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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

The Study Of Alcoholic Liver Diseases, Seun Emmanuel Owoseni Dec 2018

The Study Of Alcoholic Liver Diseases, Seun Emmanuel Owoseni

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Excessive alcohol consumption is the primary contributing factor in the development of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). Nicotine contained in tobacco is a major addictive alkaloid, which enhances the effects of ALDs. The major enzyme involved in nicotine metabolism is cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) which is produced in the liver. Alcohol can stimulate the CYP2A5 enzyme. We utilized cyp2a5-/- knockout mice in this research to examine the effects of CYP2A5.

The cyp2a5-/- mice and wild-type (WT) mice were fed liquid ethanol diet with or without nicotine to induce ALD. Nicotine enhancing effects on ALD were observed in WT mice but not ...


No Evidence For Kin Protection In The Expression Of Sickness Behaviors In House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Per Block, Alice Pontiggia, Anna K. Lindholm, Barbara König Nov 2018

No Evidence For Kin Protection In The Expression Of Sickness Behaviors In House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Per Block, Alice Pontiggia, Anna K. Lindholm, Barbara König

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

When infected, animals change their behaviors in several ways, including by decreasing their activity, their food and water intake, and their interest in social interactions. These behavioral alterations are collectively called sickness behaviors and, for several decades, the main hypotheses put forward to explain this phenomenon were that engaging in sickness behaviors facilitated the fever response and improved the likelihood of host survival. However, a new hypothesis was recently proposed suggesting that engaging in sickness behaviors may serve to protect kin. We tested this kin protection hypothesis by combining a field and a laboratory experiment in house mice. In both ...


Alpha-Amino-Beta-Carboxy-Muconate-Semialdehyde Decarboxylase Controls Dietary Niacin Requirements For Nad+ Synthesis, Laura Palzer, Jessica J. Bader, Frances Angel, Megan Witzel, Sydney Blaser, Alexis Mcneil, Miles K. Wandersee, N. Adrian Leu, Christopher J. Lengner, Clara E. Cho, Kevin D. Welch, James B. Kirkland, Ralph G. Meyer, Mirella L. Meyer-Ficca Oct 2018

Alpha-Amino-Beta-Carboxy-Muconate-Semialdehyde Decarboxylase Controls Dietary Niacin Requirements For Nad+ Synthesis, Laura Palzer, Jessica J. Bader, Frances Angel, Megan Witzel, Sydney Blaser, Alexis Mcneil, Miles K. Wandersee, N. Adrian Leu, Christopher J. Lengner, Clara E. Cho, Kevin D. Welch, James B. Kirkland, Ralph G. Meyer, Mirella L. Meyer-Ficca

Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

NAD+ is essential for redox reactions in energy metabolism and necessary for DNA repair and epigenetic modification. Humans require sufficient amounts of dietary niacin (nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and nicotinamide riboside) for adequate NAD+ synthesis. In contrast, mice easily generate sufficient NAD+ solely from tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway. We show that transgenic mice with inducible expression of human alpha-amino-beta-carboxy-muconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD) become niacin dependent similar to humans when ACMSD expression is high. On niacin-free diets, these acquired niacin dependency (ANDY) mice developed reversible, mild-to-severe NAD+ deficiency, depending on the nutrient composition of the diet. NAD deficiency in mice contributed to ...


Hidden Cost Of Disease In A Free-Ranging Ungulate: Brucellosis Reduces Mid-Winter Pregnancy In Elk, Gavin C. Cotterill, Paul C. Cross, Arthur D. Middleton, Jared D. Rogerson, Brandon M. Scurlock, Johan T. Du Toit Oct 2018

Hidden Cost Of Disease In A Free-Ranging Ungulate: Brucellosis Reduces Mid-Winter Pregnancy In Elk, Gavin C. Cotterill, Paul C. Cross, Arthur D. Middleton, Jared D. Rogerson, Brandon M. Scurlock, Johan T. Du Toit

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Demonstrating disease impacts on the vital rates of free‐ranging mammalian hosts typically requires intensive, long‐term study. Evidence for chronic pathogens affecting reproduction but not survival is rare, but has the potential for wide‐ranging effects. Accurately quantifying disease‐associated reductions in fecundity is important for advancing theory, generating accurate predictive models, and achieving effective management. We investigated the impacts of brucellosis (Brucella abortus) on elk (Cervus canadensis) productivity using serological data from over 6,000 captures since 1990 in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Over 1,000 of these records included known age and pregnancy status. Using Bayesian ...


Checklist Of Bloodfeeding Mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) From The Wings Of Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) In The Manú Biosphere Reserve, Peru, Donald D. Gettinger Oct 2018

Checklist Of Bloodfeeding Mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) From The Wings Of Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) In The Manú Biosphere Reserve, Peru, Donald D. Gettinger

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

A survey collection of mites of the family Spinturnicidae from Peruvian bats includes 11 species of Periglischrus (acutisternus, gameroi, grandisoma, herrerai, hopkinsi, iheringi, micronycteridis, ojasti, paracutisternus, paravargasi, and ramirezi) and 2 Spinturnix (americanus and bakeri); almost all represent new locality records. This survey collection is available for further study at the following repositories: The Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology, University of Nebraska–Lincoln; the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago; and the Laboratório de Espeleobiologia y Acarologia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. When spinturnicid mites are collected to avoid cross-contamination by mites among species of bats, parasitic associations are ...


Nanoparticle Microarray For High-Throughput Microbiome Metabolomics Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry, Rebecca L. Hansen, Maria Emilia Duenas, Torey Looft, Young Jin Lee Oct 2018

Nanoparticle Microarray For High-Throughput Microbiome Metabolomics Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry, Rebecca L. Hansen, Maria Emilia Duenas, Torey Looft, Young Jin Lee

Chemistry Publications

A high-throughput matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI)-MS-based metabolomics platform was developed using a pre-fabricated microarray of nanoparticles and organic matrices. Selected organic matrices, inorganic nanoparticle (NP) suspensions, and sputter coated metal NPs, as well as various additives, were tested for metabolomics analysis of the turkey gut microbiome. Four NPs and one organic matrix were selected as the optimal matrix set: α-cyano-4-hydroycinnamic acid, Fe3O4 and Au NPs in positive ion mode with 10 mM sodium acetate, and Cu and Ag NPs in negative ion mode with no additive. Using this set of five matrices, over two thousand unique ...


Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Prevents Silica-Induced Development Of Pulmonary Ectopic Germinal Centers And Glomerulonephritis In The Lupus-Prone Nzbwf1 Mouse, Melissa A. Bates, Peyman Akbari, Kristen N. Gilley, James G. Wagner, Ning Li, Anna K. Kopec, Kathryn A. Wierenga, Daven Jackson-Humbles, Christina Brandenberger, Andrij Holian, Abby D. Benninghoff, Jack R. Harkema, James J. Pestka Sep 2018

Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Prevents Silica-Induced Development Of Pulmonary Ectopic Germinal Centers And Glomerulonephritis In The Lupus-Prone Nzbwf1 Mouse, Melissa A. Bates, Peyman Akbari, Kristen N. Gilley, James G. Wagner, Ning Li, Anna K. Kopec, Kathryn A. Wierenga, Daven Jackson-Humbles, Christina Brandenberger, Andrij Holian, Abby D. Benninghoff, Jack R. Harkema, James J. Pestka

Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Ectopic lymphoid structures (ELS) consist of B-cell and T-cell aggregates that are initiated de novo in inflamed tissues outside of secondary lymphoid organs. When organized within follicular dendritic cell (FDC) networks, ELS contain functional germinal centers that can yield autoantibody-secreting plasma cells and promote autoimmune disease. Intranasal instillation of lupus-prone mice with crystalline silica (cSiO2), a respirable particle linked to human lupus, triggers ELS formation in the lung, systemic autoantibodies, and early onset of glomerulonephritis. Here we tested the hypothesis that consumption of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with anti-inflammatory properties, influences the temporal profile of ...


Functional Genomics And Immunologic Tools: The Impact Of Viral And Host Genetic Variations On The Outcome Of Zika Virus Infection, Sang-Im Yun, Byung-Hak Song, Jordan C. Frank, Justin G. Julander, Aaron L. Olsen, Irina A. Polejaeva, Christopher J. Davies, Kenneth L. White, Young-Min Lee Aug 2018

Functional Genomics And Immunologic Tools: The Impact Of Viral And Host Genetic Variations On The Outcome Of Zika Virus Infection, Sang-Im Yun, Byung-Hak Song, Jordan C. Frank, Justin G. Julander, Aaron L. Olsen, Irina A. Polejaeva, Christopher J. Davies, Kenneth L. White, Young-Min Lee

Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Zika virus (ZIKV) causes no-to-mild symptoms or severe neurological disorders. To investigate the importance of viral and host genetic variations in determining ZIKV infection outcomes, we created three full-length infectious cDNA clones as bacterial artificial chromosomes for each of three spatiotemporally distinct and genetically divergent ZIKVs: MR-766 (Uganda, 1947), P6-740 (Malaysia, 1966), and PRVABC-59 (Puerto Rico, 2015). Using the three molecularly cloned ZIKVs, together with 13 ZIKV region-specific polyclonal antibodies covering nearly the entire viral protein-coding region, we made three conceptual advances: (i) We created a comprehensive genome-wide portrait of ZIKV gene products and their related species, with several previously ...


Assessment Of A Nutritional Rehabilitation Model In Two Modern Broilers And Their Jungle Fowl Ancestor: A Model For Better Understanding Childhood Undernutrition, Mikayla Baxter Aug 2018

Assessment Of A Nutritional Rehabilitation Model In Two Modern Broilers And Their Jungle Fowl Ancestor: A Model For Better Understanding Childhood Undernutrition, Mikayla Baxter

Theses and Dissertations

The World Health Organization, estimated that 22.9% of children under the age of 5 are stunted. The etiology of stunting is multifactorial and is associated with poor linear growth, villous atrophy, dysbiosis, and increased intestinal permeability. Inclusion of rye in poultry diets induces nutrient deficiencies and increases intestinal permeability, dysbiosis and decreases growth rates. The objective of this dissertation was to determine if chickens consuming a rye based diet exhibited a similar pathophysiology of stunted children to develop a relevant animal model. Therefore, early or late phase malnutrition was induced determine the effects of malnutrition on performance, bone mineralization ...


Detecting A Probiotic Product Within The Gut Of Broiler Chickens, Anneka Pisula Aug 2018

Detecting A Probiotic Product Within The Gut Of Broiler Chickens, Anneka Pisula

Master's Theses and Project Reports

As of January 2017, the U.S. poultry industry banned the use of antibiotics and now relies on alternatives such as probiotics to help protect animal health. Although probiotic use is not a new concept in the poultry industry, identifying the best combination of bacterial strains to generate an effective probiotic formula requires further investigation. This study aimed to detect a probiotic product of four bacterial strains (Pedioccoccus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Bacillus subtilis) in a feeding trial with broiler chickens. Birds given the probiotic were predicted to show an improved growth performance with the probiotics colonizing the ...


Surveillance For Respiratory And Diarrheal Pathogens At The Human-Pig Interface In Sarawak, Malaysia, Laura K. Borkenhagen, Kerry A. Mallinson, Rick W. Tsao, Siaw-Jing Ha, Wei-Honn Lim, Teck-Hock Toh, Benjamin D. Anderson, Jane K. Fieldhouse, Sarah E. Philo, Kuek-Sen Chong, William G. Lindsley, Alejandro Ramirez, James F. Lowe, Kristen K. Coleman, Gregory C. Gray Jul 2018

Surveillance For Respiratory And Diarrheal Pathogens At The Human-Pig Interface In Sarawak, Malaysia, Laura K. Borkenhagen, Kerry A. Mallinson, Rick W. Tsao, Siaw-Jing Ha, Wei-Honn Lim, Teck-Hock Toh, Benjamin D. Anderson, Jane K. Fieldhouse, Sarah E. Philo, Kuek-Sen Chong, William G. Lindsley, Alejandro Ramirez, James F. Lowe, Kristen K. Coleman, Gregory C. Gray

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background The large livestock operations and dense human population of Southeast Asia are considered a hot-spot for emerging viruses.

Objectives To determine if the pathogens adenovirus (ADV), coronavirus (CoV), encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), enterovirus (EV), influenza A-D (IAV, IBV, ICV, and IDV), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), and porcine rotaviruses A and C (RVA and RVC), are aerosolized at the animal-interface, and if humans working in these environments are carrying these viruses in their nasal airways.

Study This cross-sectional study took place in Sarawak, Malaysia among 11 pig farms, 2 abattoirs, and 3 animal markets in June and July of 2017. Pig ...


Investigation Of Zebrafish Larvae Behavior As Precursor For Suborbital Flights: Feasibility Study, Pedro Llanos, Kristina Andrijauskaite, Mark Rubinstein, Sherine S.L. Chan Jul 2018

Investigation Of Zebrafish Larvae Behavior As Precursor For Suborbital Flights: Feasibility Study, Pedro Llanos, Kristina Andrijauskaite, Mark Rubinstein, Sherine S.L. Chan

Pedro J. Llanos (www.AstronauticsLlanos.com)


Suborbital spaceflights, carrying scientific payloads, allow scientists not only to test the feasibility of their payloads, but they also provide the basis for refining scientific hypotheses to be later tested on the International Space Station (ISS). Therefore, it is essential to establish robust pre-flight procedures in order to take advantage of this unique research platform to facilitate payload delivery. In the present study, we assessed zebrafish larvae behavior as a precursor for the future suborbital spaceflight involving research on the musculoskeletal system. Zebrafish larvae were exposed to the same physiological stressors they would encounter during suborbital spaceflight: alterations in light ...


With Some Risk-Taking And Luck: A Veterinarian's Adventures In Viral Immunology., Luis J. Sigal Jul 2018

With Some Risk-Taking And Luck: A Veterinarian's Adventures In Viral Immunology., Luis J. Sigal

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Shifts In Assemblage Of Foraging Bats At Mammoth Cave National Park Following Arrival Of White-Nose Syndrome, Marissa M. Thalken, Michael J. Lacki, Joseph S. Johnson Jun 2018

Shifts In Assemblage Of Foraging Bats At Mammoth Cave National Park Following Arrival Of White-Nose Syndrome, Marissa M. Thalken, Michael J. Lacki, Joseph S. Johnson

Forestry and Natural Resources Faculty Publications

The arrival of white-nose syndrome (WNS) to North America in 2006, and the subsequent decline in populations of cave-hibernating bats have potential long-term implications for communities of forest-dwelling bats in affected regions. Severe declines in wintering populations of bats should lead to concomitant shifts in the composition and relative abundance of species during the staging, maternity, and swarming seasons in nearby forested habitats. We examined capture rates of bats collected in mist nets from 2009 to 2016 to evaluate summer patterns in abundance of species pre- and post-arrival of WNS to Mammoth Cave National Park, KY. The data demonstrated a ...


The Design Of Complex Weapons Systems In Scorpions: Sexual, Ontogenetic, And Interspecific Variation, Gerard A. A. Fox Jun 2018

The Design Of Complex Weapons Systems In Scorpions: Sexual, Ontogenetic, And Interspecific Variation, Gerard A. A. Fox

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Scorpions possess two integrated multifunctional weapons systems. Anteriorly, they maintain a grasping system comprised of a pair of pedipalps ending in chelae that seize and manipulate prey, ward off predators, and secure mates. Posteriorly, they wield a venom delivery system consisting of a tail-like metasoma with a stinger at the tip of the terminal segment (telson) that can be thrust into prey, predators, or mates to inject venom. Given the complexity of these systems, I hypothesized that weaponry design is subject to selective forces arising from differences in usage between the sexes, during ontogeny, and among closely-related species occupying different ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender May 2018

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Improving Techniques To Study Equine Cervical Mucociliary Clearance, Melissa A. Hawkes May 2018

Improving Techniques To Study Equine Cervical Mucociliary Clearance, Melissa A. Hawkes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial uterine infections inflict major losses on the equine breeding industry. These infections usually arise from bacteria introduced at breeding. Micro-currents propelled by ciliated cells between the folds of the uterus and cervix have been proposed as a means by which contaminants are expelled. Previous data have shown possible ciliary micro-currents propelling carbon particles, occasionally rotating, through cervical folds. However, adherence to the epithelium may have interfered with movement of carbon in these studies. Therefore, we tested potentially non-adherent substances to reveal ciliary micro-currents on the equine cervix under high magnification video-endoscopy. We hypothesized that polyethylene green microspheres 1 - 5 ...


A Characterization Of Poultry Flocks And Poultry Producers In Maine, Alice Gluchanicz May 2018

A Characterization Of Poultry Flocks And Poultry Producers In Maine, Alice Gluchanicz

Honors College

This study sought to characterize backyard poultry flocks and poultry producers’ knowledge of poultry husbandry in Maine. A survey on poultry flock characterization, management, and health was sent to poultry producers living in Maine. Based on the survey, most backyard poultry flocks contained 7-20 birds. Chickens were the predominant poultry species in Maine. Flocks were used primarily for egg production and companionship. Management practices varied greatly among producers, indicating a need for more flock management education. Mites and coccidiosis were the most commonly reported causes of illness by producers, but several diseases affected poultry in Maine. Producers cited the internet ...


Avs Corner, May 2018, Farzana Ferdous (Advisor), Emily Alexander, Caitlin Mathews, Megan Tamakloe, Meghan Courey May 2018

Avs Corner, May 2018, Farzana Ferdous (Advisor), Emily Alexander, Caitlin Mathews, Megan Tamakloe, Meghan Courey

AVS Corner

No abstract provided.


Defending Wild Dogs: Population Dynamics And Disease In Endangered African Wild Dogs, Elizabeth Claire Arredondo May 2018

Defending Wild Dogs: Population Dynamics And Disease In Endangered African Wild Dogs, Elizabeth Claire Arredondo

Theses and Dissertations

African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are endangered carnivores whose population is decreasing from habitat loss and fragmentation, interspecific competition, and disease. Survival rates are especially low in Kruger National Park (KNP), though it is unclear why. I estimated the abundance in KNP and survival rates over different time spans, six years and nine months, using public photographic survey data. In 2015, there were 298 (SE=12.1) individuals. Using a mark-recapture analysis in program R, I found that the survival rate between 2009-2015 was only 3.2%, and within the 9-month survey period (September 2014 – June 2015), monthly survival rates ...


Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci And The Role Of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells, Jacqueline P. Kurz May 2018

Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci And The Role Of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells, Jacqueline P. Kurz

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bovine mastitis, or inflammation of the mammary gland, has substantial economic and animal welfare implications. A genetic basis for mastitis resistance traits is recognized and can be used to guide selective breeding programs. The discovery of regions of the genome associated with mastitis resistance, and knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible, can facilitate development of efficient mastitis control and therapeutic strategies. The objectives of this dissertation research were to identify sites of genetic variation associated with mastitis resistance, and to define the contributions of the milk-secreting epithelial cells to mammary gland immune responses and mastitis resistance. Twenty seven regions ...


Fetal Demise And Failed Antibody Therapy During Zika Virus Infection Of Pregnant Macaques, Diogo M. Magnani, Thomas F. Rogers, Nicholas J. Maness, Nathan D. Grubaugh, Nathan Beutler, Varian K. Bailey, Lucas Gonzalez-Nieto, Martin J. Gutman, Núria Pedreño-Lopez, Jaclyn M. Kwal, Michael J. Ricciardi, Tereance A. Myers, Justin G. Julander, Rudolf P. Bohm, Margaret H. Gilbert, Faith Schiro, Pyone P. Aye, Robert V. Blair, Mauricio A. Martins, Kathrine P. Falkenstien, Amitinder Kaur, Christine L. Curry, Esper G. Kallas, Ronald C. Desrosiers, Pascal J. Goldschmidt-Clermont, Stephen S. Whitehead, Kristian G. Andersen, Myrna C. Bonaldo, Andrew A. Lackner, Antonito T. Panganiban, Dennis R. Burton, David I. Watkins Apr 2018

Fetal Demise And Failed Antibody Therapy During Zika Virus Infection Of Pregnant Macaques, Diogo M. Magnani, Thomas F. Rogers, Nicholas J. Maness, Nathan D. Grubaugh, Nathan Beutler, Varian K. Bailey, Lucas Gonzalez-Nieto, Martin J. Gutman, Núria Pedreño-Lopez, Jaclyn M. Kwal, Michael J. Ricciardi, Tereance A. Myers, Justin G. Julander, Rudolf P. Bohm, Margaret H. Gilbert, Faith Schiro, Pyone P. Aye, Robert V. Blair, Mauricio A. Martins, Kathrine P. Falkenstien, Amitinder Kaur, Christine L. Curry, Esper G. Kallas, Ronald C. Desrosiers, Pascal J. Goldschmidt-Clermont, Stephen S. Whitehead, Kristian G. Andersen, Myrna C. Bonaldo, Andrew A. Lackner, Antonito T. Panganiban, Dennis R. Burton, David I. Watkins

Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection of pregnant women is associated with pathologic complications of fetal development. Here, we infect pregnant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with a minimally passaged ZIKV isolate from Rio de Janeiro, where a high rate of fetal development complications was observed. The infection of pregnant macaques with this virus results in maternal viremia, virus crossing into the amniotic fluid (AF), and in utero fetal deaths. We also treated three additional ZIKV-infected pregnant macaques with a cocktail of ZIKV-neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (nmAbs) at peak viremia. While the nmAbs can be effective in clearing the virus from the maternal ...


Impact Of Health Challenges On Pig Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Net Returns Under Commercial Conditions, A. S. Cornelison, L. A. Karriker, N. H. Williams, B. J. Haberl, K. J. Stalder, L. L. Schulz, J. F. Patience Apr 2018

Impact Of Health Challenges On Pig Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Net Returns Under Commercial Conditions, A. S. Cornelison, L. A. Karriker, N. H. Williams, B. J. Haberl, K. J. Stalder, L. L. Schulz, J. F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

Understanding how disease affects commercial production is imperative for pig producers to quantify its full impact on pig performance, carcass quality, and net returns. The objective of this experiment was to assess the productivity and economic importance of naturally occurring health challenges (HC) under commercial conditions. Three 1,000 pig grow-finish facilities received 936 pigs each. The experimental period started approximately 34 d post placement at an average start BW of 13.1 ± 0.2 kg. Barns were characterized based on the relative HC, determined by diagnostic assessments as the main characterization tool, along with other health indicators. Barns were ...


Interactions And Pathogen Transmission Between Carnivores In Madagascar, Fidisoa Rasambainarivo Apr 2018

Interactions And Pathogen Transmission Between Carnivores In Madagascar, Fidisoa Rasambainarivo

Dissertations

Introduced carnivores exert considerable pressure on native predators through predation, competition and disease transmission. Improved understanding of determinant factors of interactions and pathogen transmission between introduced and endemic wildlife may help to predict disease emergence, avoid pathogen spillover and help control outbreaks. Using non-invasive camera traps, I identified areas where transmission of pathogens might happen through records of shared space-use within a protected area in Eastern Madagascar. I showed that indirect interactions between animals were more likely to occur near the research station which may constitute a disease transmission hotspot for carnivores in the landscape. Secondly, I investigated the associations ...


Feeder Density Enhances House Finch Disease Transmission In Experimental Epidemics, Sahnzi C. Moyers, James S. Adelman, Damien R. Farine, Courtney A. Thomason, Dana M. Hawley Mar 2018

Feeder Density Enhances House Finch Disease Transmission In Experimental Epidemics, Sahnzi C. Moyers, James S. Adelman, Damien R. Farine, Courtney A. Thomason, Dana M. Hawley

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Anthropogenic food provisioning of wildlife can alter the frequency of contacts among hosts and between hosts and environmental sources of pathogens. Despite the popularity of backyard bird feeding, few studies have addressed how feeders influence host contact rates and disease dynamics. We experimentally manipulated feeder density in replicate aviaries containing captive, pathogen-naïve, groups of house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus) and continuously tracked behaviors at feeders using radio-frequency identification devices. We then inoculated one bird per group with Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg), a common bacterial pathogen for which feeders are fomites of transmission, and assessed effects of feeder density on house finch behavior ...


Dog Behavior Co-Varies With Height, Bodyweight And Skull Shape, Paul D. Mcgreevy, Dana Georgevsky, Johanna Carrasco, Michael Valenzuela, Deborah L. Duffy, James A. Serpell Feb 2018

Dog Behavior Co-Varies With Height, Bodyweight And Skull Shape, Paul D. Mcgreevy, Dana Georgevsky, Johanna Carrasco, Michael Valenzuela, Deborah L. Duffy, James A. Serpell

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

Dogs offer unique opportunities to study correlations between morphology and behavior because skull shapes and body shape are so diverse among breeds. Several studies have shown relationships between canine cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length) and neural architecture. Data on the CI of adult, show-quality dogs (six males and six females) were sourced in Australia along with existing data on the breeds’ height, bodyweight and related to data on 36 behavioral traits of companion dogs (n = 8,301) of various common breeds (n = 49) collected internationally using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ ...


Genetic Diversity, Breed Composition And Admixture Of Kenyan Domestic Pigs, Fidalis Denis Mujibi, Edward Okoth, Evans K. Cheruiyot, Cynthia Onzere, Richard P. Bishop, Eric M. Fèvre, Lian Thomas, Charles Masembe, Graham Plastow, Max Rothschild Jan 2018

Genetic Diversity, Breed Composition And Admixture Of Kenyan Domestic Pigs, Fidalis Denis Mujibi, Edward Okoth, Evans K. Cheruiyot, Cynthia Onzere, Richard P. Bishop, Eric M. Fèvre, Lian Thomas, Charles Masembe, Graham Plastow, Max Rothschild

Animal Science Publications

The genetic diversity of African pigs, whether domestic or wild has not been widely studied and there is very limited published information available. Available data suggests that African domestic pigs originate from different domestication centers as opposed to international commercial breeds. We evaluated two domestic pig populations in Western Kenya, in order to characterize the genetic diversity, breed composition and admixture of the pigs in an area known to be endemic for African swine fever (ASF). One of the reasons for characterizing these specific populations is the fact that a proportion of indigenous pigs have tested ASF virus (ASFv) positive ...


Precocious Development Of Self-Awareness In Dolphins, Rachel Morrison, Diana Reiss Jan 2018

Precocious Development Of Self-Awareness In Dolphins, Rachel Morrison, Diana Reiss

Publications and Research

Mirror-self recognition (MSR) is a behavioral indicator of self-awareness in young children and only a few other species, including the great apes, dolphins, elephants and magpies. The emergence of self-awareness in children typically occurs during the second year and has been correlated with sensorimotor development and growing social and self-awareness. Comparative studies of MSR in chimpanzees report that the onset of this ability occurs between 2 years 4 months and 3 years 9 months of age. Studies of wild and captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have reported precocious sensorimotor and social awareness during the first weeks of life, but no ...


How Does The Type Of Vaccine Affect Pig Approachability Pre- And Post-Vaccination?, Shawna Weimer, Anna Johnson, Kenneth Stalder, Locke Karriker, Thomas Fangman Jan 2018

How Does The Type Of Vaccine Affect Pig Approachability Pre- And Post-Vaccination?, Shawna Weimer, Anna Johnson, Kenneth Stalder, Locke Karriker, Thomas Fangman

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this study was to determine if nursery pigs display different behaviors and postures pre- and post-injection using a live- and digital image methodology. A total of 149 pens housing approximately 19 barrows and gilts/pen (a mix of approximately 50% barrows and 50% gilts; 0.3 m2/pig) were used. Barrows and gilts were approximately 6-wk of age from a commercial crossbred genetic line. The pen applied injection treatments were (1) Ingelvac CircoFLEX®/Ingelvac MycoFLEX® vaccine, (2) Circumvent® PCVM vaccine (3) Saline. Pre-injection were conducted at 1600h the day before injections were administered. Pigs received their treatments ...


Integration Of Host And Virus Gene Expression For Chickens Response To Avian Leukosis Virus Challenge, Xi Lan, John C.F. Hsieh, Haibo Liu, Susan J. Lamont, Qing Zhu Jan 2018

Integration Of Host And Virus Gene Expression For Chickens Response To Avian Leukosis Virus Challenge, Xi Lan, John C.F. Hsieh, Haibo Liu, Susan J. Lamont, Qing Zhu

Animal Industry Report

The tumorigenesis caused by avian leukosis virus (ALV) occurs through a complex regulatory architecture. , We applied a novel methodology to jointly analyze four different types of datasets: mRNA expression, the associated regulatory factors of miRNA and lncRNA, and ALV gene expression. The pathway analysis shows that combined analysis produced more informative results than single data-type analyses, and the co-expression network analysis found key elements involved in the host-pathogen interaction. The integration of multiple data sources yielded deeper insights into the pathogenesis of the virus and the host immune response.