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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

The Benefits Of Art Therapy On Stress And Anxiety Of Oncology Patients During Treatment, Helen Shiepe May 2023

The Benefits Of Art Therapy On Stress And Anxiety Of Oncology Patients During Treatment, Helen Shiepe

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Within the last ten years research on art therapy and its positive impact on oncology patients’ stress and anxiety during treatment has been minimal. Oncology patients whether they are children or adults when diagnosed experience similar reactions due to their diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases end of life care. The current question is whether or not art therapy does have a positive impact on decreasing the stress and anxiety with oncology patients while undergoing treatment. Deane, Fitch & Carmen (2000), discussed art therapy as a healing art that is “intended to integrate physical, emotional, and spiritual care by facilitating creative ...


Ketogenic Diet Effects On Inflammatory Allodynia And Ongoing Pain In Rodents, David N. Ruskin, Isabella C. Sturdevant, Livia S. Wyss, Susan A. Masino Dec 2021

Ketogenic Diet Effects On Inflammatory Allodynia And Ongoing Pain In Rodents, David N. Ruskin, Isabella C. Sturdevant, Livia S. Wyss, Susan A. Masino

Faculty Scholarship

© 2021, The Author(s). Ketogenic diets are very low carbohydrate, high fat, moderate protein diets used to treat medication-resistant epilepsy. Growing evidence suggests that one of the ketogenic diet’s main mechanisms of action is reducing inflammation. Here, we examined the diet’s effects on experimental inflammatory pain in rodent models. Young adult rats and mice were placed on the ketogenic diet or maintained on control diet. After 3–4 weeks on their respective diets, complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) was injected in one hindpaw to induce inflammation; the contralateral paw was used as the control. Tactile sensitivity (von Frey ...


Early Protein Intake Predicts Functional Connectivity And Neurocognition In Preterm Born Children, Emma G. Duerden, Benjamin Thompson, Tanya Poppe, Jane Alsweiler, Greg Gamble, Yannan Jiang, Myra Leung, Anna C. Tottman, Trecia Wouldes, Steven P. Miller, Jane E. Harding, Jane M. Alsweiler, Janene B. Biggs, Coila Bevan, Joanna M. Black, Frank H. Bloomfield, Kelly Fredell, Greg D. Gamble, Jane E. Harding, Sabine Huth, Yannan Jiang, Christine Kevan, Myra Leung, Geraint Phillips, Tanya Poppe, Jennifer A. Rogers, Heather Stewart, Benjamin S. Thompson Dec 2021

Early Protein Intake Predicts Functional Connectivity And Neurocognition In Preterm Born Children, Emma G. Duerden, Benjamin Thompson, Tanya Poppe, Jane Alsweiler, Greg Gamble, Yannan Jiang, Myra Leung, Anna C. Tottman, Trecia Wouldes, Steven P. Miller, Jane E. Harding, Jane M. Alsweiler, Janene B. Biggs, Coila Bevan, Joanna M. Black, Frank H. Bloomfield, Kelly Fredell, Greg D. Gamble, Jane E. Harding, Sabine Huth, Yannan Jiang, Christine Kevan, Myra Leung, Geraint Phillips, Tanya Poppe, Jennifer A. Rogers, Heather Stewart, Benjamin S. Thompson

Brain and Mind Institute Researchers' Publications

© 2021, The Author(s). Nutritional intake can promote early neonatal brain development in very preterm born neonates (< 32 weeks’ gestation). In a group of 7-year-old very preterm born children followed since birth, we examined whether early nutrient intake in the first weeks of life would be associated with long-term brain function and neurocognitive skills at school age. Children underwent resting-state functional MRI (fMRI), intelligence testing (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 5th Ed) and visual-motor processing (Beery-Buktenica, 5th Ed) at 7 years. Relationships were assessed between neonatal macronutrient intakes, functional connectivity strength between thalamic and default mode networks (DMN), and neuro-cognitive function using multivariable regression. Greater functional connectivity strength between thalamic networks and DMN was associated with greater intake of protein in the first week (β = 0.17; 95% CI 0.11, 0.23, p < 0.001) but lower intakes of fat (β = − 0.06; 95% CI − 0.09, − 0.02, p = 0.001) and carbohydrates (β = − 0.03; 95% CI − 0.04, − 0.01, p = 0.003). Connectivity strength was also associated with protein intake during the first month (β = 0.22; 95% CI 0.06, 0.37, p = 0.006). Importantly, greater thalamic-DMN connectivity strength was associated with higher processing speed indices (β = 26.9; 95% CI 4.21, 49.49, p = 0.02) and visual processing scores (β = 9.03; 95% CI 2.27, 15.79, p = 0.009). Optimizing early protein intake may contribute to promoting long-term brain health in preterm-born children.


Differential Ketogenic Diet-Induced Shift In Csf Lipid/Carbohydrate Metabolome Of Pediatric Epilepsy Patients With Optimal Vs. No Anticonvulsant Response: A Pilot Study, Susan A. Masino, David N. Ruskin, Natalie R. Freedgood, Marie Lindefeldt, Maria Dahlin Dec 2021

Differential Ketogenic Diet-Induced Shift In Csf Lipid/Carbohydrate Metabolome Of Pediatric Epilepsy Patients With Optimal Vs. No Anticonvulsant Response: A Pilot Study, Susan A. Masino, David N. Ruskin, Natalie R. Freedgood, Marie Lindefeldt, Maria Dahlin

Faculty Scholarship

Background: The low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet can be an effective anticonvulsant treatment in some pediatric patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Its mechanism(s) of action, however, remain uncertain. Direct sampling of cerebrospinal fluid before and during metabolic therapy may reveal key changes associated with differential clinical outcomes. We characterized the relationship between seizure responsiveness and changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolites. Methods: We performed metabolomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid samples taken before and during ketogenic diet treatment in patients with optimal response (100% seizure remission) and patients with no response (no seizure improvement) to search for differential diet effects ...


Machine Learning Classification Of Traumatic Brain Injury Patients Versus Healthy Controls Using Arterial Spin Labeled Perfusion Mri, Vanessa I. Grass Jun 2021

Machine Learning Classification Of Traumatic Brain Injury Patients Versus Healthy Controls Using Arterial Spin Labeled Perfusion Mri, Vanessa I. Grass

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of death and disability worldwide, yet accurate in vivo detection of TBI neuropathology remains challenging due to complexities in the structural and functional changes observed post-injury as well as limitations in conventional neuroimaging modalities. Although advanced neuroimaging techniques such as arterial spin labeling (ASL) can noninvasively assess cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes observed post-injury, this technique is underutilized in TBI research partly due to the low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) inherent in ASL imaging. The aim of the current study is to examine the use of machine learning, specifically a Support ...


Reiki For Recovery: Incorporating Japanese Health Practices To Increase Contemporary Resiliency In American Health, Leif Peterson May 2021

Reiki For Recovery: Incorporating Japanese Health Practices To Increase Contemporary Resiliency In American Health, Leif Peterson

Master's Projects and Capstones

The Japanese health practice of Reiki attempts to maximize the latent ability of the human system to heal itself. The Reiki system, established over a century ago, combines multiple Asian health traditions, experimenting with practices that maximize the natural processes of the body to perform its own repairs. Reiki encourages healthy behaviors that balance the mind and body, return the human system to a lowered stress level, and allow for an optimal recovery state for the patient. This paper illustrates how this Japanese health-affirming method can be integrated and utilized within existing health and medical practices. An area that is ...


Structural Alterations In Cortical And Thalamocortical White Matter Tracts After Recovery From Prefrontal Cortex Lesions In Macaques, Ramina Adam, David J. Schaeffer, Kevin Johnston, Ravi S. Menon, Stefan Everling May 2021

Structural Alterations In Cortical And Thalamocortical White Matter Tracts After Recovery From Prefrontal Cortex Lesions In Macaques, Ramina Adam, David J. Schaeffer, Kevin Johnston, Ravi S. Menon, Stefan Everling

Brain and Mind Institute Researchers' Publications

Unilateral damage to the frontoparietal network typically impairs saccade target selection within the contralesional visual hemifield. Severity of deficits and the degree of recovery have been associated with widespread network dysfunction, yet it is not clear how these behavioural and functional brain changes relate with the underlying structural white matter tracts. Here, we investigated whether recovery after unilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) lesions was associated with changes in white matter microstructure across large-scale frontoparietal cortical and thalamocortical networks. Diffusion-weighted imaging was acquired in four male rhesus macaques at pre-lesion, week 1, and week 8-16 post-lesion when target selection deficits largely recovered ...


Letting It Go: A Transformative Session Of Massage Therapy, Amanda Brauman King May 2021

Letting It Go: A Transformative Session Of Massage Therapy, Amanda Brauman King

The International Journal of Zero Balancing and Transformative Touch

This personal essay the role of skilled touch, in this case massage therapy, in healing from loss.


Acute Inflammatory Profiles Differ With Sex And Age After Spinal Cord Injury, Andrew N. Stewart, John L. Lowe, Ethan P. Glaser, Caitlin A. Mott, Ryan K. Shahidehpour, Katelyn E. Mcfarlane, William M. Bailey, Bei Zhang, John C. Gensel May 2021

Acute Inflammatory Profiles Differ With Sex And Age After Spinal Cord Injury, Andrew N. Stewart, John L. Lowe, Ethan P. Glaser, Caitlin A. Mott, Ryan K. Shahidehpour, Katelyn E. Mcfarlane, William M. Bailey, Bei Zhang, John C. Gensel

Physiology Faculty Publications

Background

Sex and age are emerging as influential variables that affect spinal cord injury (SCI) recovery. Despite a changing demographic towards older age at the time of SCI, the effects of sex or age on inflammation remain to be elucidated. This study determined the sex- and age-dependency of the innate immune response acutely after SCI.

Methods

Male and female mice of ages 4- and 14-month-old received T9 contusion SCI and the proportion of microglia, monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), and neutrophils surrounding the lesion were determined at 3- and 7-day post-injury (DPI) using flow cytometry. Cell counts of microglia and MDMs were ...


A Screen Of Fda-Approved Drugs Identifies Inhibitors Of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 4a3 (Ptp4a3 Or Prl-3), Dylan R. Rivas, Mark Vincent C. Dela Cerna, Caroline N. Smith, Shilpa Sampathi, Blaine G. Patty, Donghan Lee, Jessica S. Blackburn May 2021

A Screen Of Fda-Approved Drugs Identifies Inhibitors Of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 4a3 (Ptp4a3 Or Prl-3), Dylan R. Rivas, Mark Vincent C. Dela Cerna, Caroline N. Smith, Shilpa Sampathi, Blaine G. Patty, Donghan Lee, Jessica S. Blackburn

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Protein tyrosine phosphatase 4A3 (PTP4A3 or PRL-3) is highly expressed in a variety of cancers, where it promotes tumor cell migration and metastasis leading to poor prognosis. Despite its clinical significance, small molecule inhibitors of PRL-3 are lacking. Here, we screened 1443 FDA-approved drugs for their ability to inhibit the activity of the PRL phosphatase family. We identified five specific inhibitors for PRL-3 as well as one selective inhibitor of PRL-2. Additionally, we found nine drugs that broadly and significantly suppressed PRL activity. Two of these broad-spectrum PRL inhibitors, Salirasib and Candesartan, blocked PRL-3-induced migration in human embryonic kidney cells ...


Effects Of Social Determinants Of Health In Progression To Type 2 Diabetes, Folabi I. Ariganjoye May 2021

Effects Of Social Determinants Of Health In Progression To Type 2 Diabetes, Folabi I. Ariganjoye

Applied Research Projects

The prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes in the United States and around the world has increased faster than expected in the last 30 years. The economic burden this costs a nation can be astronomic both in terms of expense and loss in productivity. One-third of U.S. adults, 86 million people, have prediabetes. Effective management is needed that can reach these 86 million, and others at high risk, to reduce their progression to diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. After the literature review, there was not enough literature to support how these led to the progression to diabetes. The abundant literature is ...


Myeloid Arginase 1 Insufficiency Exacerbates Amyloid-Β Associated Neurodegenerative Pathways And Glial Signatures In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease: A Targeted Transcriptome Analysis, Chao Ma, Jerry B. Hunt, Andrii Kovalenko, Huimin Liang, Maj-Linda B. Selenica, Michael B. Orr, Bei Zhang, John C. Gensel, David J. Feola, Marcia N. Gordon, Dave Morgan, Paula C. Bickford, Daniel C. Lee May 2021

Myeloid Arginase 1 Insufficiency Exacerbates Amyloid-Β Associated Neurodegenerative Pathways And Glial Signatures In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease: A Targeted Transcriptome Analysis, Chao Ma, Jerry B. Hunt, Andrii Kovalenko, Huimin Liang, Maj-Linda B. Selenica, Michael B. Orr, Bei Zhang, John C. Gensel, David J. Feola, Marcia N. Gordon, Dave Morgan, Paula C. Bickford, Daniel C. Lee

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Brain myeloid cells, include infiltrating macrophages and resident microglia, play an essential role in responding to and inducing neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) implicate many AD casual and risk genes enriched in brain myeloid cells. Coordinated arginine metabolism through arginase 1 (Arg1) is critical for brain myeloid cells to perform biological functions, whereas dysregulated arginine metabolism disrupts them. Altered arginine metabolism is proposed as a new biomarker pathway for AD. We previously reported Arg1 deficiency in myeloid biased cells using lysozyme M (LysM) promoter-driven deletion worsened amyloidosis-related neuropathology and behavioral impairment. However, it ...


Rule Out Screening For Undiagnosed Dementia And Alzheimer’S Disease Using An Ehr Based Machine Learning Solution, Branum Stephan, David A. Julovich, Dustin Bracy, Jeff Nguyen May 2021

Rule Out Screening For Undiagnosed Dementia And Alzheimer’S Disease Using An Ehr Based Machine Learning Solution, Branum Stephan, David A. Julovich, Dustin Bracy, Jeff Nguyen

SMU Data Science Review

Abstract. Current detection methods for Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease include cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) markers and/or the use of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, both being high-cost, highly invasive testing methods. The need for low-cost, minimally invasive methods to prescreen individuals for cognitive impairment has been a challenge for many years. Today’s costs associated with an annual screen for all adults 65 and above using current methods (CSF, PET) reach well beyond trillions of dollars per year. Motivated by the limited accessibly and high costs, an alternative tool presented within this paper demonstrates an effective rule out ...


Understanding The Effect Of Adaptive Mutations On The Three-Dimensional Structure Of Rna, Justin Cook May 2021

Understanding The Effect Of Adaptive Mutations On The Three-Dimensional Structure Of Rna, Justin Cook

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are variations in the genome where one base pair can differ between individuals.1 SNPs occur throughout the genome and can correlate to a disease-state if they occur in a functional region of DNA.1According to the central dogma of molecular biology, any variation in the DNA sequence will have a direct effect on the RNA sequence and will potentially alter the identity or conformation of a protein product. A single RNA molecule, due to intramolecular base pairing, can acquire a plethora of 3-D conformations that are described by its structural ensemble. One SNP, rs12477830, which ...


Search For Palladin, An Actin-Associated Protein, In Pig Retinal Pigmented Epithelium And Its Role In Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Katrina Powell May 2021

Search For Palladin, An Actin-Associated Protein, In Pig Retinal Pigmented Epithelium And Its Role In Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Katrina Powell

Undergraduate Theses

This study investigates the expression of Palladin, a phosphoprotein product of the PALLD gene, in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). Palladin is an actin cross-linking protein and plays a role in cell adhesion and motility. Published reports have demonstrated that a down regulation of Palladin in colon cancer cells results in a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, causing the cells to lose their typical shape, become proliferative and migratory. This process is otherwise known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). A similar EMT phenomenon is observed when the RPE is exposed to the vitreous humor in patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). In ...


The Effect Of Polyunsaturated And Saturated Fatty Acids On Seizure Presence And Severity In A Cohort Of Subjects In An Epilepsy Monitoring Unit, Jana K. Wells May 2021

The Effect Of Polyunsaturated And Saturated Fatty Acids On Seizure Presence And Severity In A Cohort Of Subjects In An Epilepsy Monitoring Unit, Jana K. Wells

Theses & Dissertations

Ketogenic diet therapies (KDTs) have been used to treat epilepsy for nearly 100 years. Although effective, restrictive diet patterns and unknown impacts on long-term health outcomes often prevent their use as first-line therapy. To date, a distinct mechanism of action for KDTs has not been determined and evidence suggests fatty acids (FAs) may play a role in eliciting anti-seizure effects. This dissertation aimed to provide insights into the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on seizure presence and severity through the analysis of dietary intake in a cohort of patients admitted to an epilepsy monitoring ...


The Relationship Of Divine Forgiveness, Victim Forgiveness, And Physical Health Mediated By Stress, Lemuel Josiah C. Ragasajo May 2021

The Relationship Of Divine Forgiveness, Victim Forgiveness, And Physical Health Mediated By Stress, Lemuel Josiah C. Ragasajo

Senior Honors Theses

Though there is increasing evidence to support a relationship between forgiveness and physical health, certain subcategories of forgiveness, namely victim and divine forgiveness, are relatively understudied. This study seeks to add to the body of forgiveness literature by examining how divine and victim forgiveness relate to one’s physical health, and whether that relationship is mediated by stress. Furthermore, a literature review is included to detail how stress, a potential mediating variable between forgiveness and physical health, affects physical health. The results of the study reveal that victim forgiveness positively predicts physical health, but is not mediated by stress. In ...


Water Exchange Rate Across The Blood-Brain Barrier Is Associated With Csf Amyloid-Β 42 In Healthy Older Adults, Brian T. Gold, Xingfeng Shao, Tiffany L. Sudduth, Gregory A. Jicha, Donna M. Wilcock, Elayna R. Seago, Danny J. J. Wang May 2021

Water Exchange Rate Across The Blood-Brain Barrier Is Associated With Csf Amyloid-Β 42 In Healthy Older Adults, Brian T. Gold, Xingfeng Shao, Tiffany L. Sudduth, Gregory A. Jicha, Donna M. Wilcock, Elayna R. Seago, Danny J. J. Wang

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: We tested if water exchange across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), estimated with a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, is associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and neuropsychological function.

METHODS: Forty cognitively normal older adults (67–86 years old) were scanned with diffusion‐prepared, arterial spin labeling (DP‐ASL), which estimates water exchange rate across the BBB (kw). Participants also underwent CSF draw and neuropsychological testing. Multiple linear regression models were run with kw as a predictor of CSF concentrations and neuropsychological scores.

RESULTS: In multiple brain regions, BBB kw was positively associated ...


Implementation Of A National Telestroke Program: A Unit-Based Staff Education Inititative, Leigh Ann Raymond May 2021

Implementation Of A National Telestroke Program: A Unit-Based Staff Education Inititative, Leigh Ann Raymond

Master of Science in Nursing Scholarly Project

Abstract

A national telestroke program (NTSP) was implemented at a medical center in the latter half of 2020. Following two inpatient strokes, it was discovered that only 67 members of the 370-member inpatient nursing staff had been assigned the required online learning modules. A unit-based nursing educational initiative was developed utilizing available online learning modules to address the gaps in knowledge in recognizing acute stroke signs, symptoms and providing timely care. The educational initiative, however, supplemented and complimented the online learning modules by incorporating an in-person poster presentation on inpatient strokes that included a small group discussion of an inpatient ...


Simian Varicella Virus Antibody Response In Recombinant Svv-Siv Immunized Primates, Kiser Horne May 2021

Simian Varicella Virus Antibody Response In Recombinant Svv-Siv Immunized Primates, Kiser Horne

Honors Theses

Since its emergence in the early 1980’s HIV has killed approximately 32 million people, and continues to kill over half a million people every year. Significant research into potential vaccines and cures for HIV has been ongoing for decades but has been largely unsuccessful. One of the more promising technologies that is being investigated to develop an HIV vaccine is recombinant vaccine technology. The study presented in this thesis aims to use simian varicella virus (SVV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to act as a model for recombinant vaccine development. If a recombinant SVV-SIV vaccine can be proven safe ...


Sarcopenia Screening By Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (Rdns) In The United States (U.S.), Madison Marcom May 2021

Sarcopenia Screening By Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (Rdns) In The United States (U.S.), Madison Marcom

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sarcopenia is a disease of muscle wasting primarily seen in older adults. Although this term was first coined over three decades ago, there is a lack of consensus on a definition, screening criteria, and treatment protocol for sarcopenia. The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) in the United States (U.S.) screen for sarcopenia. Study participants were recruited through a randomized email list and included RDNs throughout the U.S. Respondents completed a survey questioning knowledge of sarcopenia, screening tools and company protocols in place, and the need and desire for sarcopenia education ...


Muting, Not Fragmentation, Of Functional Brain Networks Under General Anesthesia, Corson N. Areshenkoff, Joseph Y. Nashed, R. Matthew Hutchison, Melina Hutchison, Ron Levy, Douglas J. Cook, Ravi S. Menon, Stefan Everling, Jason P. Gallivan May 2021

Muting, Not Fragmentation, Of Functional Brain Networks Under General Anesthesia, Corson N. Areshenkoff, Joseph Y. Nashed, R. Matthew Hutchison, Melina Hutchison, Ron Levy, Douglas J. Cook, Ravi S. Menon, Stefan Everling, Jason P. Gallivan

Brain and Mind Institute Researchers' Publications

© 2021 Changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) under general anesthesia have been widely studied with the goal of identifying neural signatures of consciousness. This work has commonly revealed an apparent fragmentation of whole-brain network structure during unconsciousness, which has been interpreted as reflecting a break-down in connectivity and a disruption of the brain's ability to integrate information. Here we show, by studying rs-FC under varying depths of isoflurane-induced anesthesia in nonhuman primates, that this apparent fragmentation, rather than reflecting an actual change in network structure, can be simply explained as the result of a global reduction in FC. Specifically ...


The Migration Of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii From The Battlefields Of Iraq And Afghanistan To The Healthcare Facilities Of The Veterans Health Administration, Jeffery Rogers May 2021

The Migration Of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii From The Battlefields Of Iraq And Afghanistan To The Healthcare Facilities Of The Veterans Health Administration, Jeffery Rogers

Capstone Experience

Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) pose a great threat to health across the globe. That threat is also felt in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Wounded warriors returning home from the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan may have brought with them MDROs, such as the bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii, as they have transitioned from military service into the VHA facilities. This study investigates the interconnectedness of military service in the Department of Defense (DoD) and a lifetime of care at VHA through a longitudinal tracking of a linked cohort of combat veterans with battlefield injuries and subsequent MDR infections of A. baumannii. This ...


Temperature-Dependent Macrophage Activity In Rainbow Trout, Danica Mcgrevey May 2021

Temperature-Dependent Macrophage Activity In Rainbow Trout, Danica Mcgrevey

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fever is an essential component of the immune response. Fever enhances immune responses as well as creates an environment in which the body has advantages over pathogens. Macrophages are often the first cells that come in contact with pathogens, as they reside in tissues. They are important for their engulfment of pathogens that results in the digestion of the pathogen, but they also produce nitric oxide and cytokines that contribute to immune response in a variety of ways, including initiating adaptive immunity and directing the production and activity of other immune cells. We were curious about macrophages from other temperature ...


Non-Selective Primary Human Tumor Cell Line Generation From Surgical Resections To Be Paired With Flash Frozen And Paraffin Embedded Tissue: Advancements In Democratizing Translational Research Materials To Rural Institutions, Jennifer Hawkins, Rebecca Russell, Logan M. Lawrence, Amrita Valluri, Jessica Wellman, Krista Denning Apr 2021

Non-Selective Primary Human Tumor Cell Line Generation From Surgical Resections To Be Paired With Flash Frozen And Paraffin Embedded Tissue: Advancements In Democratizing Translational Research Materials To Rural Institutions, Jennifer Hawkins, Rebecca Russell, Logan M. Lawrence, Amrita Valluri, Jessica Wellman, Krista Denning

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Translational cancer research relies on the availability of human patient tissue demonstrating the specific disease process under investigation. Biobanks of human tissue have historically been and remain to date the primary access point for cancer research samples. Biorepositories routinely supply researchers with varying sample types for use in biomedical studies; most commonly formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, or fresh snap-frozen tissue. In conjunction with preserved tissue samples, viable tumor cell lines derived from patient tissue have emerged to be a new gold standard in cancer research particularly in drug discovery and functional prognostic assays. Tissue banks providing these samples are ...


Perivascular Adipose Tissue In Relation To Diet, Thermogenesis And Cardiovascular Health, Ginger Paquette, Caitlin Stieber, Ashely Soucy, Benjamin Tero, Lucy Liaw Apr 2021

Perivascular Adipose Tissue In Relation To Diet, Thermogenesis And Cardiovascular Health, Ginger Paquette, Caitlin Stieber, Ashely Soucy, Benjamin Tero, Lucy Liaw

Thinking Matters Symposium

Adipose tissue is a diverse and crucial component to vascular health due to its role in energy storage and heat production. The primary function of white adipose tissue (WAT) is energy storage while the function of mitochondria-rich brown adipose tissue (BAT) is heat production. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which surrounds blood vessels, contains both WAT and BAT adipocytes. Dietary calorie restriction is associated with increased lifespan with decreased adiposity. Increased prevalence of WAT-like PVAT, due to high-fat diets and obesity, leads to increased metabolic disfunction and cardiovascular-disease. We used a calorie-restriction model in C57BL6/J mice to test the hypothesis ...


Inherited Bone-Marrow Failure Syndrome, James Joseph Apr 2021

Inherited Bone-Marrow Failure Syndrome, James Joseph

Thinking Matters Symposium

The inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are heterogeneous group of rare genetic disorders characterized by bone marrow failure, congenital anomalies, and cancer predisposition. This includes disorders associated with pancytopenia, such as fanconi anemia and dyskeratosis congenita, as well as disorders with predominantly, but not exclusively, single lineage cytopenias. These syndromes are associated with mutations in 33 genes, and this has led to further understanding of hematopoiesis and how this is disrupted in patients with bone marrow failure. Other fundamental biological pathways were examined in patients, such as the DNA repair-fa/BRCA pathway. Fanconi anemia/ BRCA is a human tumor suppressor ...


Epigenome-Wide Association Study Of Kidney Function Identifies Trans-Ethnic And Ethnic-Specific Loci, Charles E. Breeze, Anna Batorsky, Mi Kyeong Lee, Mindy D. Szeto, Xiaoguang Xu, Daniel L. Mccartney, Rong Jiang, Amit Patki, Holly J. Kramer, James M. Eales, Laura Raffield, Leslie Lange, Ethan Lange, Peter Durda, Yongmei Liu, Russ P. Tracy, David Van Den Berg, Nhlbi Trans-Omics For Precision Medicine (Topmed) Consortium, Topmed Mesa Multi-Omics Working Group, Kathryn L. Evans, William E. Kraus, Donna K. Arnett Apr 2021

Epigenome-Wide Association Study Of Kidney Function Identifies Trans-Ethnic And Ethnic-Specific Loci, Charles E. Breeze, Anna Batorsky, Mi Kyeong Lee, Mindy D. Szeto, Xiaoguang Xu, Daniel L. Mccartney, Rong Jiang, Amit Patki, Holly J. Kramer, James M. Eales, Laura Raffield, Leslie Lange, Ethan Lange, Peter Durda, Yongmei Liu, Russ P. Tracy, David Van Den Berg, Nhlbi Trans-Omics For Precision Medicine (Topmed) Consortium, Topmed Mesa Multi-Omics Working Group, Kathryn L. Evans, William E. Kraus, Donna K. Arnett

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (DNAm) is associated with gene regulation and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function. Decreased eGFR is more common among US Hispanics and African Americans. The causes for this are poorly understood. We aimed to identify trans-ethnic and ethnic-specific differentially methylated positions (DMPs) associated with eGFR using an agnostic, genome-wide approach.

METHODS: The study included up to 5428 participants from multi-ethnic studies for discovery and 8109 participants for replication. We tested the associations between whole blood DNAm and eGFR using beta values from Illumina 450K or EPIC arrays. Ethnicity-stratified analyses were performed using linear ...


The Effects Of Progesterone Induced Blocking Factor And 17-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate On The Pathophysiology Of Preeclampsia, Kyleigh M. Comley Apr 2021

The Effects Of Progesterone Induced Blocking Factor And 17-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate On The Pathophysiology Of Preeclampsia, Kyleigh M. Comley

Honors Theses

Preeclampsia (PE) is responsible for about 20% of the 13 million preterm births each year worldwide, including 100,000 cases annually in the United States. Despite being a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity, the mechanisms of pathogenesis are still largely unknown. PE is progesterone deficient state characterized by hypertension, chronic immune activation, endothelial dysfunction and severe forms can lead to seizures. Treatment of seizures includes the administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) though not all PE patients are responsive, and it does not decrease PE-associated hypertension. To resolve these conditions, PE patients are delivered early thereby making PE the ...


The Effect Of Chronic Alcohol Consumption On Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage In Young Men, Emma Hamilton, Grant Hilliard Apr 2021

The Effect Of Chronic Alcohol Consumption On Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage In Young Men, Emma Hamilton, Grant Hilliard

Honors Theses

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on exercise-induced muscle damage of the knee extensors in young men. METHODS: Twenty-one males (age 21.9 ± 1.1 yr; weight 183.4 ± 27.6 lbs; height 174.0 ± 13.1 cm) performed 100 maximal eccentric contractions at 30°/sec of the knee extensors using their non-dominant leg. The isometric and isokinetic muscle strengths (60°/sec and 180°/sec) were measured pre-exercise and immediately, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, and 120 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured pre-exercise and 24 h, 48 ...