using gene microarray profiling, we previously reported a significant strain-specific effect of Pb exposure on the hippocampal transcriptome, with the greatest number of differentially expressed transcripts in Long Evans (LE) rats and the fewest in Sprague Dawley (SD ...


The Rna-Binding Protein Hur Contributes To Neuroinflammation By Promoting C-C Chemokine Receptor 6 (Ccr6) Expression On Th17 Cells., Jing Chen, Jennifer L. Martindale, Carole Cramer, Myriam Gorospe, Ulus Atasoy, Paul D. Drew, Shiguang Yu Sep 2017

The Rna-Binding Protein Hur Contributes To Neuroinflammation By Promoting C-C Chemokine Receptor 6 (Ccr6) Expression On Th17 Cells., Jing Chen, Jennifer L. Martindale, Carole Cramer, Myriam Gorospe, Ulus Atasoy, Paul D. Drew, Shiguang Yu

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

In both multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the C-C chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) is critical for pathogenic T helper 17 (Th17) cell migration to the central nervous system (CNS). Whereas many cytokines and their receptors are potently regulated via post-transcriptional mechanisms in response to various stimuli, how CCR6 expression is post-transcriptionally regulated in Th17 cells is unknown. Here, using RNA-binding protein HuR conditional knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice, we present evidence that HuR post-transcriptionally regulates CCR6 expression by binding to and stabilizing Ccr6 mRNA and by promoting CCR6 translation. We also found that HuR down-regulates several microRNA ...


Calcineurin Dysregulation Underlies Spinal Cord Injury-Induced K(+) Channel Dysfunction In Drg Neurons., Benjamin M. Zemel, Tanziyah Muqeem, Eric V. Brown, Miguel Goulão, Mark W Urban, Stephen R. Tymanskyj, Angelo C. Lepore, Manuel Covarrubias Aug 2017

Calcineurin Dysregulation Underlies Spinal Cord Injury-Induced K(+) Channel Dysfunction In Drg Neurons., Benjamin M. Zemel, Tanziyah Muqeem, Eric V. Brown, Miguel Goulão, Mark W Urban, Stephen R. Tymanskyj, Angelo C. Lepore, Manuel Covarrubias

Department of Neuroscience

Dysfunction of the fast-inactivating Kv3.4 potassium current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons contributes to the hyperexcitability associated with persistent pain induced by spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the underlying mechanism is not known. In light of our previous work demonstrating modulation of the Kv3.4 channel by phosphorylation, we investigated the role of the phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) using electrophysiological, molecular, and imaging approaches in adult female Sprague Dawley rats. Pharmacological inhibition of CaN in small-diameter DRG neurons slowed repolarization of the somatic action potential (AP) and attenuated the Kv3.4 current. Attenuated Kv3.4 currents also exhibited slowed ...


Investigation Of The Safety Of Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening In A Natural Canine Model Of Aging, Meaghan Anne O'Reilly, Ryan Matthew Jones, Edward Barrett, Anthony P. Schwab, Elizabeth Head, Kullervo Hynynen Aug 2017

Investigation Of The Safety Of Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening In A Natural Canine Model Of Aging, Meaghan Anne O'Reilly, Ryan Matthew Jones, Edward Barrett, Anthony P. Schwab, Elizabeth Head, Kullervo Hynynen

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Rationale: Ultrasound-mediated opening of the Blood-Brain Barrier(BBB) has shown exciting potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease(AD). Studies in transgenic mouse models have shown that this approach can reduce plaque pathology and improve spatial memory. Before clinical translation can occur the safety of the method needs to be tested in a larger brain that allows lower frequencies be used to treat larger tissue volumes, simulating clinical situations. Here we investigate the safety of opening the BBB in half of the brain in a large aged animal model with naturally occurring amyloid deposits.

Methods: Aged dogs naturally accumulate ...