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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Law Library Blog (December 2018) : Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law Dec 2018

Law Library Blog (December 2018) : Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.


Drosophila Cav2 Channels Harboring Human Migraine Mutations Cause Synapse Hyperexcitability That Can Be Suppressed By Inhibition Of A Ca2+ Store Release Pathway, Douglas J Brusich, Ashlyn M Spring, Thomas D James, Catherine J Yeates, Timothy H Helms, C Andrew Frank Aug 2018

Drosophila Cav2 Channels Harboring Human Migraine Mutations Cause Synapse Hyperexcitability That Can Be Suppressed By Inhibition Of A Ca2+ Store Release Pathway, Douglas J Brusich, Ashlyn M Spring, Thomas D James, Catherine J Yeates, Timothy H Helms, C Andrew Frank

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology Publications

Gain-of-function mutations in the human CaV2.1 gene CACNA1A cause familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1). To characterize cellular problems potentially triggered by CaV2.1 gains of function, we engineered mutations encoding FHM1 amino-acid substitutions S218L (SL) and R192Q (RQ) into transgenes of Drosophila melanogaster CaV2/cacophony. We expressed the transgenes pan-neuronally. Phenotypes were mild for RQ-expressing animals. By contrast, single mutant SL- and complex allele RQ,SL-expressing animals showed overt phenotypes, including sharply decreased viability. By electrophysiology, SL- and RQ,SL-expressing neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) exhibited enhanced evoked discharges, supernumerary discharges, and an increase in the amplitudes and frequencies of ...


In Vivo And In Vitro Studies Of Cry5b And Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist Anthelmintics Reveal A Powerful And Unique Combination Therapy Against Intestinal Nematode Parasites, Yan Hu, Melanie Miller, Bo Zhang, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Martin K. Nielsen, Raffi V. Aroian May 2018

In Vivo And In Vitro Studies Of Cry5b And Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist Anthelmintics Reveal A Powerful And Unique Combination Therapy Against Intestinal Nematode Parasites, Yan Hu, Melanie Miller, Bo Zhang, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Martin K. Nielsen, Raffi V. Aroian

Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Background

The soil-transmitted nematodes (STNs) or helminths (hookworms, whipworms, large roundworms) infect the intestines of ~1.5 billion of the poorest peoples and are leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Only one class of anthelmintic or anti-nematode drugs, the benzimidazoles, is currently used in mass drug administrations, which is a dangerous situation. New anti-nematode drugs are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein Cry5B is a powerful, promising new candidate. Drug combinations, when properly made, are ideal for treating infectious diseases. Although there are some clinical trials using drug combinations against STNs, little quantitative and systemic work has been performed to define ...


Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Of Nanoceria Systemic Distribution In Rats Suggests Dose- And Route-Dependent Biokinetics, Ulrika Carlander, Tshepo Paulsen Moto, Anteneh Assefa Desalegn, Robert A. Yokel, Gunnar Johanson May 2018

Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Of Nanoceria Systemic Distribution In Rats Suggests Dose- And Route-Dependent Biokinetics, Ulrika Carlander, Tshepo Paulsen Moto, Anteneh Assefa Desalegn, Robert A. Yokel, Gunnar Johanson

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are increasingly being used in a variety of products as catalysts, coatings, and polishing agents. Furthermore, their antioxidant properties make nanoceria potential candidates for biomedical applications. To predict and avoid toxicity, information about their biokinetics is essential. A useful tool to explore such associations between exposure and internal target dose is physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. The aim of this study was to test the appropriateness of our previously published PBPK model developed for intravenous (IV) administration when applied to various sizes of nanoceria and to exposure routes relevant for humans.

Methods: Experimental biokinetic data ...


Knockout Of Pannexin-1 Induces Hearing Loss, Jin Chen, Chun Liang, Liang Zong, Yan Zhu, Hong-Bo Zhao Apr 2018

Knockout Of Pannexin-1 Induces Hearing Loss, Jin Chen, Chun Liang, Liang Zong, Yan Zhu, Hong-Bo Zhao

Otolaryngology--Head & Neck Surgery Faculty Publications

Mutations of gap junction connexin genes induce a high incidence of nonsyndromic hearing loss. Pannexin genes also encode gap junctional proteins in vertebrates. Recent studies demonstrated that Pannexin-1 (Panx1) deficiency in mice and mutation in humans are also associated with hearing loss. So far, several Panx1 knockout (KO) mouse lines were established. In general, these Panx1 KO mouse lines demonstrate consistent phenotypes in most aspects, including hearing loss. However, a recent study reported that a Panx1 KO mouse line, which was created by Genentech Inc., had no hearing loss as measured by the auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold at low-frequency ...


Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu Apr 2018

Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The role of electrostatic interactions in the viral capsid assembly process was studied by comparing the assembly process of a truncated hepatitis B virus capsid protein Cp149 with its mutant protein D2N/D4N, which has the same conformational structure but four fewer charges per dimer. The capsid protein self-assembly was investigated under a wide range of protein surface charge densities by changing the protein concentration, buffer pH, and solution ionic strength. Lowering the protein charge density favored the capsid formation. However, lowering charge beyond a certain point resulted in capsid aggregation and precipitation. Interestingly, both the wild-type and D2N/D4N ...


Differential Effects Of Linkers On The Activity Of Amphiphilic Tobramycin Antifungals, Marina Y. Fosso, Sanjib K. Shrestha, Nishad Thamban Chandrika, Emily K. Dennis, Keith D. Green, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova Apr 2018

Differential Effects Of Linkers On The Activity Of Amphiphilic Tobramycin Antifungals, Marina Y. Fosso, Sanjib K. Shrestha, Nishad Thamban Chandrika, Emily K. Dennis, Keith D. Green, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

As the threat associated with fungal infections continues to rise and the availability of antifungal drugs remains a concern, it becomes obvious that the need to bolster the antifungal armamentarium is urgent. Building from our previous findings of tobramycin (TOB) derivatives with antifungal activity, we further investigate the effects of various linkers on the biological activity of these aminoglycosides. Herein, we analyze how thioether, sulfone, triazole, amide, and ether functionalities affect the antifungal activity of alkylated TOB derivatives against 22 Candida, Cryptococcus, and Aspergillus species. We also evaluate their impact on the hemolysis of murine erythrocytes and the cytotoxicity against ...


Bilateral Carotid Artery Stenosis Causes Unexpected Early Changes In Brain Extracellular Matrix And Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity In Mice, Jill M. Roberts, Michael E. Maniskas, Gregory J. Bix Apr 2018

Bilateral Carotid Artery Stenosis Causes Unexpected Early Changes In Brain Extracellular Matrix And Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity In Mice, Jill M. Roberts, Michael E. Maniskas, Gregory J. Bix

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) is one experimental model of vascular dementia thought to preferentially impact brain white matter. Indeed, few studies report hippocampal and cortical pathology prior to 30 days post-stenosis; though it is unclear whether those studies examined regions outside the white matter. Since changes in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability precede more overt brain pathology in various diseases, we hypothesized that changes within the BBB and/or BBB-associated extracellular matrix (ECM) could occur earlier after BCAS in the hippocampus, cortex and striatum and be a precursor of longer term pathology. Here, C57Bl/6 mice underwent BCAS or ...


Macrophage-Derived Il-1Β/Nf-Κb Signaling Mediates Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Cholestasis., Karim C El Kasmi, Padade M Vue, Aimee L Anderson, Michael W Devereaux, Swati Ghosh, Natarajan Balasubramaniyan, Sophie A Fillon, Carola Dahrenmoeller, Ayed Allawzi, Crystal Woods, Sarah Mckenna, Clyde J Wright, Linda Johnson, Angelo D'Alessandro, Julie A Reisz, Eva Nozik-Grayck, Frederick J Suchy, Ronald J Sokol Apr 2018

Macrophage-Derived Il-1Β/Nf-Κb Signaling Mediates Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Cholestasis., Karim C El Kasmi, Padade M Vue, Aimee L Anderson, Michael W Devereaux, Swati Ghosh, Natarajan Balasubramaniyan, Sophie A Fillon, Carola Dahrenmoeller, Ayed Allawzi, Crystal Woods, Sarah Mckenna, Clyde J Wright, Linda Johnson, Angelo D'Alessandro, Julie A Reisz, Eva Nozik-Grayck, Frederick J Suchy, Ronald J Sokol

Journal Articles and Abstracts

In infants intolerant of enteral feeding because of intestinal disease, parenteral nutrition may be associated with cholestasis, which can progress to end-stage liver disease. Here we show the function of hepatic macrophages and phytosterols in parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) pathogenesis using a mouse model that recapitulates the human pathophysiology and combines intestinal injury with parenteral nutrition. We combine genetic, molecular, and pharmacological approaches to identify an essential function of hepatic macrophages and IL-1β in PNAC. Pharmacological antagonism of IL-1 signaling or genetic deficiency in CCR2, caspase-1 and caspase-11, or IL-1 receptor (which binds both IL-1α and IL-1β) prevents PNAC in ...


Systematic Complex Haploinsufficiency-Based Genetic Analysis Of Candida Albicans Transcription Factors: Tools And Applications To Virulence-Associated Phenotypes, Virginia E. Glazier, Thomas Murante, Kristy Koselny, Daniel Murante, Marisol Esqueda, Gina A. Wall, Melanie Wellington, Chiung-Yu Hung, Anuj Kumar, Damian J. Krysan Mar 2018

Systematic Complex Haploinsufficiency-Based Genetic Analysis Of Candida Albicans Transcription Factors: Tools And Applications To Virulence-Associated Phenotypes, Virginia E. Glazier, Thomas Murante, Kristy Koselny, Daniel Murante, Marisol Esqueda, Gina A. Wall, Melanie Wellington, Chiung-Yu Hung, Anuj Kumar, Damian J. Krysan

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

Genetic interaction analysis is a powerful approach to the study of complex biological processes that are dependent on multiple genes. Because of the largely diploid nature of the human fungal pathogen


Transcriptional Regulatory Networks Underlying Gene Expression Changes In Huntington's Disease., Seth A Ament, Jocelynn R Pearl, Jeffrey P Cantle, Robert M Bragg, Peter J Skene, Sydney R Coffey, Dani E Bergey, Vanessa C Wheeler, Marcy E Macdonald, Nitin S Baliga, Jim Rosinski, Leroy E Hood, Jeffrey B Carroll, Nathan D Price Mar 2018

Transcriptional Regulatory Networks Underlying Gene Expression Changes In Huntington's Disease., Seth A Ament, Jocelynn R Pearl, Jeffrey P Cantle, Robert M Bragg, Peter J Skene, Sydney R Coffey, Dani E Bergey, Vanessa C Wheeler, Marcy E Macdonald, Nitin S Baliga, Jim Rosinski, Leroy E Hood, Jeffrey B Carroll, Nathan D Price

Journal Articles and Abstracts

Transcriptional changes occur presymptomatically and throughout Huntington's disease (HD), motivating the study of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) in HD We reconstructed a genome-scale model for the target genes of 718 transcription factors (TFs) in the mouse striatum by integrating a model of genomic binding sites with transcriptome profiling of striatal tissue from HD mouse models. We identified 48 differentially expressed TF-target gene modules associated with age- and CAG repeat length-dependent gene expression changes in


Cyclin D1-Mediated Microrna Expression Signature Predicts Breast Cancer Outcome, Guangxue Wang, Michael Gormley, Jing Qiao, Qian Zhao, Min Wang, Gabriele Disante, Shengqiong Deng, Lin Dong, Timothy G. Pestell, Xiaoming Ju, Mathew C. Casimiro, Sankar Addya, Adam Ertel, Ayden Tozeren, Qinchuan Li, Zuoren Yu, Richard G. Pestell Mar 2018

Cyclin D1-Mediated Microrna Expression Signature Predicts Breast Cancer Outcome, Guangxue Wang, Michael Gormley, Jing Qiao, Qian Zhao, Min Wang, Gabriele Disante, Shengqiong Deng, Lin Dong, Timothy G. Pestell, Xiaoming Ju, Mathew C. Casimiro, Sankar Addya, Adam Ertel, Ayden Tozeren, Qinchuan Li, Zuoren Yu, Richard G. Pestell

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Background: Genetic classification of breast cancer based on the coding mRNA suggests the evolution of distinct subtypes. Whether the non-coding genome is altered concordantly with the coding genome and the mechanism by which the cell cycle directly controls the non-coding genome is poorly understood.

Methods: Herein, the miRNA signature maintained by endogenous cyclin D1 in human breast cancer cells was defined. In order to determine the clinical significance of the cyclin D1-mediated miRNA signature, we defined a miRNA expression superset from 459 breast cancer samples. We compared the coding and non-coding genome of breast cancer subtypes.

Results: Hierarchical clustering of ...


Amperometric Self-Referencing Ceramic Based Microelectrode Arrays For D-Serine Detection, Diana Campos-Beltrán, Åsa Konradsson-Geuken, Jorge E. Quintero, Lisa Marshall Mar 2018

Amperometric Self-Referencing Ceramic Based Microelectrode Arrays For D-Serine Detection, Diana Campos-Beltrán, Åsa Konradsson-Geuken, Jorge E. Quintero, Lisa Marshall

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

D-serine is the major D-amino acid in the mammalian central nervous system. As the dominant co-agonist of the endogenous synaptic NMDA receptor, D-serine plays a role in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Alterations in D-serine are linked to neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Thus, it is of increasing interest to monitor the concentration of D-serine in vivo as a relevant player in dynamic neuron-glia network activity. Here we present a procedure for amperometric detection of D-serine with self-referencing ceramic-based microelectrode arrays (MEAs) coated with D-amino acid oxidase from the yeast Rhodotorula gracilis (RgDAAO). We demonstrate in vitro D-serine recordings with a ...


Protection Effect Of Exogenous Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 On The Kidney Injury In Vascular Calcification Rats, Yu-Chen Shi, Wei-Wei Lu, Yue-Long Hou, Kun Fu, Feng Gan, Shu-Juan Cheng, Shao-Ping Wang, Yong-Fen Qi, Jing-Hua Liu Mar 2018

Protection Effect Of Exogenous Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 On The Kidney Injury In Vascular Calcification Rats, Yu-Chen Shi, Wei-Wei Lu, Yue-Long Hou, Kun Fu, Feng Gan, Shu-Juan Cheng, Shao-Ping Wang, Yong-Fen Qi, Jing-Hua Liu

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is closely related to the cardiovascular events in vascular calcification (VC). However, little has known about the characteristics of kidney injury caused by VC. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine factor, which takes part in various metabolic actions with the potential to alleviate metabolic disorder diseases. Even FGF21 has been regarded as a biomarker in CKD, the role of FGF21 in CKD remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we evaluate the FGF21 on the kidney injury in VC rats.

Methods: The male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: (1) control group, (2 ...


Nephron Segment-Specific Gene Expression Using Aav Vectors., Laureano D Asico, Santiago Cuevas, Xiaobo Ma, Pedro A Jose, Ines Armando, Prasad R Konkalmatt Feb 2018

Nephron Segment-Specific Gene Expression Using Aav Vectors., Laureano D Asico, Santiago Cuevas, Xiaobo Ma, Pedro A Jose, Ines Armando, Prasad R Konkalmatt

Medicine Faculty Publications

AAV9 vector provides efficient gene transfer in all segments of the renal nephron, with minimum expression in non-renal cells, when administered retrogradely via the ureter. It is important to restrict the transgene expression to the desired cell type within the kidney, so that the physiological endpoints represent the function of the transgene expressed in that specific cell type within kidney. We hypothesized that segment-specific gene expression within the kidney can be accomplished using the highly efficient AAV9 vectors carrying the promoters of genes that are expressed exclusively in the desired segment of the nephron in combination with administration by retrograde ...


Preparation Of Acute Brain Slices Using An Optimized N-Methyl-D-Glucamine Protective Recovery Method., Jonathan T Ting, Brian R Lee, Peter Chong, Gilberto Soler-Llavina, Charles Cobbs, Christof Koch, Hongkui Zeng, Ed Lein Feb 2018

Preparation Of Acute Brain Slices Using An Optimized N-Methyl-D-Glucamine Protective Recovery Method., Jonathan T Ting, Brian R Lee, Peter Chong, Gilberto Soler-Llavina, Charles Cobbs, Christof Koch, Hongkui Zeng, Ed Lein

Journal Articles and Abstracts

This protocol is a practical guide to the N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) protective recovery method of brain slice preparation. Numerous recent studies have validated the utility of this method for enhancing neuronal preservation and overall brain slice viability. The implementation of this technique by early adopters has facilitated detailed investigations into brain function using diverse experimental applications and spanning a wide range of animal ages, brain regions, and cell types. Steps are outlined for carrying out the protective recovery brain slice technique using an optimized NMDG artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) media formulation and enhanced procedure to reliably obtain healthy brain slices for ...


Silencing Of The Pink1 Gene Expression By Conditional Rnai Does Not Induce Dopaminergic Neuron Death In Mice., Hongxia Zhou, Björn H Falkenburger, Jörg B Schulz, Kim Tieu, Zuoshang Xu, Xu Gang Xia Feb 2018

Silencing Of The Pink1 Gene Expression By Conditional Rnai Does Not Induce Dopaminergic Neuron Death In Mice., Hongxia Zhou, Björn H Falkenburger, Jörg B Schulz, Kim Tieu, Zuoshang Xu, Xu Gang Xia

Kim Tieu

Transgenic RNAi, an alternative to the gene knockout approach, can induce hypomorphic phenotypes that resemble those of the gene knockout in mice. Conditional transgenic RNAi is an attractive choice of method for reverse genetics in vivo because it can achieve temporal and spatial silencing of targeted genes. Pol III promoters such as U6 are widely used to drive the expression of RNAi transgenes in animals. Tested in transgenic mice, a Cre-loxP inducible U6 promoter drove the broad expression of an shRNA against the Pink1 gene whose loss-of-functional mutations cause one form of familial Parkinson's disease. The expression of the ...


Lipidomic Analysis Of Immune Activation In Equine Leptospirosis And Leptospira-Vaccinated Horses, Paul L. Wood, Margaret Steinman, Erdal Erol, Craig Carter, Undine Christmann, Ashutosh Verma Feb 2018

Lipidomic Analysis Of Immune Activation In Equine Leptospirosis And Leptospira-Vaccinated Horses, Paul L. Wood, Margaret Steinman, Erdal Erol, Craig Carter, Undine Christmann, Ashutosh Verma

Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Faculty Publications

Currently available diagnostic assays for leptospirosis cannot differentiate vaccine from infection serum antibody. Several leptospiral proteins that are upregulated during infection have been described, but their utility as a diagnostic marker is still unclear. In this study, we undertook a lipidomics approach to determine if there are any differences in the serum lipid profiles of horses naturally infected with pathogenic Leptospira spp. and horses vaccinated against a commercially available bacterin. Utilizing a high-resolution mass spectrometry serum lipidomics analytical platform, we demonstrate that cyclic phosphatidic acids, diacylglycerols, and hydroperoxide oxidation products of choline plasmalogens are elevated in the serum of naturally ...


An Epidemiologic Study Of Antimicrobial Resistance Of Staphylococcus Species Isolated From Equine Samples Submitted To A Diagnostic Laboratory, Ronita Adams, Jackie Smith, Stephen Locke, Erica Phillips, Erdal Erol, Craig N. Carter, Agricola Odoi Feb 2018

An Epidemiologic Study Of Antimicrobial Resistance Of Staphylococcus Species Isolated From Equine Samples Submitted To A Diagnostic Laboratory, Ronita Adams, Jackie Smith, Stephen Locke, Erica Phillips, Erdal Erol, Craig N. Carter, Agricola Odoi

Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Background

Antimicrobial resistance limits traditional treatment options and increases costs. It is therefore important to estimate the magnitude of the problem so as to provide empirical data to guide control efforts. The aim of this study was to investigate the burden and patterns of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among equine Staphylococcus samples submitted to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (UKVDL) from 1993 to 2009. Retrospective data of 1711 equine Staphylococcus samples submitted to the UKVDL during the time period 1993 to 2009 were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, that included 16 drugs, were performed using cultures followed ...


Temporal Changes In Innate Immune Signals In A Rat Model Of Alcohol Withdrawal In Emotional And Cardiorespiratory Homeostatic Nuclei., Kate Freeman, Anthony Brureau, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Mary M Staehle, Melanie M Brureau, Gregory E Gonye, Jan B Hoek, D Craig Hooper, James S Schwaber Feb 2018

Temporal Changes In Innate Immune Signals In A Rat Model Of Alcohol Withdrawal In Emotional And Cardiorespiratory Homeostatic Nuclei., Kate Freeman, Anthony Brureau, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Mary M Staehle, Melanie M Brureau, Gregory E Gonye, Jan B Hoek, D Craig Hooper, James S Schwaber

Mary Staehle

BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol use changes the brain's inflammatory state. However, there is little work examining the progression of the cytokine response during alcohol withdrawal, a period of profound autonomic and emotional upset. This study examines the inflammatory response in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC), brain regions neuroanatomically associated with affective and cardiorespiratory regulation in an in vivo rat model of withdrawal following a single chronic exposure.

METHODS: For qRT-PCR studies, we measured the expression of TNF-α, NOS-2, Ccl2 (MCP-1), MHC II invariant chain CD74, and the TNF receptor Tnfrsf1a in CeA and ...


Effects Of Six Common Dietary Nutrients On Murine Intestinal Organoid Growth, Tenson Cai, Yijun Qi, Albert Jergens, Michael Wannemuehler, Terrence A. Barrett, Qun Wang Feb 2018

Effects Of Six Common Dietary Nutrients On Murine Intestinal Organoid Growth, Tenson Cai, Yijun Qi, Albert Jergens, Michael Wannemuehler, Terrence A. Barrett, Qun Wang

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

The intestinal epithelium of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract constantly renews itself to absorb nutrients and provide protection for the body from the outside world. Since the intestinal epithelium is constantly exposed to various chemicals and dietary components, it is critical to determine which constituents promote or inhibit intestinal epithelium health and growth rate. Intestinal organoids, three-dimensional miniature models of the intestines, represent an ex vivo tool to investigate intestinal physiology and growth patterns. In this study, we measured the growth rates of murine intestinal organoids exposed to various concentrations of different dietary constituents. Results indicate that caffeic acid inhibited organoid ...


Beta-Catenin Cleavage Enhances Transcriptional Activation, Tatiana Goretsky, Emily M. Bradford, Qing Ye, Olivia F. Lamping, Tomas Vanagunas, Mary Pat Moyer, Patrick C. Keller, Preetika Sinh, Josep M. Llovet, Tianyan Gao, Qing-Bai She, Linheng Li, Terrence A. Barrett Jan 2018

Beta-Catenin Cleavage Enhances Transcriptional Activation, Tatiana Goretsky, Emily M. Bradford, Qing Ye, Olivia F. Lamping, Tomas Vanagunas, Mary Pat Moyer, Patrick C. Keller, Preetika Sinh, Josep M. Llovet, Tianyan Gao, Qing-Bai She, Linheng Li, Terrence A. Barrett

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Nuclear activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required for cell proliferation in inflammation and cancer. Studies from our group indicate that β-catenin activation in colitis and colorectal cancer (CRC) correlates with increased nuclear levels of β-catenin phosphorylated at serine 552 (pβ-Cat552). Biochemical analysis of nuclear extracts from cancer biopsies revealed the existence of low molecular weight (LMW) pβ-Cat552, increased to the exclusion of full size (FS) forms of β-catenin. LMW β-catenin lacks both termini, leaving residues in the armadillo repeat intact. Further experiments showed that TCF4 predominantly binds LMW pβ-Cat552 in the nucleus of inflamed and cancerous ...


Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis: A Novel Surgical Model For Moyamoya Syndrome, Jill M. Roberts, Michael E. Maniskas, Justin F. Fraser, Gregory J. Bix Jan 2018

Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis: A Novel Surgical Model For Moyamoya Syndrome, Jill M. Roberts, Michael E. Maniskas, Justin F. Fraser, Gregory J. Bix

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Moyamoya is a cerebrovascular disorder characterized by progressive stenosis of the intracranial internal carotid arteries. There are two forms: Disease and Syndrome, with each characterized by the sub-population it affects. Moyamoya syndrome (MMS) is more prominent in adults in their 20’s-40’s, and is often associated with autoimmune diseases. Currently, there are no surgical models for inducing moyamoya syndrome, so our aim was to develop a new animal model to study this relatively unknown cerebrovascular disease. Here, we demonstrate a new surgical technique termed internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS), to mimic MMS using micro-coils on the proximal ICA. We ...


Animals & Ethics 101: Thinking Critically About Animal Rights, Nathan Nobis Jan 2018

Animals & Ethics 101: Thinking Critically About Animal Rights, Nathan Nobis

Morehouse Faculty Publications

This book provides an overview of the current debates about the nature and extent of our moral obligations to animals. Which, if any, uses of animals are morally wrong, which are morally permissible (i.e., not wrong) and why? What, if any, moral obligations do we, individually and as a society (and a global community), have towards animals and why? How should animals be treated? Why?

We will explore the most influential and most developed answers to these questions – given by philosophers, scientists, and animal advocates and their critics – to try to determine which positions are supported by the best ...


Linkage, Whole Genome Sequence, And Biological Data Implicate Variants In Rab10 In Alzheimer's Disease Resilience., Perry G Ridge, Celeste M Karch, Simon Hsu, Ivan Arano, Craig C Teerlink, Mark T W Ebbert, Josue D Gonzalez Murcia, James M Farnham, Anna R Damato, Mariet Allen, Xue Wang, Oscar Harari, Victoria M Fernandez, Rita Guerreiro, Jose Bras, John Hardy, Ronald Munger, Maria Norton, Celeste Sassi, Andrew Singleton, Steven G Younkin, Dennis W Dickson, Todd E Golde, Nathan D Price, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Carlos Cruchaga, Alison M Goate, Christopher Corcoran, Joann Tschanz, Lisa A Cannon-Albright, John S K Kauwe Nov 2017

Linkage, Whole Genome Sequence, And Biological Data Implicate Variants In Rab10 In Alzheimer's Disease Resilience., Perry G Ridge, Celeste M Karch, Simon Hsu, Ivan Arano, Craig C Teerlink, Mark T W Ebbert, Josue D Gonzalez Murcia, James M Farnham, Anna R Damato, Mariet Allen, Xue Wang, Oscar Harari, Victoria M Fernandez, Rita Guerreiro, Jose Bras, John Hardy, Ronald Munger, Maria Norton, Celeste Sassi, Andrew Singleton, Steven G Younkin, Dennis W Dickson, Todd E Golde, Nathan D Price, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Carlos Cruchaga, Alison M Goate, Christopher Corcoran, Joann Tschanz, Lisa A Cannon-Albright, John S K Kauwe

Journal Articles and Abstracts

BACKGROUND: While age and the APOE ε4 allele are major risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), a small percentage of individuals with these risk factors exhibit AD resilience by living well beyond 75 years of age without any clinical symptoms of cognitive decline.

METHODS: We used over 200 "AD resilient" individuals and an innovative, pedigree-based approach to identify genetic variants that segregate with AD resilience. First, we performed linkage analyses in pedigrees with resilient individuals and a statistical excess of AD deaths. Second, we used whole genome sequences to identify candidate SNPs in significant linkage regions. Third, we replicated ...


Top2a And Ezh2 Provide Early Detection Of An Aggressive Prostate Cancer Subgroup., David P. Labbé, Christopher J. Sweeney, Myles Brown, Phillip Galbo, Spencer Rosario, Kristine M. Wadosky, Sheng-Yu Ku, Martin Sjöström, Mohammed Alshalalfa, Nicholas Erho, Elai Davicioni, R. Jeffrey Karnes, Edward M. Schaeffer, Robert B. Jenkins, Robert B. Den, Ashley E. Ross, Michaela Bowden, Ying Huang, Kathryn P. Gray, Felix Y. Feng, Daniel E. Spratt, David W. Goodrich, Kevin H. Eng, Leigh Ellis Nov 2017

Top2a And Ezh2 Provide Early Detection Of An Aggressive Prostate Cancer Subgroup., David P. Labbé, Christopher J. Sweeney, Myles Brown, Phillip Galbo, Spencer Rosario, Kristine M. Wadosky, Sheng-Yu Ku, Martin Sjöström, Mohammed Alshalalfa, Nicholas Erho, Elai Davicioni, R. Jeffrey Karnes, Edward M. Schaeffer, Robert B. Jenkins, Robert B. Den, Ashley E. Ross, Michaela Bowden, Ying Huang, Kathryn P. Gray, Felix Y. Feng, Daniel E. Spratt, David W. Goodrich, Kevin H. Eng, Leigh Ellis

Department of Radiation Oncology Faculty Papers

Purpose: Current clinical parameters do not stratify indolent from aggressive prostate cancer. Aggressive prostate cancer, defined by the progression from localized disease to metastasis, is responsible for the majority of prostate cancer–associated mortality. Recent gene expression profiling has proven successful in predicting the outcome of prostate cancer patients; however, they have yet to provide targeted therapy approaches that could inhibit a patient's progression to metastatic disease. Experimental Design: We have interrogated a total of seven primary prostate cancer cohorts (n = 1,900), two metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer datasets (n = 293), and one prospective cohort (n = 1,385) to ...


Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Neutralize The Anti-Tumor Effect Of Csf1 Receptor Blockade By Inducing Pmn-Mdsc Infiltration Of Tumors., Vinit Kumar, Laxminarasimha Donthireddy, Douglas Marvel, Thomas Condamine, Fang Wang, Sergio Lavilla-Alonso, Ayumi Hashimoto, Prashanthi Vonteddu, Reeti Behera, Marlee A. Goins, Charles Mulligan, Brian Nam, Neil Hockstein, Fred Denstman, Shanti Shakamuri, David W. Speicher, Ashani T. Weeraratna, Timothy Chao, Robert H. Vonderheide, Lucia R. Languino, Peter Ordentlich, Qin Liu, Xiaowei Xu, Albert Lo, Ellen Puré, Chunsheng Zhang, Andrey Loboda, Manuel A. Sepulveda, Linda A. Snyder, Dmitry I. Gabrilovich Nov 2017

Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Neutralize The Anti-Tumor Effect Of Csf1 Receptor Blockade By Inducing Pmn-Mdsc Infiltration Of Tumors., Vinit Kumar, Laxminarasimha Donthireddy, Douglas Marvel, Thomas Condamine, Fang Wang, Sergio Lavilla-Alonso, Ayumi Hashimoto, Prashanthi Vonteddu, Reeti Behera, Marlee A. Goins, Charles Mulligan, Brian Nam, Neil Hockstein, Fred Denstman, Shanti Shakamuri, David W. Speicher, Ashani T. Weeraratna, Timothy Chao, Robert H. Vonderheide, Lucia R. Languino, Peter Ordentlich, Qin Liu, Xiaowei Xu, Albert Lo, Ellen Puré, Chunsheng Zhang, Andrey Loboda, Manuel A. Sepulveda, Linda A. Snyder, Dmitry I. Gabrilovich

Kimmel Cancer Center Papers, Presentations, and Grand Rounds

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) contribute to all aspects of tumor progression. Use of CSF1R inhibitors to target TAM is therapeutically appealing, but has had very limited anti-tumor effects. Here, we have identified the mechanism that limited the effect of CSF1R targeted therapy. We demonstrated that carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are major sources of chemokines that recruit granulocytes to tumors. CSF1 produced by tumor cells caused HDAC2-mediated downregulation of granulocyte-specific chemokine expression in CAF, which limited migration of these cells to tumors. Treatment with CSF1R inhibitors disrupted this crosstalk and triggered a profound increase in granulocyte recruitment to tumors. Combining CSF1R inhibitor with ...


Introducing Sit-Stand Desks Increases Classroom Standing Time Among University Students., Matthew Jerome, Kathleen F Janz, Barbara Baquero, Lucas J Carr Nov 2017

Introducing Sit-Stand Desks Increases Classroom Standing Time Among University Students., Matthew Jerome, Kathleen F Janz, Barbara Baquero, Lucas J Carr

Department of Health and Human Physiology Publications

Excessive sedentary behavior has been associated with many negative health outcomes. While an understudied health topic, there is evidence that university students are excessively sedentary. Sit-stand desks have been shown to reduce sedentary time among pre-university students (ages 5-18 years) and sedentary workers but have not been tested in university classrooms. This study tested the effects of introducing sit-stand desks into a university classroom on student's classroom sitting and standing behaviors. Using a cross-over design, students received access to both traditional seated desks and sit-stand desks for six weeks. Data were collected between September and December, 2016. We recruited ...


Identification Of A Novel Synaptic Protein, Tmtc3, Involved In Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia With Intellectual Disability And Epilepsy, Sali M K Farhan, Kevin C J Nixon, Michelle Everest, Tara N Edwards, Shirley Long, Dmitri Segal, Maria J Knip, Heleen H Arts, Rana Chakrabarti, Jian Wang, John F Robinson, Donald Lee, Seyed M Mirsattari, C Anthony Rupar, Victoria M Siu, Forge Canada Consortium, Michael O Poulter, Robert A Hegele, Jamie M Kramer Nov 2017

Identification Of A Novel Synaptic Protein, Tmtc3, Involved In Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia With Intellectual Disability And Epilepsy, Sali M K Farhan, Kevin C J Nixon, Michelle Everest, Tara N Edwards, Shirley Long, Dmitri Segal, Maria J Knip, Heleen H Arts, Rana Chakrabarti, Jian Wang, John F Robinson, Donald Lee, Seyed M Mirsattari, C Anthony Rupar, Victoria M Siu, Forge Canada Consortium, Michael O Poulter, Robert A Hegele, Jamie M Kramer

Paediatrics Publications

Defects in neuronal migration cause brain malformations, which are associated with intellectual disability (ID) and epilepsy. Using exome sequencing, we identified compound heterozygous variants (p.Arg71His and p. Leu729ThrfsTer6) in TMTC3, encoding transmembrane and tetratricopeptide repeat containing 3, in four siblings with nocturnal seizures and ID. Three of the four siblings have periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH), a common brain malformation caused by failure of neurons to migrate from the ventricular zone to the cortex. Expression analysis using patient-derived cells confirmed reduced TMTC3 transcript levels and loss of the TMTC3 protein compared to parental and control cells. As TMTC3 function is ...


Epigenetic Suppression Of Hippocampal Calbindin-D28k By Δfosb Drives Seizure-Related Cognitive Deficits., Jason C. You, Kavitha Muralidharan, Jin W. Park, Iraklis Petrof, Mark S. Pyfer, Brian F. Corbett, John J. Lafrancois, Yi Zheng, Xiaohong Zhang, Carrie A. Mohila, Daniel Yoshor, Robert A. Rissman, Eric J. Nestler, Helen E. Scharfman, Jeannie Chin Nov 2017

Epigenetic Suppression Of Hippocampal Calbindin-D28k By Δfosb Drives Seizure-Related Cognitive Deficits., Jason C. You, Kavitha Muralidharan, Jin W. Park, Iraklis Petrof, Mark S. Pyfer, Brian F. Corbett, John J. Lafrancois, Yi Zheng, Xiaohong Zhang, Carrie A. Mohila, Daniel Yoshor, Robert A. Rissman, Eric J. Nestler, Helen E. Scharfman, Jeannie Chin

Department of Neuroscience

The calcium-binding protein calbindin-D28k is critical for hippocampal function and cognition, but its expression is markedly decreased in various neurological disorders associated with epileptiform activity and seizures. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and epilepsy, both of which are accompanied by recurrent seizures, the severity of cognitive deficits reflects the degree of calbindin reduction in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). However, despite the importance of calbindin in both neuronal physiology and pathology, the regulatory mechanisms that control its expression in the hippocampus are poorly understood. Here we report an epigenetic mechanism through which seizures chronically suppress hippocampal calbindin expression and impair ...