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Articles 1 - 30 of 1899

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Microrna199b Regulates Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cells Maintenance, Aldona A. Karaczyn, Edward Jachimowicz, Jaspreet S. Kohli, Pradeep Sathyanarayana Apr 2020

Microrna199b Regulates Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cells Maintenance, Aldona A. Karaczyn, Edward Jachimowicz, Jaspreet S. Kohli, Pradeep Sathyanarayana

Costas T. Lambrew Research Retreat 2020

The preservation of hematopoieticstem cell pool in bone marrow (BM) is crucial for sustained hematopoiesisin adults. Studies assessing adult hematopoieticstem cells functionality had been shown that for example loss of quiescence impairs hematopoieticstem cells maintenance. Although, miR‐199b is frequently down‐regulated in acute myeloid leukemia, its role in hematopoieticstem cells quiescence, self‐renewal and differentiation is poorly understood. Our laboratory investigated the role of miR‐199b in hematopoieticstem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) fate using miR‐199b‐5p global deletion mouse model. Characterization of miR‐199b expression pattern among normal HSPC populations revealed that miR‐199b is enriched in LT ...


Loss Of Vitamin A Stores Impairs Cardiac Workload And Function Under Stress Conditions, Amanda J. Favreau‐Lessard, Maryann Asson‐Batres, Douglas B. Sawyer, Ilka Pinz Apr 2020

Loss Of Vitamin A Stores Impairs Cardiac Workload And Function Under Stress Conditions, Amanda J. Favreau‐Lessard, Maryann Asson‐Batres, Douglas B. Sawyer, Ilka Pinz

Costas T. Lambrew Research Retreat 2020

Study Objectives: Assess cardiac function under baseline and cardiac stress conditions in mice with and without hepatic vitamin A stores.


Lean Phenotype Induced By Methionine Restriction In Mice Is Associated With Proteomic Changes In Perivascular Adipose Tissue, Bethany H. Fortier, Calvin Ph Vary, Robert A. Koza, Gene P. Ables, Lucy Liaw Apr 2020

Lean Phenotype Induced By Methionine Restriction In Mice Is Associated With Proteomic Changes In Perivascular Adipose Tissue, Bethany H. Fortier, Calvin Ph Vary, Robert A. Koza, Gene P. Ables, Lucy Liaw

Costas T. Lambrew Research Retreat 2020

Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds blood vessels, is thermogenic, and secretes adipokines that can be vasoprotective. During aging and obesity, PVAT loses its thermogenic capacity, shows increased inflammation, and secretes proatherogenic cytokines. Our collaborative research has previously shown that dietary methionine restriction (MetR) in mice can decrease adiposity, improve glucose sensitivity, and induce PVAT to become more thermogenic. To identify initiating signals from PVAT that correspond to thermogenic conversion, we challenged male C57BL/6 mice with a high fat diet (HFD, 60 kcal% fat, 0.86% methionine) until they weighed >45g (~12 weeks of age). Weight matched mice were then ...


Implementation Of Crispr/Cas Editing Analysis Tool Ice To Detect Multiple Edited Alleles In Mice, Larisa Ryzhova, Anne Harrington, Samantha White, Lucy Liaw Apr 2020

Implementation Of Crispr/Cas Editing Analysis Tool Ice To Detect Multiple Edited Alleles In Mice, Larisa Ryzhova, Anne Harrington, Samantha White, Lucy Liaw

Costas T. Lambrew Research Retreat 2020

There is high demand for the development of experimental mouse models to study physiological processes and human diseases. CRISPR/Cas technology has offered a relatively efficient way to generate modifications in the mouse genome. However, this methodology often creates multiple, diverse genetic alterations, even when a strategy for a very specific targeted mutation is implemented. It is also rare that F0 mice will have single modified allele, and commonly, resultant mice are mosaic, containing multiple genomic modifications. In order to reduce the time and resources required to screen F0 mice and to detect somatic mosaicism, we implemented use of the ...


Immune Checkpoint Modulation Enhances Hiv-1 Antibody Induction., Todd Bradley, Masayuki Kuraoka, Chen-Hao Yeh, Ming Tian, Huan Chen, Derek W Cain, Xuejun Chen, Cheng Cheng, Ali H Ellebedy, Robert Parks, Maggie Barr, Laura L. Sutherland, Richard M. Scearce, Cindy M. Bowman, Hilary Bouton-Verville, Sampa Santra, Kevin Wiehe, Mark G. Lewis, Ane Ogbe, Persephone Borrow, David Montefiori, Mattia Bonsignori, M Anthony Moody, Laurent Verkoczy, Kevin O. Saunders, Rafi Ahmed, John R. Mascola, Garnett Kelsoe, Frederick W. Alt, Barton F. Haynes Feb 2020

Immune Checkpoint Modulation Enhances Hiv-1 Antibody Induction., Todd Bradley, Masayuki Kuraoka, Chen-Hao Yeh, Ming Tian, Huan Chen, Derek W Cain, Xuejun Chen, Cheng Cheng, Ali H Ellebedy, Robert Parks, Maggie Barr, Laura L. Sutherland, Richard M. Scearce, Cindy M. Bowman, Hilary Bouton-Verville, Sampa Santra, Kevin Wiehe, Mark G. Lewis, Ane Ogbe, Persephone Borrow, David Montefiori, Mattia Bonsignori, M Anthony Moody, Laurent Verkoczy, Kevin O. Saunders, Rafi Ahmed, John R. Mascola, Garnett Kelsoe, Frederick W. Alt, Barton F. Haynes

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Eliciting protective titers of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a goal of HIV-1 vaccine development, but current vaccine strategies have yet to induce bnAbs in humans. Many bnAbs isolated from HIV-1-infected individuals are encoded by immunoglobulin gene rearrangments with infrequent naive B cell precursors and with unusual genetic features that may be subject to host regulatory control. Here, we administer antibodies targeting immune cell regulatory receptors CTLA-4, PD-1 or OX40 along with HIV envelope (Env) vaccines to rhesus macaques and bnAb immunoglobulin knock-in (KI) mice expressing diverse precursors of CD4 binding site HIV-1 bnAbs. CTLA-4 blockade augments HIV-1 Env ...


Law Library Blog (December 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law Dec 2019

Law Library Blog (December 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.


Phospholipases D: Making Sense Of Redundancy And Duplication, Andrew J. Morris Jun 2019

Phospholipases D: Making Sense Of Redundancy And Duplication, Andrew J. Morris

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Why have two genes when one would suffice? Evolutionary pressure means that biology, unlike government, is generally intolerant of wasted effort. Therefore, when multiple genes exist presumably they are there to provide some benefit to the organism even if that benefit is not immediately obvious to us scientists. A recent report from Raghu and colleagues (Biosci. Rep. (2018) 38, pii: BSR20181690) [1] sheds some light on one possible reason for the existence of two Phospholipases D genes in chordates when only one is present in invertebrates.


Pathologic Gene Network Rewiring Implicates Ppp1r3a As A Central Regulator In Pressure Overload Heart Failure., Pablo Cordero, Victoria N Parikh, Elizabeth T Chin, Ayca Erbilgin, Michael J Gloudemans, Ching Shang, Yong Huang, Alex C Chang, Kevin S Smith, Frederick Dewey, Kathia Zaleta, Michael Morley, Jeff Brandimarto, Nicole Glazer, Daryl Waggott, Aleksandra Pavlovic, Mingming Zhao, Christine S Moravec, W H Wilson Tang, Jamie Skreen, Christine Malloy, Sridhar Hannenhalli, Hongzhe Li, Scott Ritter, Mingyao Li, Daniel Bernstein, Andrew Connolly, Hakon Hakonarson, Aldons J Lusis, Kenneth B Margulies, Anna A Depaoli-Roach, Stephen B Montgomery, Matthew T Wheeler, Thomas Cappola, Euan A Ashley Jun 2019

Pathologic Gene Network Rewiring Implicates Ppp1r3a As A Central Regulator In Pressure Overload Heart Failure., Pablo Cordero, Victoria N Parikh, Elizabeth T Chin, Ayca Erbilgin, Michael J Gloudemans, Ching Shang, Yong Huang, Alex C Chang, Kevin S Smith, Frederick Dewey, Kathia Zaleta, Michael Morley, Jeff Brandimarto, Nicole Glazer, Daryl Waggott, Aleksandra Pavlovic, Mingming Zhao, Christine S Moravec, W H Wilson Tang, Jamie Skreen, Christine Malloy, Sridhar Hannenhalli, Hongzhe Li, Scott Ritter, Mingyao Li, Daniel Bernstein, Andrew Connolly, Hakon Hakonarson, Aldons J Lusis, Kenneth B Margulies, Anna A Depaoli-Roach, Stephen B Montgomery, Matthew T Wheeler, Thomas Cappola, Euan A Ashley

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Heart failure is a leading cause of mortality, yet our understanding of the genetic interactions underlying this disease remains incomplete. Here, we harvest 1352 healthy and failing human hearts directly from transplant center operating rooms, and obtain genome-wide genotyping and gene expression measurements for a subset of 313. We build failing and non-failing cardiac regulatory gene networks, revealing important regulators and cardiac expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). PPP1R3A emerges as a regulator whose network connectivity changes significantly between health and disease. RNA sequencing after PPP1R3A knockdown validates network-based predictions, and highlights metabolic pathway regulation associated with increased cardiomyocyte size and ...


Xx Sex Chromosome Complement Promotes Atherosclerosis In Mice, Yasir Alsiraj, Xuqi Chen, Sean E. Thatcher, Ryan E. Temel, Lei Cai, Eric M. Blalock, Wendy Katz, Heba M. Ali, Michael C. Petriello, Pan Deng, Andrew J. Morris, Xuping Wang, Aldons J. Lusis, Arthur P. Arnold, Karen Reue, Katherine L. Thompson, Patrick Tso, Lisa A. Cassis Jun 2019

Xx Sex Chromosome Complement Promotes Atherosclerosis In Mice, Yasir Alsiraj, Xuqi Chen, Sean E. Thatcher, Ryan E. Temel, Lei Cai, Eric M. Blalock, Wendy Katz, Heba M. Ali, Michael C. Petriello, Pan Deng, Andrew J. Morris, Xuping Wang, Aldons J. Lusis, Arthur P. Arnold, Karen Reue, Katherine L. Thompson, Patrick Tso, Lisa A. Cassis

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Men and women differ in circulating lipids and coronary artery disease (CAD). While sex hormones such as estrogens decrease CAD risk, hormone replacement therapy increases risk. Biological sex is determined by sex hormones and chromosomes, but effects of sex chromosomes on circulating lipids and atherosclerosis are unknown. Here, we use mouse models to separate effects of sex chromosomes and hormones on atherosclerosis, circulating lipids and intestinal fat metabolism. We assess atherosclerosis in multiple models and experimental paradigms that distinguish effects of sex chromosomes, and male or female gonads. Pro-atherogenic lipids and atherosclerosis are greater in XX than XY mice, indicating ...


Cyclin C Regulated Oxidative Stress Responsive Transcriptome In Mus Musculus Embryonic Fibroblasts, David C Stieg, Kai-Ti Chang, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich Jun 2019

Cyclin C Regulated Oxidative Stress Responsive Transcriptome In Mus Musculus Embryonic Fibroblasts, David C Stieg, Kai-Ti Chang, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

The transcriptional changes that occur in response to oxidative stress help direct the decision to maintain cell viability or enter a cell death pathway. Cyclin C-Cdk8 is a conserved kinase that associates with the RNA polymerase II Mediator complex that stimulates or represses transcription depending on the locus. In response to oxidative stress, cyclin C, but not Cdk8, displays partial translocation into the cytoplasm. These findings open the possibility that cyclin C relocalization is a regulatory mechanism governing oxidative stress-induced transcriptional changes. In the present study, the cyclin C-dependent transcriptome was determined and compared to transcriptional changes occurring in oxidatively ...


A High-Throughput Screen Indicates Gemcitabine And Jak Inhibitors May Be Useful For Treating Pediatric Aml, Christina D. Drenberg, Anang Shelat, Jinjun Dang, Anitria Cotton, Shelley J. Orwick, Mengyu Li, Jae Yoon Jeon, Qiang Fu, Daelynn R. Buelow, Marissa Pioso, Shuiying Hu, Hiroto Inaba, Raul C. Ribeiro, Jeffrey E. Rubnitz, Tanja A. Gruber, R. Kiplin Guy, Sharyn D Baker May 2019

A High-Throughput Screen Indicates Gemcitabine And Jak Inhibitors May Be Useful For Treating Pediatric Aml, Christina D. Drenberg, Anang Shelat, Jinjun Dang, Anitria Cotton, Shelley J. Orwick, Mengyu Li, Jae Yoon Jeon, Qiang Fu, Daelynn R. Buelow, Marissa Pioso, Shuiying Hu, Hiroto Inaba, Raul C. Ribeiro, Jeffrey E. Rubnitz, Tanja A. Gruber, R. Kiplin Guy, Sharyn D Baker

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Improvement in survival has been achieved for children and adolescents with AML but is largely attributed to enhanced supportive care as opposed to the development of better treatment regimens. High risk subtypes continue to have poor outcomes with event free survival rates < 40% despite the use of high intensity chemotherapy in combination with hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Here we combine high-throughput screening, intracellular accumulation assays, and in vivo efficacy studies to identify therapeutic strategies for pediatric AML. We report therapeutics not currently used to treat AML, gemcitabine and cabazitaxel, have broad anti-leukemic activity across subtypes and are more effective relative to the AML standard of care, cytarabine, both in vitro and in vivo. JAK inhibitors are selective for acute megakaryoblastic leukemia and significantly prolong survival in multiple preclinical models. Our approach provides advances in the development of treatment strategies for pediatric AML.


Systematic Review Of Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Horses From Australia, Muhammad A. Saeed, Ian Beveridge, Ghazanfar Abbas, Anne Beasley, Jenni Bauquier, Edwina Wilkes, Caroline Jacobson, Kris J. Hughes, Charles El-Hage, Ryan O'Handley, John Hurley, Lucy Cudmore, Peter Carrigan, Lisa Walter, Brett Tennent-Brown, Martin K. Nielsen, Abdul Jabbar Apr 2019

Systematic Review Of Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Horses From Australia, Muhammad A. Saeed, Ian Beveridge, Ghazanfar Abbas, Anne Beasley, Jenni Bauquier, Edwina Wilkes, Caroline Jacobson, Kris J. Hughes, Charles El-Hage, Ryan O'Handley, John Hurley, Lucy Cudmore, Peter Carrigan, Lisa Walter, Brett Tennent-Brown, Martin K. Nielsen, Abdul Jabbar

Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Background: Equine gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) have been the subject of intermittent studies in Australia over the past few decades. However, comprehensive information on the epidemiology of equine GINs, the efficacy of available anthelmintic drugs and the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in Australasia is lacking. Herein, we have systematically reviewed existing knowledge on the horse GINs recorded in Australia, and main aspects of their pathogeneses, epidemiology, diagnoses, treatment and control.

Methods: Six electronic databases were searched for publications on GINs of Australian horses that met our inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Subsets of publications were subjected to review epidemiology ...


Development And Evaluation Of A One-Step Multiplex Real-Time Taqman® Rt-Qpcr Assay For The Detection And Genotyping Of Equine G3 And G14 Rotaviruses In Fecal Samples, Mariano Carossino, Maria E. Barrandeguy, Erdal Erol, Yanqiu Li, Udeni B. R. Balasuriya Apr 2019

Development And Evaluation Of A One-Step Multiplex Real-Time Taqman® Rt-Qpcr Assay For The Detection And Genotyping Of Equine G3 And G14 Rotaviruses In Fecal Samples, Mariano Carossino, Maria E. Barrandeguy, Erdal Erol, Yanqiu Li, Udeni B. R. Balasuriya

Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Background: Equine rotavirus A (ERVA) is the leading cause of diarrhea in neonatal foals and has a negative impact on equine breeding enterprises worldwide. Among ERVA strains infecting foals, the genotypes G3P[12] and G14P[12] are the most prevalent, while infections by strains with other genomic arrangements are infrequent. The identification of circulating strains of ERVA is critical for diagnostic and surveillance purposes, as well as to understand their molecular epidemiology. Current genotyping methods available for ERVA and rotaviruses affecting other animal species rely on Sanger sequencing and are significantly time-consuming, costly and labor intensive. Here, we developed the ...


Gasdermin Pores Permeabilize Mitochondria To Augment Caspase-3 Activation During Apoptosis And Inflammasome Activation., Corey Rogers, Dan A. Erkes, Alexandria Nardone, Andrew E. Aplin, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Emad S. Alnemri Apr 2019

Gasdermin Pores Permeabilize Mitochondria To Augment Caspase-3 Activation During Apoptosis And Inflammasome Activation., Corey Rogers, Dan A. Erkes, Alexandria Nardone, Andrew E. Aplin, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Emad S. Alnemri

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Gasdermin E (GSDME/DFNA5) cleavage by caspase-3 liberates the GSDME-N domain, which mediates pyroptosis by forming pores in the plasma membrane. Here we show that GSDME-N also permeabilizes the mitochondrial membrane, releasing cytochrome c and activating the apoptosome. Cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation in response to intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic stimuli are significantly reduced in GSDME-deficient cells comparing with wild type cells. GSDME deficiency also accelerates cell growth in culture and in a mouse model of melanoma. Phosphomimetic mutation of the highly conserved phosphorylatable Thr6 residue of GSDME, inhibits its pore-forming activity, thus uncovering a potential mechanism by which ...


Proteomic Alterations Of Hdl In Youth With Type 1 Diabetes And Their Associations With Glycemic Control: A Case-Control Study, Evgenia Gourgari, Junfeng Ma, Martin P. Playford, Nehal N. Mehta, Radoslav Goldman, Alan T. Remaley, Scott M. Gordon Mar 2019

Proteomic Alterations Of Hdl In Youth With Type 1 Diabetes And Their Associations With Glycemic Control: A Case-Control Study, Evgenia Gourgari, Junfeng Ma, Martin P. Playford, Nehal N. Mehta, Radoslav Goldman, Alan T. Remaley, Scott M. Gordon

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

Background: Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) typically have normal or even elevated plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations; however, HDL protein composition can be altered without a change in cholesterol content. Alteration of the HDL proteome can result in dysfunctional HDL particles with reduced ability to protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to compare the HDL proteomes of youth with T1DM and healthy controls (HC) and to evaluate the influence of glycemic control on HDL protein composition.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional case–control study. Blood samples were obtained from patients with T1DM ...


Coming Together To Define Membrane Contact Sites., Luca Scorrano, Maria Antonietta De Matteis, Scott Emr, Francesca Giordano, György Hajnóczky, Benoît Kornmann, Laura L. Lackner, Tim P. Levine, Luca Pellegrini, Karin Reinisch, Rosario Rizzuto, Thomas Simmen, Harald Stenmark, Christian Ungermann, Maya Schuldiner Mar 2019

Coming Together To Define Membrane Contact Sites., Luca Scorrano, Maria Antonietta De Matteis, Scott Emr, Francesca Giordano, György Hajnóczky, Benoît Kornmann, Laura L. Lackner, Tim P. Levine, Luca Pellegrini, Karin Reinisch, Rosario Rizzuto, Thomas Simmen, Harald Stenmark, Christian Ungermann, Maya Schuldiner

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Close proximities between organelles have been described for decades. However, only recently a specific field dealing with organelle communication at membrane contact sites has gained wide acceptance, attracting scientists from multiple areas of cell biology. The diversity of approaches warrants a unified vocabulary for the field. Such definitions would facilitate laying the foundations of this field, streamlining communication and resolving semantic controversies. This opinion, written by a panel of experts in the field, aims to provide this burgeoning area with guidelines for the experimental definition and analysis of contact sites. It also includes suggestions on how to operationally and tractably ...


Prefrontal Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (Crf) Neurons Act Locally To Modulate Frontostriatal Cognition And Circuit Function., Sofiya Hupalo, Andrea J Martin, Rebecca K Green, David M Devilbiss, Craig W Berridge Mar 2019

Prefrontal Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (Crf) Neurons Act Locally To Modulate Frontostriatal Cognition And Circuit Function., Sofiya Hupalo, Andrea J Martin, Rebecca K Green, David M Devilbiss, Craig W Berridge

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

The PFC and extended frontostriatal circuitry support higher cognitive processes that guide goal-directed behavior. PFC-dependent cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of multiple psychiatric disorders. Unfortunately, a major limiting factor in the development of treatments for PFC cognitive dysfunction is our limited understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying PFC-dependent cognition. We recently demonstrated that activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors in the caudal dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC) impairs higher cognitive function, as measured in a working memory task. Currently, there remains much unknown about CRF-dependent regulation of cognition, including the source of CRF for cognition-modulating receptors and the output pathways modulated ...


Development And Validation Of A Rapid Method For The Detection Of Latrunculol A In Plasma., Jiajiu Shaw, Frederick A. Valeriote, Joseph Media, Tyler A. Johnson, Taro Amagata, Karen Tenney, Phillip Crews Mar 2019

Development And Validation Of A Rapid Method For The Detection Of Latrunculol A In Plasma., Jiajiu Shaw, Frederick A. Valeriote, Joseph Media, Tyler A. Johnson, Taro Amagata, Karen Tenney, Phillip Crews

Tyler Johnson

Latrunculol A is a recently discovered 6,7-dihydroxy analog of the potent actin inhibitor latrunculin A. Latrunculol A has exhibited greater cytotoxicity than latrunculin A against both murine and human colon tumor cell lines in vitro. Currently, there are no reports regarding the bioavailability of latrunculol A in vivo. This study was undertaken as a prelude to pharmacokinetic assessments and it is the first work where bioavailability of latrunculol A was studied. In the present work, a simple plasma preparation and a rapid HPLC method have been developed. Mouse plasma containing latrunculol A was first treated by acetonitrile and then ...


Neoantigen Screening Identifies Broad Tp53 Mutant Immunogenicity In Patients With Epithelial Cancers., Parisa Malekzadeh, Anna Pasetto, Paul F Robbins, Maria R Parkhurst, Biman C Paria, Li Jia, Jared J Gartner, Victoria Hill, Zhiya Yu, Nicholas P Restifo, Abraham Sachs, Eric Tran, Winifred Lo, Robert Pt Somerville, Steven A Rosenberg, Drew C Deniger Mar 2019

Neoantigen Screening Identifies Broad Tp53 Mutant Immunogenicity In Patients With Epithelial Cancers., Parisa Malekzadeh, Anna Pasetto, Paul F Robbins, Maria R Parkhurst, Biman C Paria, Li Jia, Jared J Gartner, Victoria Hill, Zhiya Yu, Nicholas P Restifo, Abraham Sachs, Eric Tran, Winifred Lo, Robert Pt Somerville, Steven A Rosenberg, Drew C Deniger

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

No abstract provided.


Mass Stranding Of Marine Birds Caused By A Surfactant-Producing Red Tide., David A. Jessup, Melissa A. Miller, John P. Ryan, Hannah M Nevins, Heather A. Kerkering, Abdou Mekebri, David B. Crane, Tyler A. Johnson, Raphael M. Kudela Feb 2019

Mass Stranding Of Marine Birds Caused By A Surfactant-Producing Red Tide., David A. Jessup, Melissa A. Miller, John P. Ryan, Hannah M Nevins, Heather A. Kerkering, Abdou Mekebri, David B. Crane, Tyler A. Johnson, Raphael M. Kudela

Tyler Johnson

In November-December 2007 a widespread seabird mortality event occurred in Monterey Bay, California, USA, coincident with a massive red tide caused by the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea. Affected birds had a slimy yellow-green material on their feathers, which were saturated with water, and they were severely hypothermic. We determined that foam containing surfactant-like proteins, derived from organic matter of the red tide, coated their feathers and neutralized natural water repellency and insulation. No evidence of exposure to petroleum or other oils or biotoxins were found. This is the first documented case of its kind, but previous similar events may have gone ...


Myxobacteria Versus Sponge-Derived Alkaloids: The Bengamide Family Identified As Potent Immune Modulating Agents By Scrutiny Of Lc-Ms/Elsd Libraries., Tyler A. Johnson, Johann Sohn, Yvette M Vaske, Kimberly N White, Tanya L Cohen, Helene C Vervoort, Karen Tenney, Frederick A Valeriote, Leonard F Bjeldanes, Phillip Crews Feb 2019

Myxobacteria Versus Sponge-Derived Alkaloids: The Bengamide Family Identified As Potent Immune Modulating Agents By Scrutiny Of Lc-Ms/Elsd Libraries., Tyler A. Johnson, Johann Sohn, Yvette M Vaske, Kimberly N White, Tanya L Cohen, Helene C Vervoort, Karen Tenney, Frederick A Valeriote, Leonard F Bjeldanes, Phillip Crews

Tyler Johnson

A nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) luciferase assay has been employed to identify the bengamides, previously known for their anti-tumor activity, as a new class of immune modulators. A unique element of this study was that the bengamide analogs were isolated from two disparate sources, Myxococcus virescens (bacterium) and Jaspis coriacea (sponge). Comparative LC-MS/ELSD and NMR analysis facilitated the isolation of M. viriscens derived samples of bengamide E (8) and two congeners, bengamide E' (13) and F' (14) each isolated as an insperable mixture of diastereomers. Additional compounds drawn from the UC, Santa Cruz repository allowed expansion of the structure activity ...


The Marine Sponge Metabolite Mycothiazole: A Novel Prototype Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitor., J Brian Morgan, Fakhri Mahdi, Yang Liu, Veena Coothankandaswamy, Mika B Jekabsons, Tyler A. Johnson, Koneni V Sashidhara, Phillip Crews, Dale G Nagle, Yu-Dong Zhou Feb 2019

The Marine Sponge Metabolite Mycothiazole: A Novel Prototype Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitor., J Brian Morgan, Fakhri Mahdi, Yang Liu, Veena Coothankandaswamy, Mika B Jekabsons, Tyler A. Johnson, Koneni V Sashidhara, Phillip Crews, Dale G Nagle, Yu-Dong Zhou

Tyler Johnson

A natural product chemistry-based approach was applied to discover small-molecule inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). A Petrosaspongia mycofijiensis marine sponge extract yielded mycothiazole (1), a solid tumor selective compound with no known mechanism for its cell line-dependent cytotoxic activity. Compound 1 inhibited hypoxic HIF-1 signaling in tumor cells (IC(50) 1nM) that correlated with the suppression of hypoxia-stimulated tumor angiogenesis in vitro. However, 1 exhibited pronounced neurotoxicity in vitro. Mechanistic studies revealed that 1 selectively suppresses mitochondrial respiration at complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase). Unlike rotenone, MPP(+), annonaceous acetogenins, piericidin A, and other complex I inhibitors, mycothiazole is a mixed polyketide ...


Lipophilic Stinging Nettle Extracts Possess Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Are Not Cytotoxic And May Be Superior To Traditional Tinctures For Treating Inflammatory Disorders., Tyler A. Johnson, Johann Sohn, Wayne D Inman, Leonard F Bjeldanes, Keith Rayburn Feb 2019

Lipophilic Stinging Nettle Extracts Possess Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Are Not Cytotoxic And May Be Superior To Traditional Tinctures For Treating Inflammatory Disorders., Tyler A. Johnson, Johann Sohn, Wayne D Inman, Leonard F Bjeldanes, Keith Rayburn

Tyler Johnson

Extracts of four plant portions (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) of Urtica dioica (the stinging nettle) were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) involving water, hexanes, methanol and dichloromethane. The extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in an NF-κB luciferase and MTT assay using macrophage immune (RAW264.7) cells. A standardized commercial ethanol extract of nettle leaves was also evaluated. The methanolic extract of the flowering portions displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity on par with a standard compound celastrol (1) but were moderately cytotoxic. Alternatively, the polar extracts (water, methanol, ethanol) of the roots, stems and leaves displayed ...


Pretreatment With A Heat-Killed Probiotic Modulates The Nlrp3 Inflammasome And Attenuates Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer In Mice., I-Che Chung, Chun-Nan Ouyang, Sheng-Ning Yuan, Hsin-Chung Lin, Kuo-Yang Huang, Pao-Shu Wu, Chia-Yuan Liu, Kuen-Jou Tsai, Lai-Keng Loi, Yu-Jen Chen, An-Ko Chung, David M. Ojcius, Yu-Sun Chang, Lih-Chyang Chen Feb 2019

Pretreatment With A Heat-Killed Probiotic Modulates The Nlrp3 Inflammasome And Attenuates Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer In Mice., I-Che Chung, Chun-Nan Ouyang, Sheng-Ning Yuan, Hsin-Chung Lin, Kuo-Yang Huang, Pao-Shu Wu, Chia-Yuan Liu, Kuen-Jou Tsai, Lai-Keng Loi, Yu-Jen Chen, An-Ko Chung, David M. Ojcius, Yu-Sun Chang, Lih-Chyang Chen

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Inflammation contributes to cancer development and inflammatory bowel disease is an important risk factor for CRC. The aim of this study is to assess whether a widely used probiotic Enterococcus faecalis can modulate the NLRP3 inflammasome and protect against colitis and colitis-associated CRC. We studied the effect of heat-killed cells of E. faecalis on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in THP-1-derived macrophages. Pretreatment of E. faecalis or NLRP3 siRNA can inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages in response to fecal content or commensal microbes, P. mirabilis or E. coli, according to ...


Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting Angiotensinogen: Insights From Animal Studies, Chia-Hua Wu, Ya Wang, Murong Ma, Adam E. Mullick, Rosanne M. Crooke, Mark J. Graham, Alan Daugherty, Hong S. Lu Jan 2019

Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting Angiotensinogen: Insights From Animal Studies, Chia-Hua Wu, Ya Wang, Murong Ma, Adam E. Mullick, Rosanne M. Crooke, Mark J. Graham, Alan Daugherty, Hong S. Lu

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

Angiotensinogen (AGT) is the unique substrate of all angiotensin peptides. We review the recent preclinical research of AGT antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), a rapidly evolving therapeutic approach. The scope of the research findings not only opens doors for potentially new therapeutics of hypertension and many other diseases, but also provides insights into understanding critical physiological and pathophysiological roles mediated by AGT.


Disruption Of The Hippocampal And Hypothalamic Blood-Brain Barrier In A Diet-Induced Obese Model Of Type Ii Diabetes: Prevention And Treatment By The Mitochondrial Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor, Topiramate, Therese S. Salameh, William G. Mortell, Aric F. Logsdon, D. Allan Butterfield, William A. Banks Jan 2019

Disruption Of The Hippocampal And Hypothalamic Blood-Brain Barrier In A Diet-Induced Obese Model Of Type Ii Diabetes: Prevention And Treatment By The Mitochondrial Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor, Topiramate, Therese S. Salameh, William G. Mortell, Aric F. Logsdon, D. Allan Butterfield, William A. Banks

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Background: Type II diabetes is a vascular risk factor for cognitive impairment and increased risk of dementia. Disruption of the blood–retinal barrier (BRB) and blood–brain barrier (BBB) are hallmarks of subsequent retinal edema and central nervous system dysfunction. However, the mechanisms by which diet or metabolic syndrome induces dysfunction are not understood. A proposed mechanism is an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase (mCA) decreases ROS and oxidative stress. In this study, topiramate, a mCA inhibitor, was examined for its ability to protect the BRB and BBB in diet-induced obese ...


Star-Related Lipid Transfer Protein 10 (Stard10): A Novel Key Player In Alcohol-Induced Breast Cancer Progression, Andrea Floris, Jia Luo, Jacqueline A. Frank, Jennifer Zhou, Sandro Orrù, Michela Biancolella, Sabina Pucci, Augusto Orlandi, Paolo Campagna, Antonella Balzano, Komal Ramani, Maria Lauda Tomasi Jan 2019

Star-Related Lipid Transfer Protein 10 (Stard10): A Novel Key Player In Alcohol-Induced Breast Cancer Progression, Andrea Floris, Jia Luo, Jacqueline A. Frank, Jennifer Zhou, Sandro Orrù, Michela Biancolella, Sabina Pucci, Augusto Orlandi, Paolo Campagna, Antonella Balzano, Komal Ramani, Maria Lauda Tomasi

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Ethanol abuse promotes breast cancer development, metastasis and recurrence stimulating mammary tumorigenesis by mechanisms that remain unclear. Normally, 35% of breast cancer is Erb-B2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 2 (ERBB2)-positive that predisposes to poor prognosis and relapse, while ethanol drinking leads to invasion of their ERBB2 positive cells triggering the phosphorylation status of mitogen-activated protein kinase. StAR-related lipid transfer protein 10 (STARD10) is a lipid transporter of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); changes on membrane composition of PC and PE occur before the morphological tumorigenic events. Interestingly, STARD10 has been described to be highly expressed in 35–40% of ...


Ctcf Governs The Identity And Migration Of Mge-Derived Cortical Interneurons., Adrienne Elbert, Daniel Vogt, Ashley Watson, Michael Levy, Yan Jiang, Emilie Brûlé, Megan E Rowland, John Rubenstein, Nathalie G Bérubé Jan 2019

Ctcf Governs The Identity And Migration Of Mge-Derived Cortical Interneurons., Adrienne Elbert, Daniel Vogt, Ashley Watson, Michael Levy, Yan Jiang, Emilie Brûlé, Megan E Rowland, John Rubenstein, Nathalie G Bérubé

Paediatrics Publications

The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a central regulator of chromatin topology recently linked to neurodevelopmental disorders such as intellectual disability, autism, and schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to identify novel roles of CTCF in the developing mouse brain. We provide evidence that CTCF is required for the expression of the LIM homeodomain factor LHX6 involved in fate determination of cortical interneurons (CINs) that originate in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE). Conditional


The Loss Of Atrx Increases Susceptibility To Pancreatic Injury And Oncogenic Kras In Female But Not Male Mice., Claire C Young, Ryan M Baker, Christopher J Howlett, Todd Hryciw, Joshua E Herman, Douglas Higgs, Richard Gibbons, Howard Crawford, Arthur Brown, Christopher L Pin Jan 2019

The Loss Of Atrx Increases Susceptibility To Pancreatic Injury And Oncogenic Kras In Female But Not Male Mice., Claire C Young, Ryan M Baker, Christopher J Howlett, Todd Hryciw, Joshua E Herman, Douglas Higgs, Richard Gibbons, Howard Crawford, Arthur Brown, Christopher L Pin

Paediatrics Publications

Background

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer death in North America, accounting for >30,000 deaths annually. Although somatic activating mutations in KRAS appear in 97% of PDAC patients, additional factors are required to initiate PDAC. Because mutations in genes encoding chromatin remodelling proteins have been implicated in KRAS-mediated PDAC, we investigated whether loss of chromatin remodeler ɑ-thalassemia, mental-retardation, X-linked (ATRX) affects oncogenic KRAS’s ability to promote PDAC. ATRX affects DNA replication, repair, and gene expression and is implicated in other cancers including glioblastomas and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The hypothesis was that deletion of ...


Animal Conciousness, Lauren Pipitone Jan 2019

Animal Conciousness, Lauren Pipitone

Creative Components

The consciousness of animals is a topic that has captivated the interest of philosophers, neuroscientists, and psychologists since the days of Aristotle. More evidence that the once impermeable separation between animal and human is not as strong of a barrier as once believed. The study of consciousness, however, is difficult because it is impossible to study the subjective experience of another man, let alone another species. Some scholars believe that consciousness is uniquely human. However, studies that demonstrate cognitive capabilities of animals have researchers demonstrating different aspects of behavior that could be indicative of a conscious experience. Some attribute consciousness ...