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Articles 1 - 30 of 3664

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Photographic Validation Of Target Versus Nontarget Take Of Brown Treesnake Baits, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Cynthia G. Payne, Francinem M. Chlarson, Craig S. Clark, Stephen M. Mosher May 2020

Photographic Validation Of Target Versus Nontarget Take Of Brown Treesnake Baits, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Cynthia G. Payne, Francinem M. Chlarson, Craig S. Clark, Stephen M. Mosher

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Use of toxic baits or other tools for managing nuisance species must ensure that the species of interest is adequately targeted while exposure to nontarget species is minimized. Nontarget takes of acetaminophen‐laced baits for control of invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam may put those animals at risk of lethal intoxication and render the bait unavailable to the intended target species. We used wildlife cameras to identify species removing toxic and nontoxic baits from brown treesnake bait stations designed to exclude nontarget taxa in 2015 and 2016. Throughout various sites and habitat types, and balanced by season (wet ...


Time Allocation To Resources By Three Species Of Rats (Rattus Spp.) In A Radial Arm Maze, Gary Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Rachael S. Moulton May 2020

Time Allocation To Resources By Three Species Of Rats (Rattus Spp.) In A Radial Arm Maze, Gary Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Rachael S. Moulton

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Context. Introduced rats (Rattus spp.) can pose a serious threat to native flora and fauna, especially on islands where most species have evolved in the absence of terrestrial predators. Effective detection and eradication methods for introduced rats are essential to the maintenance of insular ecosystem integrity. Thus, it is important to better understand the behaviour of rats when they first arrive in a new setting.

Aims. To determine whether rats would find some novel stimuli to be significantly more attractive than other novel stimuli.

Methods. An eight-arm radial maze was used to study the behaviour of three species of Rattus ...


Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck May 2020

Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Medium and large carnivores coexist with people in urban areas globally, occasionally resulting in

negative interactions that prompt questions about how to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Hazing,

i.e., scaring wildlife, is frequently promoted as an important non-lethal means for urbanites to reduce

conflict but there is limited scientific evidence for its efficacy. We used a population of captive coyotes (Canis latrans) to simulate urban human-coyote interactions and subsequent effects of hazing on coyote behavior. Past experiences with humans significantly affected the number of times a coyoteapproached a human to necessitate hazing. coyotes that had been hand fed by adults had ...


Hawaii As A Microcosm: Advancing The Science And Practice Of Managing Introduced And Invasive Species, Liba Pejchar, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Jean E. Fantle-Lepczyk, Steven C. Hess, M. Tracy Johnson, Christina R. Leopold, Michael Marchetti, Katherine M. Mcclure, Aaron B. Shiels May 2020

Hawaii As A Microcosm: Advancing The Science And Practice Of Managing Introduced And Invasive Species, Liba Pejchar, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Jean E. Fantle-Lepczyk, Steven C. Hess, M. Tracy Johnson, Christina R. Leopold, Michael Marchetti, Katherine M. Mcclure, Aaron B. Shiels

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive species are a leading driver of global change, with consequences for biodiversity and society. Because of extraordinary rates of endemism, introduction, and extinction, Hawaii offers a rich platform for exploring the cross-disciplinary challenges of managing invasive species in a dynamic world. We highlight key successes and shortcomings to share lessons learned and inspire innovation and action in and beyond the archipelago. We then discuss thematic challenges and opportunities of broad relevance to invaded ecosystems and human communities. Important research needs and possible actions include eradicating mammals from mainland island sanctuaries, assessing hidden threats from poorly known introduced species, harnessing ...


Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. Devault May 2020

Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. Devault

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Deer-vehicle collisions are a major transportation hazard, but factors affecting deer escape decision-making in response to vehicle approach remain poorly characterized. We made opportunistic observations of deer response to vehicle approach during daylight hours on a restricted- access facility in Ohio, USA (vehicle speeds were ≤64 km/h). We hypothesized that animal proximity to the road, group size, vehicle approach, and ambient conditions would affect perceived risk by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach, as measured by flight-initiation distance (FID). We constructed a priori models for FID, as well as road-crossing behavior. Deer responses were variable and did not ...


Influences Of Anti-Bd Bacteria On Amphibians And Their Microbiomes, Emme L. Schmidt May 2020

Influences Of Anti-Bd Bacteria On Amphibians And Their Microbiomes, Emme L. Schmidt

Honors Thesis

The fungal pathogen Batrochochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been threatening amphibian populations across the globe. Recent work has discovered that bacteria isolated from certain populations of amphibians protect hosts from this pathogen. This project focuses on the anti-fungal mechanisms of Serratia marcescens, a species of bacteria isolated from a Costa Rican frog that dramatically inhibited Bd in culture. Wild-type and recombinant S. marcescens was introduced to the microbiomes of a live amphibian host, Acris blanchardi (Blanchard’s Cricket Frog) and then challenged with Bd to examine the protective effects of this bacteria. The experiment includes recombinant S. marcescens with the genetic ...


Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones May 2020

Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Anthelmintic resistance (AR) urges alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) are more efficacious when used with other dewormers and little is known on efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE) to control gastrointestinal parasites. The objective was to examine the effects of DE and COWP on GIN control. Katahdin lambs (n = 32; ~150 d of age; 25.0 ± 1.8 kg) were randomly assigned to receive: 1) DE fed at an estimated 2% dry matter intake (with the assumption of moderate consumption of bermudagrass forage and provided supplement), 2) 1g COWP, 3) both 2% DE and ...


The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers May 2020

The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of extended-release eprinomectin against horn flies, face flies, and fecal egg counts of parasitic nematodes in crossbreed replacement beef heifers. Fifty-four heifers were randomly placed into three treatment groups (N=18 heifers/treatment). Group 1 was administered the labeled dosage of extended-release eprinomectin on day 0. Group 2 acted as the negative control. Group 3 received the anthelmintic injection once a quarter of the heifers in the group reached the threshold treatment level for horn flies (N=200 flies/animal; day 41). Nematode infections were measured via fecal egg counts ...


The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers May 2020

The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the neural processes that mediate decision making is a relatively new field of investigation in the scientific community. With the ultimate goal of understanding how humans decide between one path and another, simpler models such as Drosophila Melanogaster, the common fruit fly, are often utilized as a way of determining the neural circuits involved in these decision-making processes. One of the most important decisions flies make is the decision of where to lay their eggs (oviposit). Choosing the proper substrate upon which to lay eggs is a crucial decision that can ultimately impact their fecundity. This paper investigates the ...


Development And Diagnostic Application Of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Swine Acute Diarrhea Syndrome Coronavirus (Sads-Cov), Molly Kroeger Apr 2020

Development And Diagnostic Application Of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Swine Acute Diarrhea Syndrome Coronavirus (Sads-Cov), Molly Kroeger

Schultz-Werth Award Papers

Swine Acute Diarrhea Syndrome Coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is a member of the Coronaviridae family. The virus is associated with severe small intestine inflammation and diarrhea in suckling piglets. In 2017, SADS-CoV was first detected and identified as the causative agent of a devasting swine disease outbreak in southern China. Routine monitoring and early detection of the source of infection is therefore integral to the prevention and control of a SADS-CoV outbreak in the United States. However, the United States does not currently have any diagnostic or surveillance tests to identify this emerging disease. To address these industry needs, we developed monoclonal ...


The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl Apr 2020

The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl

Senior Theses and Projects

Oxygen levels tend to remain at a steady state concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere, yet in some bodies of water, they can fluctuate and decrease drastically. Many organisms that inhabit the swamps, lakes, streams, and parts of the ocean where this occurs have evolved adaptations to manage this environmental uncertainty and continue normal oxygen consumption. The Lwamunda swamp in Uganda is chronically hypoxic, yet it is home to many species, including the electric fish Petrocephalus degeni. P. degeni are unusual by nature of their immense brain, and the Lwamunda swamp appears ill-suited for maintaining this large, metabolically active organ ...


Effects Of Inactivated Mycobacterium Bovis Vaccination On Molokai-Origin Wild Pigs Experimentally Infected With Virulent M. Bovis, Pauline Nol, Morgan Wehte, Richard A. Bowen, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Tyler Thacker, Kristina Lantz, Jack Rhyan, Laurie A. Baeten, Ramón A. Juste, Iker A. Sevilla, Christian Gortazar, Joaquín Vicente Mar 2020

Effects Of Inactivated Mycobacterium Bovis Vaccination On Molokai-Origin Wild Pigs Experimentally Infected With Virulent M. Bovis, Pauline Nol, Morgan Wehte, Richard A. Bowen, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Tyler Thacker, Kristina Lantz, Jack Rhyan, Laurie A. Baeten, Ramón A. Juste, Iker A. Sevilla, Christian Gortazar, Joaquín Vicente

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The wild pig population on Molokai, Hawaii, USA is a possible reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and has been implicated in decades past as the source of disease for the island’s domestic cattle. Heat-inactivated vaccines have been effective for reducing disease prevalence in wild boar in Spain and could prove useful for managing M. bovis in Molokai wild pigs. We designed an experiment to test this vaccine in wild pigs of Molokai genetics. Fifteen 3–4-month-old pigs were orally administered 106–107 colony forming units (cfu) of heat-inactivated M. bovis (Vaccinates; n = 8; 0 ...


Vigilancia De Las Agresiones Causadas Por Animales Susceptibles A Rabia, Una Lesión De Causa Externa Evitable, Casanare-Colombia, 2012-2016, Yenny Angélica Azuero Vargas, Oneida Castañeda-Porras, Olga Lucía Ramírez Jiménez Feb 2020

Vigilancia De Las Agresiones Causadas Por Animales Susceptibles A Rabia, Una Lesión De Causa Externa Evitable, Casanare-Colombia, 2012-2016, Yenny Angélica Azuero Vargas, Oneida Castañeda-Porras, Olga Lucía Ramírez Jiménez

Revista de Medicina Veterinaria

La vigilancia, prevención y control de la rabia es una prioridad para la salud pública, especialmente, la rabia transmitida por perros (variante 1) y la rabia silvestre. El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir el comportamiento epidemiológico del evento entre 2012-2016 en el departamento de Casanare-Colombia. El estudio fue descriptivo, retrospectivo a partir de la notificación de casos al Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia en Salud PúblicaSivigila. Variables a estudio: a) características sociodemográficas, b) agresión/contacto, c) exposición, d) inmunización y e) tratamiento. Aplicación de estadística descriptiva y cálculo de indicadores de vigilancia. Datos analizados con el paquete estadístico Epi-(6036 ...


Desempeño De Bancos Forrajeros De Cratylia Argentea (Desv.) Kuntze, En Suelos Degradados En El Departamento De Casanare, Alexander Navas Panadero, José Ignacio Daza Cárdenas, Victor Montaña Barrera Feb 2020

Desempeño De Bancos Forrajeros De Cratylia Argentea (Desv.) Kuntze, En Suelos Degradados En El Departamento De Casanare, Alexander Navas Panadero, José Ignacio Daza Cárdenas, Victor Montaña Barrera

Revista de Medicina Veterinaria

Las épocas de sequía o lluvias extremas afectan la eficiencia en los sistemas ganaderos, los cuales basan la producción de forrajes en el monocultivo de gramíneas, estas son más vulnerables a las condiciones climáticas extremas, lo que hace necesario buscar alternativas de plantas más resistentes a estas condiciones. Se determinó el desempeño de Cratylia argentea en bancos forrajeros, establecidos en suelos degradados con alto uso de agroquímicos, bajo condiciones de bosque húmedo tropical. El estudio se realizó durante un año y se estableció en la finca Matapantano, ubicada en Yopal, Casanare (Colombia), se determinó el efecto sobre las propiedades físico-químicas ...


Intoxicación Accidental Con Nerium Oleander En Lechería Caprina En La Región Metropolitana De Santiago En Chile, Carlos Andrés Flores Olivares, Cristina Andrea Moraga Muñoz, Francisco López Eldredge, Isabel Pinto Morales, Lía Alejandra Navarrete Figueroa, Constanza Andrea Rodríguez Latorre, Romina Javiera De María Peña Meza, Susana Sam Rodríguez Feb 2020

Intoxicación Accidental Con Nerium Oleander En Lechería Caprina En La Región Metropolitana De Santiago En Chile, Carlos Andrés Flores Olivares, Cristina Andrea Moraga Muñoz, Francisco López Eldredge, Isabel Pinto Morales, Lía Alejandra Navarrete Figueroa, Constanza Andrea Rodríguez Latorre, Romina Javiera De María Peña Meza, Susana Sam Rodríguez

Revista de Medicina Veterinaria

En establecimiento de pequeño productor caprino (n = 52) en la zona central de Chile, se les administraron en comederos plantas ornamentales y pastos que fueron obtenidos posterior a la poda de jardines en sectores aledaños. A las 12 horas post ingesta de este alimento se encuentran 8 caprinos, hembras, adultos, productivos muertos previo al ingreso a sala de ordeña. El episodio de mortandad se extendió por 84 horas generando una mortalidad del 48 % y una morbilidad del 52 %. Se realizó visita, inspección clínica, necropsia y análisis microscópico de especímenes fijados en solución formolada tamponada al 10 %. La inspección clínica confirma ...


La Displasia De Codo En El Perro: Una Propuesta De Modelización Biomecánica, Julio Gil García, Ricardo Olivares Pérez-Montt Feb 2020

La Displasia De Codo En El Perro: Una Propuesta De Modelización Biomecánica, Julio Gil García, Ricardo Olivares Pérez-Montt

Revista de Medicina Veterinaria

La displasia del codo (DC), es un término general, usado para designar una enfermedad hereditaria poligénica del codo de los perros. Los huesos de las articulaciones involucradas son tres: húmero, ulna y radio, que dan lugar a tres articulaciones: humeroradial, humeroulnar y radioulnar. Cuatro procesos configuran dicha enfermedad, en forma independiente o en combinación: I) Fractura del proceso coronoides medial, II) Osteocondritis disecante del cóndilo del húmero, III) No unión del proceso ancóneo y IV) Incongruencia entre radio y ulna. Con el objetivo de contribuir al mejor conocimiento de esta enfermedad, se investigó si existía alguna asociación entre la mecánica ...


Comportamiento Ingestivo Diurno Y Desempeño Productivo De Corderos Suplementados Con Semilla De Algodón Y Maíz Molido, Emiro Andrés Suárez Paternina, Libardo Alfonso Maza Ángulo, Wilson Andrés Barragán Hernández, René Mauricio Patiño Pardo, Oscar David Vergara Garay, Lorena Angélica Aguayo Ulloa Feb 2020

Comportamiento Ingestivo Diurno Y Desempeño Productivo De Corderos Suplementados Con Semilla De Algodón Y Maíz Molido, Emiro Andrés Suárez Paternina, Libardo Alfonso Maza Ángulo, Wilson Andrés Barragán Hernández, René Mauricio Patiño Pardo, Oscar David Vergara Garay, Lorena Angélica Aguayo Ulloa

Revista de Medicina Veterinaria

El estudio del comportamiento ingestivo es importante para conocer el desempeño de los animales y es especialmente imprescindible cuando se evalúan diferentes regímenes de alimentación. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la conducta ingestiva diurna y la respuesta productiva de corderos criollos suplementados con semilla de algodón (SA) y maíz molido (MM). Se emplearon 16 corderos criollos machos enteros con peso inicial de 16 ± 2 kg, los cuales fueron distribuidos aleatoriamente en cuatro tratamientos experimentales consistentes en: T0 = Pastoreo, T1 = Pastoreo + 25 % SA + 75 % MM, T2 = Pastoreo + 50 SA + 50 % MM y T3 = Pastoreo + 75% SA + 25 % MM. En ...


Utilidad De Las Herramientas Cartográficas Para El Diagnóstico, Análisis Y Monitoreo De La Gestión Ambiental En Producciones Avícolas Y Porcícolas, María Elena Belalcázar Zafra, Carolina Bespalhok Jacometo, Diego Soler-Tovar, Patricia Hernández Rodríguez Feb 2020

Utilidad De Las Herramientas Cartográficas Para El Diagnóstico, Análisis Y Monitoreo De La Gestión Ambiental En Producciones Avícolas Y Porcícolas, María Elena Belalcázar Zafra, Carolina Bespalhok Jacometo, Diego Soler-Tovar, Patricia Hernández Rodríguez

Revista de Medicina Veterinaria

No abstract provided.


Guacamayos En Peligro De Extinción Criados Por Híbridos, Antonio Alejandro Sciabarrasi Bagilet, Adrián Hugo Cornejo Bering Feb 2020

Guacamayos En Peligro De Extinción Criados Por Híbridos, Antonio Alejandro Sciabarrasi Bagilet, Adrián Hugo Cornejo Bering

Revista de Medicina Veterinaria

La intervención humana es generalmente responsable de la creación de psitácidos híbridos en cautiverio. Este es el núcleo de la controversia del presente artículo. Con y sin intención se generan híbridos en los centros de fauna, que se suman a aquellos ingresados por entregas voluntarias de sus tenedores o como resultado del tráfico ilegal de especies. Esto conduce a la existencia de aves, sin una finalidad concreta, en refugios dedicados a la conservación. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo relatar la cría de guacamayos en peligro de extinción como herramienta para la conservación, usando guacamayos híbridos a manera de padres sustitutos ...


Fístula Cutánea Secundaria A Úlcera De Abomaso De Una Cabra: Reporte De Caso, María Angélica Hernández Molina, Laura Paola Pinto Rojas, German Alonso Prada Sanmiguel Feb 2020

Fístula Cutánea Secundaria A Úlcera De Abomaso De Una Cabra: Reporte De Caso, María Angélica Hernández Molina, Laura Paola Pinto Rojas, German Alonso Prada Sanmiguel

Revista de Medicina Veterinaria

Las úlceras abomasales son raras y poco conocidas en los pequeños rumiantes y en los rumiantes, en general. Estas llegan a presentarse por diferentes causas como lo son: la dieta, el estrés, la alteración de los mecanismos protectores de la mucosa gástrica, entre otros. En este artículo, se presenta el caso de un caprino hembra raza criolla de aproximadamente diecisiete años, que presentaba una lesión en la región ventral del abdomen, entre la cicatriz del ombligo y el cartílago xifoides, y, adicionalmente, tenía una enfermedad articular. Como método de diagnóstico se realizaron exámenes paraclínicos como: cuadro hemático, coprológico y toma ...


Vaginal Microbiota Diverges In Sows With Low And High Reproductive Performance After Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Vaccination, L. P. Sanglard, S. Schmitz-Esser, K. A. Gray, D. C. L. Linhares, C. J. Yeoman, J. C. M. Dekkers, M. C. Niederwerder, N. V. L. Serão Feb 2020

Vaginal Microbiota Diverges In Sows With Low And High Reproductive Performance After Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Vaccination, L. P. Sanglard, S. Schmitz-Esser, K. A. Gray, D. C. L. Linhares, C. J. Yeoman, J. C. M. Dekkers, M. C. Niederwerder, N. V. L. Serão

Animal Science Publications

Previous studies have demonstrated evidence for a relationship between the vaginal microbiome and reproductive performance, suggesting the vaginal microbiota may serve as a tool to predict farrowing outcomes in commercial pigs. In this study, we compared the vaginal microbiome in sows with low and high farrowing performance and used it to classify animals with contrasting reproductive outcomes in commercial sows following immune challenge with porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS) vaccination. Eighteen microbes were differentially abundant (q-value < 0.05) between the Low and High farrowing performance groups. Among them, Campylobacter, Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Lachnospiraceae unclassified, Prevotella, and Phascolarctobacterium were also selected in the discriminant and linear regression analyses, and could be used ...


Economic Estimates Of Invasive Wild Pig Damage To Crops In 12 Us States, Sophie Mckee, Aaron Anderson, Keith Carlisle, Stephanie A. Shwiff Feb 2020

Economic Estimates Of Invasive Wild Pig Damage To Crops In 12 Us States, Sophie Mckee, Aaron Anderson, Keith Carlisle, Stephanie A. Shwiff

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We report the results of a survey on invasive wild pig (Sus scrofa L.) damage and control in 12 US states (Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Texas). The crops chosen for this study represent the “second-tier” in terms of economic importance after the six crops that were the subject of Anderson et al. (2016). The survey was distributed by the USDA National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) in the summer of 2019 to a sample of producers in each of the states (except California) of the following six crops: hay, pecans (Carya ...


Beef Cattle That Respond Differently To Fescue Toxicosis Have Distinct Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota, Lucas R. Koester, Daniel H. Poole, Nick V. L. Serão, Stephan Schmitz-Esser Feb 2020

Beef Cattle That Respond Differently To Fescue Toxicosis Have Distinct Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota, Lucas R. Koester, Daniel H. Poole, Nick V. L. Serão, Stephan Schmitz-Esser

Animal Science Publications

Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a widely used forage grass which shares a symbiosis with the endophytic fungus Epichloë coenophiala. The endophyte produces an alkaloid toxin that provides herbivory, heat and drought resistance to the grass, but can cause fescue toxicosis in grazing livestock. Fescue toxicosis can lead to reduced weight gain and milk yields resulting in significant losses to the livestock industry. In this trial, 149 Angus cows across two farms were continuously exposed to toxic, endophyte-infected, fescue for a total of 13 weeks. Of those 149 cows, 40 were classified into either high (HT) or low (LT) tolerance ...


Immune-Endocrine Links To Gregariousness In Wild House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Esther H. D. Carlitz, Morgan Kindel, Barbara König Feb 2020

Immune-Endocrine Links To Gregariousness In Wild House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Esther H. D. Carlitz, Morgan Kindel, Barbara König

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Social interactions are critically important for survival and impact overall-health, but also impose costs on animals, such as exposure to contagious agents. The immune system can play a critical role in modulating social behavior when animals are sick, as has been demonstrated within the context of “sickness behaviors.” Can immune molecules affect or be affected by social interactions even when animals are not sick, therefore serving a role in mediating pathogen exposure? We tested whether markers of immune function in both the blood and the brain are associated with gregariousness, quantified as number of animals interacted with per day. To ...


Effects Of Deepwater Horizon Oil On Feather Structure And Thermoregulation In Gulls: Does Rehabilitation Work?, Katherine Horak, Nicole L. Barrett, Jeremy W. Ellis, Emma M. Campbell, Nicholas G. Dannemiller, Susan A. Shriner Feb 2020

Effects Of Deepwater Horizon Oil On Feather Structure And Thermoregulation In Gulls: Does Rehabilitation Work?, Katherine Horak, Nicole L. Barrett, Jeremy W. Ellis, Emma M. Campbell, Nicholas G. Dannemiller, Susan A. Shriner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Impacts of large-scale oil spills on avian species are far-reaching.While media attention often focuses on lethal impacts, sub-lethal effects and the impacts of rehabilitation receive less attention. The objective of our study was to characterize effects of moderate external oiling and subsequent rehabilitation on feather structure and thermoregulation in gulls. We captured 30 wild ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) and randomly assigned each individual to an experimental group: 1) controls, 2) rehabilitated birds (externally oiled, rehabilitated by washing), or 3) oiled birds (externally oiled, not rehabilitated). We externally oiled birds with weathered MC252 Deepwater Horizon oil (water for controls) and ...


Brodifacoum Residues In Fish Three Years After An Island-Wide Rat Eradication Attempt In The Tropical Pacific, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Steven F. Volker, Kristen Rex, William C. Pitt Jan 2020

Brodifacoum Residues In Fish Three Years After An Island-Wide Rat Eradication Attempt In The Tropical Pacific, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Steven F. Volker, Kristen Rex, William C. Pitt

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive rats are known to threaten natural resources and human health and safety. Island-wide rat eradication attempts have been increasing in number and scale during the past several decades, as has the frequency of eradication success. The most common method to remove all rats from an island is to broadcast anticoagulant rodenticide bait into every rat’s home range on the island. Broadcast of toxicants can put humans and other nontarget species in marine and terrestrial environments at risk of exposure. The persistence of anticoagulant residues is somewhat unknown, particularly in marine environments. Three years after ~ 18,000 kg of ...


Optimal Bait Density For Delivery Of Acute Toxicants To Vertebrate Pests, Kim M. Pepin, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. Vercauteren Jan 2020

Optimal Bait Density For Delivery Of Acute Toxicants To Vertebrate Pests, Kim M. Pepin, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Oral baiting is a fundamental method for delivering toxicants to pest species. Planning baiting strategies is challenging because bait-consumption rates depend on dynamic processes including space use and demographics of the target species. To determine cost-effective strategies for optimizing baiting, we developed a spatially explicit model of population dynamics using field-based measures of wild-pig (Sus scrofa) space use, bait consumption, and mortality probabilities. The most cost-effective baiting strategy depended strongly on the population reduction objective and initial density. A wide range of baiting strategies were cost-effective when the objective was 80% population reduction. In contrast, only a narrow range of ...


Relief And Recovery Activities Conducted By The Better Research, Better Life Foundation (Brblf) In Collaboration With The Caribbean Primate Research Center (Cprc), John L. Vandeberg, B. Predovich, M. I. Rodriguez, C. A. Sariol, M. Kahn Jan 2020

Relief And Recovery Activities Conducted By The Better Research, Better Life Foundation (Brblf) In Collaboration With The Caribbean Primate Research Center (Cprc), John L. Vandeberg, B. Predovich, M. I. Rodriguez, C. A. Sariol, M. Kahn

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

BRBLF, a 501(c)(3) non‐profit organization, is dedicated to the advancement of global preclinical research while focusing on the responsible use of nonhuman primates. Its goal is to optimize the contribution of nonhuman primates to biomedical and behavioral research by fostering innovative collaborations, education, training, and outreach. Immediately after Hurricane Maria, BRBLF and CPRC leadership initiated an emergency plan and began to develop and implement disaster relief and research continuity solutions for Cayo Santiago and the Sabana Seca Field Station. The initial action was to provide satellite phones, which enabled CPRC staff to re‐establish stable communication with ...


Evaluation Of Commercial Genomic Tests For Maternal Traits In Crossbred Beef Cattle, Mckay R. Erickson, J.R. Tait, R. A. Funston Jan 2020

Evaluation Of Commercial Genomic Tests For Maternal Traits In Crossbred Beef Cattle, Mckay R. Erickson, J.R. Tait, R. A. Funston

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

DNA samples were collected from beef heifers born at the Gudmundsen Sandhills Laboratory and analyzed with a genomic test. Phenotypic data from these females were compiled and used in a regression analysis to evaluate the utility of these genomic scores as predictors for phenotypic outcomes. Th e genomic score for birth body weight (BW) was signifi cantly associated with animal birth BW. Th e genomic score for heifer pregnancy was not a statistically significant predictor of actual pregnancy. Neither dam age or the genomic score for stayability were significant predictors of actual reproductive longevity.


Evaluation Of Rumen Undegradable Protein Sources Fed In An Organic Production System, Elizabeth A. Schumacher, Galen E. Erickson, F. Henry Hilscher, Levi J. Mcphillips, Zac E. Carlson, Mary E. Drewnoski, Jim C. Macdonald, Terry J. Klopfenstein Jan 2020

Evaluation Of Rumen Undegradable Protein Sources Fed In An Organic Production System, Elizabeth A. Schumacher, Galen E. Erickson, F. Henry Hilscher, Levi J. Mcphillips, Zac E. Carlson, Mary E. Drewnoski, Jim C. Macdonald, Terry J. Klopfenstein

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Fifty- eight Holstein steers with an initial body weight of 469 lb were fed 1 of 5 dietary treatments containing different rumen undegradable protein (RUP) sources: control with no supplemental protein, field peas, field peas plus fish meal, soybean meal, and SoyPass, a treated soybean meal high in RUP. These protein sources replaced corn in a base diet of 65% dry rolled corn, 30% alfalfa haylage, and 5% supplement in order to balance for metabolizable protein (MP). Th e objective of this study was to compare how rumen undegradable protein sources that can be found in organic production systems affect ...