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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Transcriptional Regulation Of Nlrc4 Inflammasome By Irf8, Ein Lee May 2019

Transcriptional Regulation Of Nlrc4 Inflammasome By Irf8, Ein Lee

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The NLRC4 inflammasome is a crucial part of the innate immune response against bacterial infections. We found that NLRC4 inflammasome activation in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) is greatly dependent on interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8). NLRC4-mediated caspase-1 activation and subsequent production of the inflammasome-dependent cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and cell death were impaired in IRF8-deficient cells. IRF8 mediated the transcription of genes encoding NAIPs, the receptors for NLRC4 inflammasome, which recognize bacterial flagellin and type III secretion system (T3SS) proteins. IRF8 was critical for host survival following infection with Salmonella Typhimurium or Burkholderia thailandensis. Furthermore, mice deficient in IRF8 were ...


Therapeutic Potential Of Fecal Microbiota Transplant In The Treatment Of Obesity, Michelle Petropoulos Feb 2019

Therapeutic Potential Of Fecal Microbiota Transplant In The Treatment Of Obesity, Michelle Petropoulos

Lynchburg Journal of Medical Science

Obesity is a worldwide epidemic with physical, emotional and economic strain. The associated multitude of comorbidities exacerbate the economic burden this disease has on the healthcare system, yet struggle persists in the endeavor to find successful treatment options and understand all facets of metabolism. While it is known that the human microbiome impacts disease, until recently this has not been sufficiently studied. The gut microbiome is further becoming identified as a metabolic organ having a significant impact on host metabolism. Lean individuals harbor a more diverse microbiota, extracting less energy from food sources. In contrast, an obese individuals’ microbiota is ...


Wellness Programs & Biometric Screenings Reducing Health Care Cost?, Eder Hernandez Feb 2019

Wellness Programs & Biometric Screenings Reducing Health Care Cost?, Eder Hernandez

Lynchburg Journal of Medical Science

Wellness programs and biometric screenings are becoming an effective and popular method of preserving health of employees and lowering healthcare cost. United States health care cost have increased monumentally and are directly proportional to chronic disease prevalence. Wellness programs and biometric screenings are providing a remedy for reducing healthcare cost. This article aims to describe the importance of wellness programs and biometric screenings in reducing healthcare cost. Wellness program and biometric screenings are directly linked to early identification of disease and lifestyle modification; which lead to over health care cost by changing high risk behaviors and early disease intervention.


Icatibant Is Not Helpful For The Treatment Of Ace Inhibitor-Induced Angioedema, Samantha R. Schwartz Feb 2019

Icatibant Is Not Helpful For The Treatment Of Ace Inhibitor-Induced Angioedema, Samantha R. Schwartz

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Sinert R, Levy P, Bernstein JA, et al. Randomized trial of icatibant for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced upper airway angioedema. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017; 5(5): 1402-1409. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2017.03.003.


Pentablock Copolymer Micelle Nanoadjuvants Enhance Cytosolic Delivery Of Antigen And Improve Vaccine Efficacy While Inducing Low Inflammation, Sujata Senapati, Ross J. Darling, Darren Loh, Ian C. Schneider, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Balaji Narasimhan, Surya K. Mallapragada Feb 2019

Pentablock Copolymer Micelle Nanoadjuvants Enhance Cytosolic Delivery Of Antigen And Improve Vaccine Efficacy While Inducing Low Inflammation, Sujata Senapati, Ross J. Darling, Darren Loh, Ian C. Schneider, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Balaji Narasimhan, Surya K. Mallapragada

Chemistry Publications

As the focus has shifted from traditional killed or live, attenuated vaccines towards subunit vaccines, improvements in vaccine safety have been confronted with low immunogenicity of protein antigens. This issue has been addressed by synthesizing and designing a wide variety of antigen carriers and adjuvants, such as Toll-like receptor agonists (e.g., MPLA, CpG). Studies have focused on optimizing adjuvants for improved cellular trafficking, cytosolic availability, and improved antigen presentation. In this work, we describe the design of novel amphiphilic pentablock copolymer (PBC) adjuvants that exhibit high biocompatibility and reversible pH- and temperature-sensitive micelle formation. We demonstrate improved humoral immunity ...


Optimal Scheduling Of Bevacizumab And Pemetrexed/Cisplatin Dosing In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Benjamin K. Schneider, Arnaud Boyer, Joseph Ciccolini, Fabrice Barlesi, Kenneth Wang, Sebastien Benzekry, Jonathan P. Mochel Feb 2019

Optimal Scheduling Of Bevacizumab And Pemetrexed/Cisplatin Dosing In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Benjamin K. Schneider, Arnaud Boyer, Joseph Ciccolini, Fabrice Barlesi, Kenneth Wang, Sebastien Benzekry, Jonathan P. Mochel

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Bevacizumab-pemetrexed/cisplatin (BEV-PEM/CIS) is a first line therapeutic for advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Bevacizumab potentiates PEM/CIS cytotoxicity by inducing transient tumor vasculature normalization. BEV-PEM/CIS has a narrow therapeutic window. Therefore, it is an attractive target for administration schedule optimization. The present study leverages our previous work on BEV-PEM/CIS pharmacodynamic modeling in NSCLC-bearing mice to estimate the optimal gap in the scheduling of sequential BEV-PEM/CIS. We predicted the optimal gap in BEV-PEM/CIS dosing to be 2.0 days in mice and 1.2 days in humans. Our simulations suggest that the efficacy ...


Severity Of Disease And Mortality For Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Viral Pneumonia Compared To Patients With Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia, Richard Y. Kim, Thomas Chandler, Stephen P. Furmanek, Timothy Lee Wiemken, Rodrigo Cavallazzi Feb 2019

Severity Of Disease And Mortality For Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Viral Pneumonia Compared To Patients With Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia, Richard Y. Kim, Thomas Chandler, Stephen P. Furmanek, Timothy Lee Wiemken, Rodrigo Cavallazzi

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: There exists a large body of literature to help identify, diagnose, treat, and manage community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Despite this, there is little data that directly compares the clinical syndromes and complications of pure bacterial pneumonia to pure viral pneumonia. Our study compares the clinical presentation, morbidity and mortality of viral vs. bacterial etiologies of CAP.

Methods: This was a secondary data analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) international study database. Data was collected concerning patient demographics, physical examination findings, laboratory findings, radiological findings, severity of illness, and clinical outcomes and stratified according to the two study groups, CAVP ...


Human Survival Motor Neuron Genes Generate A Vast Repertoire Of Circular Rnas, Eric W. Ottesen, Diou Luo, Joonbae Seo, Natalia N. Singh, Ravindra N. Singh Jan 2019

Human Survival Motor Neuron Genes Generate A Vast Repertoire Of Circular Rnas, Eric W. Ottesen, Diou Luo, Joonbae Seo, Natalia N. Singh, Ravindra N. Singh

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) perform diverse functions, including the regulation of transcription, translation, peptide synthesis, macromolecular sequestration and trafficking. Inverted Alu repeats capable of forming RNA:RNA duplexes that bring splice sites together for backsplicing are known to facilitate circRNA generation. However, higher limits of circRNAs produced by a single Alu-rich gene are currently not predictable due to limitations of amplification and analyses. Here, using a tailored approach, we report a surprising diversity of exon-containing circRNAs generated by the Alu-rich Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) genes that code for SMN, an essential multifunctional protein in humans. We show that expression of the ...


Patient Perceptions Of Planned Organ Removal During Hysterectomy, Zeinab Kassem, Chad M. Coleman, Andrew S. Bossick, Wan-Ting Su, Roopina Sangha, Ganesa Wegienka Jan 2019

Patient Perceptions Of Planned Organ Removal During Hysterectomy, Zeinab Kassem, Chad M. Coleman, Andrew S. Bossick, Wan-Ting Su, Roopina Sangha, Ganesa Wegienka

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Previous reports indicate many women may not have a firm grasp on likely outcomes of different hysterectomy procedures. This study aimed to assess women’s self-reported expectations of how they think their anatomy will change after hysterectomy.

Methods: Women scheduled for hysterectomy at a tertiary care hospital, for non-oncological reasons, reported their planned procedure type and the organs they understood would be removed 2 weeks prior to surgery. Patient reports and electronic medical records were reviewed, and kappa statistics (κ) were calculated to assess agreement for all women and within subgroups.

Results: Most of the 456 study participants (mean ...


Coordinating An Oncology Precision Medicine Clinic Within An Integrated Health System: Lessons Learned In Year One, Michael A. Thompson, Jennifer J. Godden, Deborah Wham, Antony Ruggeri, Michael P. Mullane, Amanda Wilson, Shamsuddin Virani, Scott M. Weissman, Brenda Ramczyk, Pamela Vanderwall, James L. Weese Jan 2019

Coordinating An Oncology Precision Medicine Clinic Within An Integrated Health System: Lessons Learned In Year One, Michael A. Thompson, Jennifer J. Godden, Deborah Wham, Antony Ruggeri, Michael P. Mullane, Amanda Wilson, Shamsuddin Virani, Scott M. Weissman, Brenda Ramczyk, Pamela Vanderwall, James L. Weese

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Precision medicine is a term describing strategies to promote health and prevent and treat disease based on an individual’s genetic, molecular, and lifestyle characteristics. Oncology precision medicine (OPM) is a cancer treatment approach targeting cancer-specific genetic and molecular alterations. Implementation of an OPM clinical program optimally involves the support and collaboration of multiple departments, including administration, medical oncology, pathology, interventional radiology, genetics, research, and informatics. In this review, we briefly introduce the published evidence regarding OPM’s potential effect on patient outcomes and discuss what we have learned over the first year of operating an OPM program within an ...


The Effect Of Nonassociative Learning On Oxidative Stress In Caenorhabditis Elegans: A Potential Application For Alzheimer’S Disease Research, Gillian Patton Jan 2019

The Effect Of Nonassociative Learning On Oxidative Stress In Caenorhabditis Elegans: A Potential Application For Alzheimer’S Disease Research, Gillian Patton

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Alzheimer’s disease results in learning and memory deficits due to toxic changes in the brain caused by amyloid-β plaques and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is caused by the overproduction of free radicals, which are uncharged molecules containing an unpaired valence electron. Nonassociative learning is a type of cognitive processing that only uses one stimulus instead of two related stimuli. Cognitive processing promotes neural growth and learning, while Alzheimer’s inhibits it. The purpose of this study was to test how nonassociative learning impacts oxidative stress and thus, if it might be considered as a potential treatment option for Alzheimer ...


The Effect Of Flavonoid Galangin On The Cell Viability And Toxicity Of Mcf-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells Exposed To Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Pahs), Abhimanyu Sailesh Jan 2019

The Effect Of Flavonoid Galangin On The Cell Viability And Toxicity Of Mcf-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells Exposed To Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Pahs), Abhimanyu Sailesh

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemical compounds ubiquitous in the environment; many of which are known human and animal carcinogen. The purpose of this study was to investigate MCF-7 epithelial breast cancer cells’ viability and toxicity following a short-term in vitro exposure to a cocktail of PAHs and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) separately in the presence and absence of varying concentrations of flavonoid galangin. It was predicted that presence of galangin will completely or partially block the damaging effects of PAHs. It was hypothesized that exposing the cells to 7 µM cocktail of PAHs or 10 µM B ...


Epha4b Expression In The Craniofacial Development Of African Cichlid Fishes, Chelse Vanatter Jan 2019

Epha4b Expression In The Craniofacial Development Of African Cichlid Fishes, Chelse Vanatter

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Epha4b gene expression may contribute to variances in facial formation including functional differences such as nose shape and clinical conditions such as cleft palate. During craniofacial development, neural crest cells migrate to the pharyngeal arches then differentiate to form bone, muscle, and cartilage cells. The Eph/ephrin signaling pathway guides the streams of migrating neural crest cells into the pharyngeal arches; epha4b, a gene encoding an Eph receptor, contributes to this signaling pathway. To determine how epha4b expression differs between species at different developmental stages, in situ hybridization, a process that stains areas of gene expression, was performed. African cichlid ...


Impaired Nuclear Export Of Polyglutamine-Expanded Androgen Receptor In Spinal And Bulbar Muscular Atrophy., Frederick J. Arnold, Anna Pluciennik, Diane E. Merry Jan 2019

Impaired Nuclear Export Of Polyglutamine-Expanded Androgen Receptor In Spinal And Bulbar Muscular Atrophy., Frederick J. Arnold, Anna Pluciennik, Diane E. Merry

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a neuromuscular disease caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the androgen receptor (AR). Prior studies have highlighted the importance of AR nuclear localization in SBMA pathogenesis; therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the role of AR nuclear export in the pathological manifestations of SBMA. We demonstrate here that the nuclear export of polyQ-expanded AR is impaired, even prior to the formation of intranuclear inclusions of aggregated AR. Additionally, we find that promoting AR export with an exogenous nuclear export signal substantially reduces its aggregation and blocks hormone-induced toxicity. Moreover, we show ...


The Effects Of Oxidative Stress On Inducing Senescence In Human Fibroblasts, Shivani Chowdhary Jan 2019

The Effects Of Oxidative Stress On Inducing Senescence In Human Fibroblasts, Shivani Chowdhary

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Oxidative stress, specifically from hydrogen peroxide exposure, was performed to determine if it induced senescence in cell lines such as Hela cells and primary human fibroblasts. The purpose of this experiment was to find the optimal stage, concentration, and time of exposure to induce the greatest number of senescent cells. After dividing cultures of both the Hela and human fibroblasts cells in order to reduce confluency, the cells were placed in a six well plate and exposed to hydrogen peroxide for two hours at various concentrations. The plates were checked at twenty-four-hour intervals, and then fixed with senescence associated beta-galactosidase ...


The Effect Of Acetaminophen (Analgesic) And Diphenhydramine (Antihistamine) On Nociception Response Of Caenorhabditis Elegans, Heart Rate Of Eisenia Fetida, And Mortality Of Both E. Fetida And C. Elegans, Vamsi Gorrepati Jan 2019

The Effect Of Acetaminophen (Analgesic) And Diphenhydramine (Antihistamine) On Nociception Response Of Caenorhabditis Elegans, Heart Rate Of Eisenia Fetida, And Mortality Of Both E. Fetida And C. Elegans, Vamsi Gorrepati

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Pharmaceutical pollution continues to increase each year but its adverse effects on the environment are still largely unknown. Pharmaceuticals can enter the terrestrial ecosystem when animal manure and sewage sludge are applied to land as a fertilizer or when irrigated with contaminated water. To understand the extent to which common drugs impact the ecosystem, two commonly polluting pharmaceuticals, acetaminophen and diphenhydramine, which have been found in many cities such as Chicago, Dallas, and most notably The Great Lakes, were studied. Various concentrations were tested on E. fetida and C. elegans. Indicators such as heart rate were observed for E. fetida ...


A “Diagnosis Method" For The Analysis Of Epidemiological Studies. A Reevaluation Of Pan, Et Al. Arch Intern Med 2012, 172:555., Richard D. Feinman, Eugene J. Fine Jan 2019

A “Diagnosis Method" For The Analysis Of Epidemiological Studies. A Reevaluation Of Pan, Et Al. Arch Intern Med 2012, 172:555., Richard D. Feinman, Eugene J. Fine

Journal of Evolution and Health

The medical literature has been subject to extensive criticism for a lack of accuracy and reproducibility. A major cause, in our view, is misleading or inappropriate presentation and interpretation of statistical results. Emphasis on percentages or relative values (odds ratios, relative risk, and hazard ratio) always reduces and often obscures information. We suggest a more direct method using the 2 x 2 matrix commonly employed in diagnosis testing. We demonstrate the “diagnosis method,” by evaluating a previously published paper (Pan A, et al.: Arch Intern Med 2012, 172:555-563). on the risk of red meat for disease, focussing on cancer ...


Principles For Enhancing Virus Capsid Capacity And Stability From A Thermophilic Virus Capsid Structure, Nicholas P. Stone, Gabriel Demo, Emily Agnello, Brian A. Kelch Jan 2019

Principles For Enhancing Virus Capsid Capacity And Stability From A Thermophilic Virus Capsid Structure, Nicholas P. Stone, Gabriel Demo, Emily Agnello, Brian A. Kelch

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The capsids of double-stranded DNA viruses protect the viral genome from the harsh extracellular environment, while maintaining stability against the high internal pressure of packaged DNA. To elucidate how capsids maintain stability in an extreme environment, we used cryoelectron microscopy to determine the capsid structure of the thermostable phage P74-26. We find the P74-26 capsid exhibits an overall architecture that is very similar to those of other tailed bacteriophages, allowing us to directly compare structures to derive the structural basis for enhanced stability. Our structure reveals lasso-like interactions that appear to function like catch bonds. This architecture allows the capsid ...


Debrowser: Interactive Differential Expression Analysis And Visualization Tool For Count Data, Alper Kucukural, Onur Yukselen, Deniz M. Ozata, Melissa J. Moore, Manuel Garber Jan 2019

Debrowser: Interactive Differential Expression Analysis And Visualization Tool For Count Data, Alper Kucukural, Onur Yukselen, Deniz M. Ozata, Melissa J. Moore, Manuel Garber

Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: Sequencing data has become a standard measure of diverse cellular activities. For example, gene expression is accurately measured by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) libraries, protein-DNA interactions are captured by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq), protein-RNA interactions by crosslinking immunoprecipitation sequencing (CLIP-Seq) or RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP-Seq) sequencing, DNA accessibility by assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (ATAC-Seq), DNase or MNase sequencing libraries. The processing of these sequencing techniques involves library-specific approaches. However, in all cases, once the sequencing libraries are processed, the result is a count table specifying the estimated number of reads originating from each genomic locus. Differential analysis to determine which loci ...


Quantitative Clinical And Autoimmune Assessments In Stiff Person Syndrome: Evidence For A Progressive Disorder., Goran Rakocevic, Harry Alexopoulos, Marinos C. Dalakas Jan 2019

Quantitative Clinical And Autoimmune Assessments In Stiff Person Syndrome: Evidence For A Progressive Disorder., Goran Rakocevic, Harry Alexopoulos, Marinos C. Dalakas

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: Stiff Person Syndrome (SPS) is an under-diagnosed disorder that affects mobility and the quality of life of affected patients. The aim of the study is to describe the natural history of SPS, the extent of accumulated disability and the associated clinical and immunological features in patients followed for up to 8 years in a single center.

METHODS: Our collective cohort included 57 SPS patients. Additionally, 32 of these patients were examined every 6 months for a two-year period in a longitudinal study protocol, to assess disease progression using quantitative measures of stiffness and heightened sensitivity.

RESULTS: The most frequent ...


Human-Like Nsg Mouse Glycoproteins Sialylation Pattern Changes The Phenotype Of Human Lymphocytes And Sensitivity To Hiv-1 Infection, Raghubendra S. Dagur, Amanda Branch-Woods, Saumi Mathews, Poonam S. Joshi, Rolen M. Quadros, Donald W. Harms, Yan Cheng, Shana M. Miles, Samuel J. Pirruccello, Channabasavaiah B. Gurumurthy, Santhi Gorantla, Larisa Y. Poluektova Jan 2019

Human-Like Nsg Mouse Glycoproteins Sialylation Pattern Changes The Phenotype Of Human Lymphocytes And Sensitivity To Hiv-1 Infection, Raghubendra S. Dagur, Amanda Branch-Woods, Saumi Mathews, Poonam S. Joshi, Rolen M. Quadros, Donald W. Harms, Yan Cheng, Shana M. Miles, Samuel J. Pirruccello, Channabasavaiah B. Gurumurthy, Santhi Gorantla, Larisa Y. Poluektova

Journal Articles: Munroe-Meyer Institute

BACKGROUND: The use of immunodeficient mice transplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells is an accepted approach to study human-specific infectious diseases such as HIV-1 and to investigate multiple aspects of human immune system development. However, mouse and human are different in sialylation patterns of proteins due to evolutionary mutations of the CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) gene that prevent formation of N-glycolylneuraminic acid from N-acetylneuraminic acid. How changes in the mouse glycoproteins' chemistry affect phenotype and function of transplanted human hematopoietic stem cells and mature human immune cells in the course of HIV-1 infection are not known.

RESULTS: We mutated mouse ...


Natural Product Induction In Pencillium And Human Caspase Crystallography, Kelly J. Mcgrath Jan 2019

Natural Product Induction In Pencillium And Human Caspase Crystallography, Kelly J. Mcgrath

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

No abstract provided.


Urease Is An Essential Component Of The Acid Response Network Of Staphylococcus Aureus And Is Required For A Persistent Murine Kidney Infection, Chunyi Zhou, Fatema Bhinderwala, Mckenzie K. Lehman, Vinai Chittezham Thomas, Sujata S. Chaudhari, Kelsey J. Yamada, Kirk W. Foster, Robert Powers, Tammy Kielian, Paul D. Fey Jan 2019

Urease Is An Essential Component Of The Acid Response Network Of Staphylococcus Aureus And Is Required For A Persistent Murine Kidney Infection, Chunyi Zhou, Fatema Bhinderwala, Mckenzie K. Lehman, Vinai Chittezham Thomas, Sujata S. Chaudhari, Kelsey J. Yamada, Kirk W. Foster, Robert Powers, Tammy Kielian, Paul D. Fey

Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology

Staphylococcus aureus causes acute and chronic infections resulting in significant morbidity. Urease, an enzyme that generates NH3 and CO2 from urea, is key to pH homeostasis in bacterial pathogens under acidic stress and nitrogen limitation. However, the function of urease in S. aureus niche colonization and nitrogen metabolism has not been extensively studied. We discovered that urease is essential for pH homeostasis and viability in urea-rich environments under weak acid stress. The regulation of urease transcription by CcpA, Agr, and CodY was identified in this study, implying a complex network that controls urease expression in response to changes in metabolic ...


Diets High In N-3 Fatty Acids Are Associated With Lower Arterial Stiffness In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Latent Profile Analysis, Richard J. Woodman, Leena R. Baghdadi, E Michael Shanahan, Inushi De Silva, Jonathan M. Hodgson, Arduino A. Mangoni Jan 2019

Diets High In N-3 Fatty Acids Are Associated With Lower Arterial Stiffness In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Latent Profile Analysis, Richard J. Woodman, Leena R. Baghdadi, E Michael Shanahan, Inushi De Silva, Jonathan M. Hodgson, Arduino A. Mangoni

ECU Publications Post 2013

Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids can influence inflammation and markers of arterial stiffness that are increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it is unknown whether specific patterns of dietary fatty acid intake are similarly associated. In a longitudinal study, eighty-six RA patients reported their dietary intake and had arterial stiffness measured using the augmentation index (AIx) at baseline and 8 months. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was performed to characterise patterns of fatty acid intake using sixteen major fatty acids. Models for two to six profiles were compared using the Akaike and Bayesian information criteria. Associations between AIx and ...


Table Of Contents Dec 2018

Table Of Contents

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Analytical Validation Of A Prognostic Prostate Cancer Gene Expression Assay Using Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissue., Paul W. Medlow, Christopher J. Steele, Andrena M. Mccavigan, Wesley Reardon, Christopher M. Brown, Shauna M. Lambe, Felipe Aa Ishiy, Steven M. Walker, Gemma E. Logan, Olaide Y. Raji, Viktor Berge, Betina Katz, Elaine W. Kay, Katherine M. Sheehan, Ronald W. Watson, Denis P. Harkin, Richard D. Kennedy, Laura A. Knight Dec 2018

Analytical Validation Of A Prognostic Prostate Cancer Gene Expression Assay Using Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissue., Paul W. Medlow, Christopher J. Steele, Andrena M. Mccavigan, Wesley Reardon, Christopher M. Brown, Shauna M. Lambe, Felipe Aa Ishiy, Steven M. Walker, Gemma E. Logan, Olaide Y. Raji, Viktor Berge, Betina Katz, Elaine W. Kay, Katherine M. Sheehan, Ronald W. Watson, Denis P. Harkin, Richard D. Kennedy, Laura A. Knight

Pathology Articles

BACKGROUND: There is a clear need for assays that can predict the risk of metastatic prostate cancer following curative procedures. Importantly these assays must be analytically robust in order to provide quality data for important clinical decisions. DNA microarray based gene expression assays measure several analytes simultaneously and can present specific challenges to analytical validation. This study describes the analytical validation of one such assay designed to predict metastatic recurrence in prostate cancer using primary formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumour material.

METHODS: Accuracy was evaluated with a method comparison study between the assay development platform (Prostate Disease Specific Array) and ...


Toll-Like Receptor-4 Disruption Suppresses Adipose Tissue Remodeling And Increases Survival In Cancer Cachexia Syndrome, Felipe Henriques, Magno A. Lopes, Felipe O. Franco, Pamela Knobl, Kaltinaitis B. Santos, Luana L. Bueno, Victor A. Correa, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Alexander Birbrair, Sidney B. Peres, Stephen R. Farmer, Miguel L. Batista Jr. Dec 2018

Toll-Like Receptor-4 Disruption Suppresses Adipose Tissue Remodeling And Increases Survival In Cancer Cachexia Syndrome, Felipe Henriques, Magno A. Lopes, Felipe O. Franco, Pamela Knobl, Kaltinaitis B. Santos, Luana L. Bueno, Victor A. Correa, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Alexander Birbrair, Sidney B. Peres, Stephen R. Farmer, Miguel L. Batista Jr.

Open Access Articles

Cancer-induced cachexia, characterized by systemic inflammation, body weight loss, adipose tissue (AT) remodeling and muscle wasting, is a malignant metabolic syndrome with undefined etiology. Here, we show that both genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 were able to attenuate the main clinical markers of cachexia in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC). AT remodelling was not found in LLC tumor-bearing (TB) TLR4(-/-) mice due to reduced macrophage infiltration and adipocyte atrophy. TLR4(-/-) mice were also resistant to cold-induced browning of subcutaneous AT (scAT). Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 (Atorvastatin) reproduced the main protective effect against AT remodeling found in ...


The Trim-Nhl Protein Nhl-2 Is A Co-Factor In The Nuclear And Somatic Rnai Pathways In C. Elegans, Gregory M. Davis, Shikui Tu, Jacqueline A. Wilce, Julie M. Claycomb, Zhiping Weng, Peter R. Boag Dec 2018

The Trim-Nhl Protein Nhl-2 Is A Co-Factor In The Nuclear And Somatic Rnai Pathways In C. Elegans, Gregory M. Davis, Shikui Tu, Jacqueline A. Wilce, Julie M. Claycomb, Zhiping Weng, Peter R. Boag

Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology Publications and Presentations

Proper regulation of germline gene expression is essential for fertility and maintaining species integrity. In the C. elegans germline, a diverse repertoire of regulatory pathways promote the expression of endogenous germline genes and limit the expression of deleterious transcripts to maintain genome homeostasis. Here we show that the conserved TRIM-NHL protein, NHL-2, plays an essential role in the C. elegans germline, modulating germline chromatin and meiotic chromosome organization. We uncover a role for NHL-2 as a co-factor in both positively (CSR-1) and negatively (HRDE-1) acting germline 22G-small RNA pathways and the somatic nuclear RNAi pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NHL-2 ...


Modeling Reveals The Dependence Of Hippocampal Neurogenesis Radiosensitivity On Age And Strain Of Rats, Eliedonna Cacao, Sidath Kapukotuwa, Francis A. Cucinotta Dec 2018

Modeling Reveals The Dependence Of Hippocampal Neurogenesis Radiosensitivity On Age And Strain Of Rats, Eliedonna Cacao, Sidath Kapukotuwa, Francis A. Cucinotta

Health Physics & Diagnostic Sciences Faculty Publications

Cognitive dysfunction following radiation treatment for brain cancers in both children and adults have been correlated to impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Various species and strains of rodent models have been used to study radiation-induced changes in neurogenesis and these investigations have utilized only a limited number of doses, dose-fractions, age and time after exposures conditions. In this paper, we have extended our previous mathematical model of radiation-induced hippocampal neurogenesis impairment of C57BL/6 mice to delineate the time, age, and dose dependent alterations in neurogenesis of a diverse strain of rats. To the best of our ...


An Evaluation Of The Impact Of Medication On Behavioral Intervention Effectiveness For Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury, Sulay Martinez Dec 2018

An Evaluation Of The Impact Of Medication On Behavioral Intervention Effectiveness For Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury, Sulay Martinez

Capstone Projects

A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify articles implementing both pharmacological and behavioral interventions with subjects with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Limitations of pharmacological interventions were evaluated and compared to the implications for behavioral interventions for adults with TBI. Results of this study indicate further research is necessary to adequately evaluate the effects of medication on behavioral intervention effectiveness for adults with TBI.