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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish Jan 2021

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


Neural Stem Cell Metabolic Changes In The Presence Of Interferon-Gamma, Dylan Mckibben Jan 2021

Neural Stem Cell Metabolic Changes In The Presence Of Interferon-Gamma, Dylan Mckibben

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Spinal cord injury results in significant disability and health care costs due to an inability of the mature central nervous system to regenerate. One potential therapy would be implantation of neural stem cells to the injury site and stimulation of their differentiation to mature neurons. Previous work has shown that the cytokine interferon-gamma can promote this process; however, the signaling pathways induced in neural stem cells have not been well-defined. This proposal examines neural stem cell metabolic responses to signaling induced by interferon-gamma. Two questions will be answered: i) What specific metabolic pathway is activated to guide neural stem cell ...


The Effects Of Moderate-Severe Plaque Psoriasis On Patient Well-Being And Prevention Of Flares, Glenn Devera Dec 2020

The Effects Of Moderate-Severe Plaque Psoriasis On Patient Well-Being And Prevention Of Flares, Glenn Devera

Nursing | Senior Theses

Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition that is indicated by red, patchy and scaly skin that can be painful when irritated. Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk for a number of chronic diseases. Despite the expansion of treatments for moderate-to-severe psoriasis over the last decade, patients may still find that treatment strategies are not as successful, leaving them dissatisfied with their treatments. A relationship built upon trust between the nurse and the patient diagnosed with psoriasis may serve to help ensure optimal care. A comprehensive literature review was performed and found that best practices for patient management need to ...


Apneic Oxygenation: An Adjunctive Therapy For Laryngoscopy During Anesthesia Induction, Yaro Hoffman Oct 2020

Apneic Oxygenation: An Adjunctive Therapy For Laryngoscopy During Anesthesia Induction, Yaro Hoffman

Doctoral Projects

Endotracheal intubation is an essential component within the skill set of anesthesia providers. Rapid arterial desaturation remains a primary risk factor during laryngoscopy and intubation. The risk for hypoxemia exists because during endotracheal intubation, patients are apneic or hypo-ventilating (Wong et al., 2017). Apneic oxygenation (AO) has been advocated to attenuate hypoxemia during endotracheal intubation (Pavlov et al., 2017).

The aim of this project was to assess for any knowledge deficits regarding AO among anesthesia providers and assess the willingness of these providers to include AO into their current practice. The project investigator conducted an education session involving the evidence-based ...


A Follow-Up Phone Call To Post-Operative Patients Using The Five A’S, Brittney Ochs May 2020

A Follow-Up Phone Call To Post-Operative Patients Using The Five A’S, Brittney Ochs

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

Abstract

Background: The 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health reported that 53 percent of people that misused pain relievers in the past year received them from a friend or relative. The NIDA describes that from 2002 to 2008 that drug abuse in service members went from 2% to 11%. Often patients are initially prescribed and introduced to opioid medication for acute pain. One such circumstance is in the perioperative period that could provide an opportunity to promote opioid-sparing techniques to reduce the exposure to opioids.

Purpose of Project: To assess discharge medication characteristics and reinforce discharge medication instructions ...


Table Of Contents May 2020

Table Of Contents

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Fall Prevention Assessment In The Intermediate Care Patient Population, Dawn Rose May 2020

Fall Prevention Assessment In The Intermediate Care Patient Population, Dawn Rose

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

Fall Prevention Assessment in the Intermediate Care Patient Population

Falls cause greater than 600,000 deaths per year and are the most common injury in people over 65 years of age. Fall prevention in the acute care setting has been identified as key goal in the most recent JCAHO review process. Falls on an intermediary care unit lead to an increased rate of morbidity, delayed discharge, and excess cost expenditure.

Even with appropriate evidence-based tools in place, Hospital A’s intermediate care unit, recorded an increased rate of falls; the highest rate in its health care system. An investigation identified ...


A Mathematical Model To Explore The Potential Of Combinations Of Adt And Immunotherapies, Johnna Barnaby May 2020

A Mathematical Model To Explore The Potential Of Combinations Of Adt And Immunotherapies, Johnna Barnaby

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Twice-Daily Doravirine Overcomes The Interaction Effect From Once-Weekly Rifapentine And Isoniazid In Healthy Volunteers., Edwin Lam, Joseph Schaefer, Richard Zheng, Tingting Zhan, Walter K. Kraft May 2020

Twice-Daily Doravirine Overcomes The Interaction Effect From Once-Weekly Rifapentine And Isoniazid In Healthy Volunteers., Edwin Lam, Joseph Schaefer, Richard Zheng, Tingting Zhan, Walter K. Kraft

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Faculty Papers

Doravirine (DOR) is a non‐nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus‐1 (HIV‐1). Its use in combination with rifapentine (RPT), an anti‐tuberculosis antibiotic, may reduce the exposure of DOR compromising viral suppression in those living with HIV‐1 co‐infected with tuberculosis. We conducted a prospective, phase I, open label, two‐period, fixed sequence, drug interaction study to evaluate the effect of once‐weekly RPT and isoniazid (INH) on the pharmacokinetics of DOR in healthy volunteers. DOR 100 mg was administered alone twice‐daily for 4 days in period 1. In period ...


Similac Special Care And Elecare Cause Neonatal Gut Injury In Mice, Karishma Rao, Heather L. Menden, Wei Yu, Inamul Haque, Susana Chavez-Bueno, Alain C. Cuna, Shahid Umar, Venkatesh Sampath May 2020

Similac Special Care And Elecare Cause Neonatal Gut Injury In Mice, Karishma Rao, Heather L. Menden, Wei Yu, Inamul Haque, Susana Chavez-Bueno, Alain C. Cuna, Shahid Umar, Venkatesh Sampath

Research Days

No abstract provided.


Clinical Validation And Diagnostic Rate/Outcomes Of A Dual Molecular Diagnostic Assay For Myotonic Dystrophy 1., Maxime Cadieux-Dion, Isabelle Thiffault, Midhat S. Farooqi, Joseph Alaimo May 2020

Clinical Validation And Diagnostic Rate/Outcomes Of A Dual Molecular Diagnostic Assay For Myotonic Dystrophy 1., Maxime Cadieux-Dion, Isabelle Thiffault, Midhat S. Farooqi, Joseph Alaimo

Research Days

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Central Ace2 And Nrf2 In Sympatho-Excitation: Responses To Central Angiotensin Ii, Anyun Ma May 2020

The Role Of Central Ace2 And Nrf2 In Sympatho-Excitation: Responses To Central Angiotensin Ii, Anyun Ma

Theses & Dissertations

Sympatho-excitation is a key characteristic in cardiovascular diseases such as chronic heart failure (CHF) and primary Hypertension (HTN). Evidence suggests that increased sympathetic tone is closely related to activation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system (RAAS) in the central nervous system. An underlying mechanism for sympatho-excitation is thought to be oxidative stress resulting from Angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT1R) activation. Over the past several decades, pharmacological targeting of components of the RAAS have been used as standard therapy in CHF and HTN. However, additional therapeutic strategies are necessary to control these diseases. Oxidative stress is regulated, in part, by the ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Manganese Porphyrin Compounds In The Prevention Of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis, Shashank Shrishrimal May 2020

Molecular Mechanisms Of Manganese Porphyrin Compounds In The Prevention Of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis, Shashank Shrishrimal

Theses & Dissertations

Radiation therapy is frequently used as a treatment strategy for prostate cancer patients, which leads to several side effects due to damage to health tissue around the tumor and the development of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). Manganese (III) meso-tetrakis (N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl) porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP or T2E or BMX-010) and other similar manganese porphyrin compounds that scavenge superoxide molecules have been demonstrated to be effective radioprotectors and prevent the development of RIF. However, understanding of the radioprotective molecular pathway associated with these compounds remains limited. Recent RNA-sequencing data from our laboratory revealed that MnTE-2-PyP treatment may activate the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 ...


Identifying Determinants Of Target Specificity In Two Related Bacterial Peptide Toxins, Andrew D. Holmes May 2020

Identifying Determinants Of Target Specificity In Two Related Bacterial Peptide Toxins, Andrew D. Holmes

Honors Thesis

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems were originally identified as two-component systems ensuring the stable inheritance of plasmids in bacterial populations. Recently, they have been identified on bacterial chromosomes where their functions remain mostly undefined. The par locus of E. faecalis plasmid pAD1 (parpAD1) was the first TA system defined in a Gram-positive bacterium and a homolog encoded on the E. faecalis chromosome (parEF0409) was later described. Related loci numbering in the hundreds have been identified throughout Gram-positive bacteria based on homology to the toxin of the system, Fst, and similarities in genetic organization and regulation. Despite their similar sequences, over-expression ...


Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Metastasize To Lung And Bone Exhibit Different Metabolic Preferences, Mollie Merrell May 2020

Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Metastasize To Lung And Bone Exhibit Different Metabolic Preferences, Mollie Merrell

Honors Theses

Metastasis is responsible for the majority of cancer related deaths. In breast cancer the lungs and bones are the major sites for metastasis. Previous studies used the metastatic aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer line to isolate sub-clones that preferentially invade the lungs (LM line) or bones (BoM line). While genes associated with the tissue specific metastasis have been identified, it is unknown if metabolic adaptations contribute to the growth of the LM and BoM lines in their respective organs. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the LM and BoM lines exhibit differences in glucose and glutamine ...


Correlation Of Inflammation In Arthritis With The Myelination In The Brain, Anna Spears May 2020

Correlation Of Inflammation In Arthritis With The Myelination In The Brain, Anna Spears

Honors Theses

This study was conducted to investigate whether the influence of arthritis has an effect on the cerebral white matter. The project was performed at the South Oxford Campus, where diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data was obtained from the Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample (NKI- RS). Image processing was conducted using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Software Library in which we obtained raw data to formulate Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC), Axial Diffusivity (AD), Radial Diffusivity (RD), and Fractional Anisotropy. A one way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to determine the significant difference between the history of arthritis on each of ...


Discovery Of Distinct Mechanisms Underlying The Relationship Between Drug Taking And Predisposing Behaviors, Tyler A. Roy May 2020

Discovery Of Distinct Mechanisms Underlying The Relationship Between Drug Taking And Predisposing Behaviors, Tyler A. Roy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Drug addiction is a heritable disease characterized by compulsive drug use. The biological mechanisms driving addiction remain largely unknown.1 Previous studies show shared genetic mechanisms underlying addiction risk phenotypes such as anxiety, depression, and novelty/sensation seeking.2,3 Therefore, high-throughput behavioral screening of these traits in single gene knockout mice can allow for the rapid detection of addiction risk candidate genes and mechanisms. Many of these traits are represented in the Knock-Out Mouse Program (KOMP) phenotyping pipeline. Of the initial two hundred twenty-one strains screened in this program, we tested nineteen phenodeviant knock-out mouse strains with C57BL/6NJ ...


Computer Based Learning Module: Neuraxial And Peripheral Nerve Blocks, Altan Halici May 2020

Computer Based Learning Module: Neuraxial And Peripheral Nerve Blocks, Altan Halici

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects

Neuraxial and peripheral nerve blocks (PNB) have been present for many years, but recently these pain management techniques are gaining popularity as an alternative to the use of opioids. Neuraxial and PNB reduce the opioid usage during and after the surgery and improve postoperative recovery in terms of pain relief, pain-related sleep disruption, and reduction of side effects, such as nausea and vomiting. Conversely, inadequate pain management after surgery may delay surgical recovery, decreased patient satisfaction, increased length of hospital stay, increased readmissions and healthcare costs (Patacsil, McAuliffe, Feyh, & Sigmon, 2016).

Perioperative nurses are instrumental during the post-operative period in ...


How Can We Stop Cancer?, Joseph R. Current May 2020

How Can We Stop Cancer?, Joseph R. Current

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

Cancer is a disease that humans have been struggling to combat for centuries. It originates from the accumulation of several mutations over the life of a cell that causes it to evade cell death and multiply rapidly. It can affect any tissue in the body and can spread to other parts of the body through metastasis. Cancer comes in numerous shapes and sizes with different levels of aggression, growth speeds, and health risks. Many treatments for cancer exist today, three of the most popular being surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, which can be used in combinations with other treatments to ...


Single Cell Rna Profiling Reveals Adipocyte To Macrophage Signaling Sufficient To Enhance Thermogenesis, Felipe Henriques, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Mark Kelly, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Karl D. Bellve, Leslie Rowland, Batuhan Yenilmez, Shreya Kumar, Yetao Wang, Jeremy Luban, Michael P. Czech May 2020

Single Cell Rna Profiling Reveals Adipocyte To Macrophage Signaling Sufficient To Enhance Thermogenesis, Felipe Henriques, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Mark Kelly, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Karl D. Bellve, Leslie Rowland, Batuhan Yenilmez, Shreya Kumar, Yetao Wang, Jeremy Luban, Michael P. Czech

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The “browning” of inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) through increased abundance of thermogenic beige/brite adipocytes is induced by cold exposure and many other perturbations in association with beneficial systemic metabolic effects. Adipose browning is reported to require activation of sympathetic nerve fibers (SNF), aided by alternately activated macrophages within iWAT. Here we demonstrate the first example of a non-cell autonomous pathway for iWAT browning that is fully independent of SNF activity. Thus, the strong induction of thermogenic adipocytes prompted by deletion of adipocyte fatty acid synthase (iAdFASNKO mice) was unaffected by denervation or the deletion of SNF modulator Neuregulin-4 ...


The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes May 2020

The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative neurological illness characterized by the deterioration of brain regions implicated in memory and cognitive function. While researchers have yet to find a cure or effective treatment, they have gained a better understanding of its pathology and development. Through years of neuroscience research, scientists have discovered much of what happens in the brain during Alzheimer’s disease onset and how this causes its symptoms; many hypotheses regarding this aspect of the illness involve temporal lobe atrophy, neurofibrillary tangles, and amyloid plaques. Although Alzheimer’s disease affects millions of people every day, it seems that most ...


Does The Us Have The Worst Maternal Mortality Rate?, Elizabeth Adale Ellis May 2020

Does The Us Have The Worst Maternal Mortality Rate?, Elizabeth Adale Ellis

2020 Symposium Posters

The maternal mortality rate in America is currently very high and is increasing every year. Currently the maternal mortality rate in America is 16.9 deaths for every 100,000 births. America is ranked 138 out of 184 in the worlds maternal mortality rate scale. This is seemingly very high seeing as we are a developed first world country and we have the information to help lower this rate. In this study it will review maternal mortalities rates worldwide and compare maternal practices in other countries to Americas maternal practices. There are many documents and scholarly works on maternal mortality ...


Analysis Of The Soil Lead Contamination Issue Of South Chattanooga, Tesros Cherian May 2020

Analysis Of The Soil Lead Contamination Issue Of South Chattanooga, Tesros Cherian

Honors Theses

Childhood lead poisoning is an ongoing health threat despite actions taken by governmental bodies to remove lead from gasoline, paint, and other various household objects in which lead is found. In South Chattanooga specifically, lead has been found in the soil at such a level it is considered a public health threat, especially to children under the age of six. This situation has caused the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to name the South Chattanooga area as a Superfund site known as the Southside Chattanooga Lead Superfund site. This designation has resulted in multiple community meetings between EPA officials and Chattanooga ...


Alternative Polyadenylation Modulates Expression Of Pro-Fibrotic Proteins And Contributes To Lung Fibrosis, Junsuk Ko May 2020

Alternative Polyadenylation Modulates Expression Of Pro-Fibrotic Proteins And Contributes To Lung Fibrosis, Junsuk Ko

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease which affects about 5 to 8 million individuals in the world. Despite the high prevalence, there is currently no cure for IPF, and the cause of this disease is still unclear. Our laboratory and collaborators have shown that nudix hydrolase 21 (NUDT21, which is also known as cleavage factor 25, CFIm25) is a key regulator of alternative polyadenylation (APA). NUDT21 depletion causes 3’UTR shortening via APA leading to enhanced mRNA stability and protein translation. This NUDT21 reduction promotes tumor growth in glioblastoma by enhancing expression of oncogenes. Cancer and IPF ...


The Effects Of Zoledronate And Sleep Deprivation On The Distal Femur Trabecular Thickness Of Ovariectomized Rats: Application Of Different Statistical Methods, Erin Nolte May 2020

The Effects Of Zoledronate And Sleep Deprivation On The Distal Femur Trabecular Thickness Of Ovariectomized Rats: Application Of Different Statistical Methods, Erin Nolte

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Osteoporosis is a disease that causes the degradation of bone, leading to an increased risk of fracture. 1 in 3 women over the age of 50 will be affected by Osteoporosis. This study aims to understand how bone is affected by sleep deprivation in estrogen-deficient rats, and how Zoledronate might negate the inimical effects of sleep deprivation on bone. As bone mineral density (BMD) is a crude evaluation of the architectural changes seen in Osteoporosis, trabecular thickness may serve as a better single evaluation of bone health. 31 Wistar female rats were ovariectomized and separated into 4 random groups. The ...


Plant-Based Diet: How It Affects Health, Sarah Marsland May 2020

Plant-Based Diet: How It Affects Health, Sarah Marsland

Senior Honors Projects

This research project aims to investigate the relationship between plant-based dieting and overall health, specifically the prevention and reversal of chronic disease. Two subjects committed to eating a plant-based diet comprised of primarily vegetables, fruits, whole grains and non-processed foods for six weeks. Before beginning, they were asked about their current health status, including a complete health history, and their knowledge of plant-based eating. Throughout the research period, the subjects shared what they were eating, challenges they faced, and any benefits they noticed. Upon completion of the diet, they answered questions about their experience. With this information, the researcher was ...


The Impact Of Stress On Diet, Sleep, And Exercise Amongst College Students, Jessica Rizzo May 2020

The Impact Of Stress On Diet, Sleep, And Exercise Amongst College Students, Jessica Rizzo

Senior Honors Projects

Stress is something that everyone faces in their lifetime and has an everlasting impact on their health. College students face high levels of stress throughout the semester, but how is that impacting their behavior? I conducted a survey alongside Dr. Melanson, a professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, to see just how college students are reacting to stress. The survey was circulated to different departments and classes to achieve a widespread collection of data. The survey remained completely anonymous and posed questions about eating, exercise, and sleep habits, along with questions on demographics and stress levels. Our ...


Effects Of Nicotinamide Riboside And Beta-Hydroxybutyrate On C. Elegans Lifespan, Jeffery Peters May 2020

Effects Of Nicotinamide Riboside And Beta-Hydroxybutyrate On C. Elegans Lifespan, Jeffery Peters

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The nicotinamide riboside (NR) form of vitamin B3and the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) are two of the most promising natural compounds yet identified for the treatment of aging and aging-related diseases. Forms of vitamin B3are precursors for the synthesis of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(H)) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(H)). In aged cells levels of NAD+decline, decreasing metabolism and decreasing activity of protective sirtuin protein deacetylases. In aged cells NR, but not more common forms of vitamin B3, boost NAD+levels. BHB is naturally produced by the body when individuals fast ...


Baclofen-Induced Changes In The Resting Brain Modulate Smoking Cue Reactivity: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study In Cigarette Smokers, Ariel Ketcherside, Kanchana Jagannathan, Sudipto Dolui, Nathan Hager, Nathaniel Spilka, Chaela Nutor, Hengyi Rao, Teresa Franklin, Reagan Wetherill May 2020

Baclofen-Induced Changes In The Resting Brain Modulate Smoking Cue Reactivity: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study In Cigarette Smokers, Ariel Ketcherside, Kanchana Jagannathan, Sudipto Dolui, Nathan Hager, Nathaniel Spilka, Chaela Nutor, Hengyi Rao, Teresa Franklin, Reagan Wetherill

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objective: Smoking cue-(SC) elicited craving can lead to relapse in SC-vulnerable individuals. Thus, identifying treatments that target SC-elicited craving is a top research priority. Reduced drug cue neural activity is associated with recovery and is marked by a profile of greater tonic (resting) activation in executive control regions, and increased connectivity between executive and salience regions. Evidence suggests the GABA-B agonist baclofen can reduce drug cue-elicited neural activity, potentially through its actions on the resting brain. Based on the literature, we hypothesize that baclofen’s effects in the resting brain can predict its effects during SC exposure.

Methods: In ...


Investigating The Interactions Between Individual Calmodulin And Hiv-1 Protein Domains, Riley K. Kendall, Jerry Larue May 2020

Investigating The Interactions Between Individual Calmodulin And Hiv-1 Protein Domains, Riley K. Kendall, Jerry Larue

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The World Health Organization found that 37.9 million people were living with HIV by the end of 2018. HIV is a virus that weakens the immune system through viral replication and the destruction of CD4+ T-cells, which are white blood cells that detect infection and make antibodies. A cure for HIV has not yet been discovered. HIV-1 contains a Gag polyprotein which regulates the stages of viral replication. Previous studies suggest that the myristoyl group of a matrix protein peptide found on the Gag polyprotein, MA, forms a complex with a calcium-binding, multifunctional regulatory protein called Calmodulin (CaM). CaM ...