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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey Dec 2018

Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacillus able to colonize a wide variety of environments. In the human host, P. aeruginosa can establish an acute infection or persist and create a chronic infection. P. aeruginosa is able to establish a niche and persist in human hosts by using a wide array of virulence factors used for: movement, killing host cells, and evading immune cells and antibiotics. Understanding virulence factors and their regulation has proved to be an important means of combating the morbidity and mortality of P. aeruginosa as well as the ever-increasing threat of drug resistance. By targeting virulence factors ...


Levels Of Par-1 Kinase Determine The Localization Of Bruchpilot At The Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction Synapses., Kara R. Barber, Martin Hruska, Keegan M. Bush, Jade A. Martinez, Hong Fei, Irwin B. Levitan, Matthew B. Dalva, Yogesh P. Wairkar Dec 2018

Levels Of Par-1 Kinase Determine The Localization Of Bruchpilot At The Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction Synapses., Kara R. Barber, Martin Hruska, Keegan M. Bush, Jade A. Martinez, Hong Fei, Irwin B. Levitan, Matthew B. Dalva, Yogesh P. Wairkar

Farber Institute for Neurosciences Faculty Papers

Functional synaptic networks are compromised in many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. While the mechanisms of axonal transport and localization of synaptic vesicles and mitochondria are relatively well studied, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the localization of proteins that localize to active zones. Recent finding suggests that mechanisms involved in transporting proteins destined to active zones are distinct from those that transport synaptic vesicles or mitochondria. Here we report that localization of BRP-an essential active zone scaffolding protein in Drosophila, depends on the precise balance of neuronal Par-1 kinase. Disruption of Par-1 levels leads to excess accumulation of ...


The Study Of Alcoholic Liver Diseases, Seun Emmanuel Owoseni Dec 2018

The Study Of Alcoholic Liver Diseases, Seun Emmanuel Owoseni

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Excessive alcohol consumption is the primary contributing factor in the development of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). Nicotine contained in tobacco is a major addictive alkaloid, which enhances the effects of ALDs. The major enzyme involved in nicotine metabolism is cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) which is produced in the liver. Alcohol can stimulate the CYP2A5 enzyme. We utilized cyp2a5-/- knockout mice in this research to examine the effects of CYP2A5.

The cyp2a5-/- mice and wild-type (WT) mice were fed liquid ethanol diet with or without nicotine to induce ALD. Nicotine enhancing effects on ALD were observed in WT mice but not ...


Non-Neutralizing Antibodies Elicited By Recombinant Lassa-Rabies Vaccine Are Critical For Protection Against Lassa Fever., Tiago Abreu-Mota, Katie R. Hagen, Kurt Cooper, Peter B. Jahrling, Gene Tan, Christoph Wirblich, Reed F. Johnson, Matthias J. Schnell Dec 2018

Non-Neutralizing Antibodies Elicited By Recombinant Lassa-Rabies Vaccine Are Critical For Protection Against Lassa Fever., Tiago Abreu-Mota, Katie R. Hagen, Kurt Cooper, Peter B. Jahrling, Gene Tan, Christoph Wirblich, Reed F. Johnson, Matthias J. Schnell

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Lassa fever (LF), caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is a viral hemorrhagic fever for which no approved vaccine or potent antiviral treatment is available. LF is a WHO priority disease and, together with rabies, a major health burden in West Africa. Here we present the development and characterization of an inactivated recombinant LASV and rabies vaccine candidate (LASSARAB) that expresses a codon-optimized LASV glycoprotein (coGPC) and is adjuvanted by a TLR-4 agonist (GLA-SE). LASSARAB elicits lasting humoral response against LASV and RABV in both mouse and guinea pig models, and it protects both guinea pigs and mice against LF. We ...


Sumo-Mediated Regulation Of Nlrp3 Modulates Inflammasome Activity., Rachael Barry, Sidonie Wicky John, Gianmaria Liccardi, Tencho Tenev, Isabel Jaco, Chih-Hong Chen, Justin Choi, Paulina Kasperkiewicz, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Emad S Alnemri, Marcin Drag, Yuan Chen, Pascal Meier Dec 2018

Sumo-Mediated Regulation Of Nlrp3 Modulates Inflammasome Activity., Rachael Barry, Sidonie Wicky John, Gianmaria Liccardi, Tencho Tenev, Isabel Jaco, Chih-Hong Chen, Justin Choi, Paulina Kasperkiewicz, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Emad S Alnemri, Marcin Drag, Yuan Chen, Pascal Meier

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The NLRP3 inflammasome responds to infection and tissue damage, and rapidly escalates the intensity of inflammation by activating interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18 and cell death by pyroptosis. How the NLRP3 inflammasome is negatively regulated is poorly understood. Here we show that NLRP3 inflammasome activation is suppressed by sumoylation. NLRP3 is sumoylated by the SUMO E3-ligase MAPL, and stimulation-dependent NLRP3 desumoylation by the SUMO-specific proteases SENP6 and SENP7 promotes NLRP3 activation. Defective NLRP3 sumoylation, either by NLRP3 mutation of SUMO acceptor lysines or depletion of MAPL, results in enhanced caspase-1 activation and IL-1β release. Conversely, depletion of SENP7 suppresses NLRP3-dependent ASC ...


Intratumoral Sting Activation Sensitizes Poorly Immunogenic Cancers To Checkpoint Blockade Immunotherapy, Casey Ager Dec 2018

Intratumoral Sting Activation Sensitizes Poorly Immunogenic Cancers To Checkpoint Blockade Immunotherapy, Casey Ager

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Unprecedented durable tumor regression can be achieved in patients with checkpoint blockade immunotherapy, yet these responses are rare and are not observed in all tumor types. Castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are two common lethal cancers that remain refractory to checkpoint blockade, requiring development of new therapeutic approaches to promote responsivity in patients with these diseases. Both CRPC and PDAC are characterized by an immunosuppressive tumor milieu rich in cells of the myeloid lineage, which regulate T cell activity in many ways independent of the coinhibitory receptor axis. We investigated whether activation of acute inflammatory signaling ...


Scientific Proceedings Of The Texas Children’S Hospital’S 16th Session Of The Advanced Quality Improvement And Patient Safety Program, Arjun M. Dangre Bds, Mph, Kelly Wallin Ms, Rn, Chse, Gertrude A. Leidich Mba, Rn, Angelo P. Giardino Md, Phd Nov 2018

Scientific Proceedings Of The Texas Children’S Hospital’S 16th Session Of The Advanced Quality Improvement And Patient Safety Program, Arjun M. Dangre Bds, Mph, Kelly Wallin Ms, Rn, Chse, Gertrude A. Leidich Mba, Rn, Angelo P. Giardino Md, Phd

Journal of Nursing & Interprofessional Leadership in Quality & Safety

The Texas Children’s Hospital’s Advanced Quality Improvement and Patient Safety (AQI) Program is a six month mixed didactic and experiential learning experience designed to improve patient care, lower costs, change the culture, and develop quality leaders. As a part of AQI program participants are grouped into teams and each team completes a healthcare related Quality Improvement (QI) project. Each project demonstrates use of various QI tools including process maps, fishbone diagrams, and key driver diagrams. The projects use the IHI ‘Model for Improvement’ as the primary QI methodology to achieve their aim. Three or more Plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles ...


An Academia-Industry Partnership For Planning And Executing A Community-Based Feeding Study, Cara B. Ebbeling, Gloria L. Klein, Julia M W Wong, Lisa Bielek, Patricia K. Louto, David S. Ludwig, Ralph G. Eddy, Lauren Stone, Paul R. Lakin, Megan Sandman, Courtenay Devlin, Linda Seger-Shippee, Dina Wiroll Nov 2018

An Academia-Industry Partnership For Planning And Executing A Community-Based Feeding Study, Cara B. Ebbeling, Gloria L. Klein, Julia M W Wong, Lisa Bielek, Patricia K. Louto, David S. Ludwig, Ralph G. Eddy, Lauren Stone, Paul R. Lakin, Megan Sandman, Courtenay Devlin, Linda Seger-Shippee, Dina Wiroll

(FS)2 Scholarly Publications

A research team from Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School conducted a community-based feeding study in collaboration with Framingham State University (FSU) and Sodexo, the food service contractor at FSU. The study was a randomized controlled trial, implemented on the FSU campus. For the final year of the study, a satellite feeding site was established at Assabet Valley Regional Technical High School. The purpose of the study was to assess the biological effects of different macronutrient diets. An academia-industry partnership was developed to overcome common challenges associated with hospital-based feeding studies. Benefits included the following: a study site ...


Shanghai, China: “Nontraditional” Traditional Chinese Medicine, Joshua Martin Nov 2018

Shanghai, China: “Nontraditional” Traditional Chinese Medicine, Joshua Martin

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Joshua Martin is a second-year PharmD student in the Purdue University College of Pharmacy. Within the College of Pharmacy, he is the president-elect of the Industry Pharmacist Organization (IPhO), is on the Orientation Steering Committee for newly admitted PharmD students, and preforms nanoparticle research within the Industrial and Physical Pharmacy sector of the College. He hopes to pursue a career in the pharmaceutical industry where he can positively impact patients on a global scale. Josh comes from a family of Boilermakers and avidly supports the Black and Gold. In this article, he describes his experience studying at Shanghai University of ...


Multi-Scale Peripheral Vasculopathy With Metabolic Syndrome, Kent Lemaster Nov 2018

Multi-Scale Peripheral Vasculopathy With Metabolic Syndrome, Kent Lemaster

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The combination of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, in combination with a prothrombotic and proinflammatory state, is a condition termed Metabolic Syndrome (METS). Twenty percent of the adult population is afflicted with METS which increases the risk of type-2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Further, the presence of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is tightly coupled with METS which is a perfusion-demand mismatch of blood supply to active skeletal muscle resulting in painful claudication and a late-stage potential for amputation. The underlying contributors of METS associated micro-vasculopathies in the skeletal muscle, their impact on ...


Distinct Role Of Il-27 In Immature And Lps-Induced Mature Dendritic Cell-Mediated Development Of Cd4, Fang Zhou, Guang-Xian Zhang, A. M. Rostami Nov 2018

Distinct Role Of Il-27 In Immature And Lps-Induced Mature Dendritic Cell-Mediated Development Of Cd4, Fang Zhou, Guang-Xian Zhang, A. M. Rostami

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

Interleukin-27 (IL-27) plays an important role in regulation of anti-inflammatory responses and autoimmunity; however, the molecular mechanisms of IL-27 in modulation of immune tolerance and autoimmunity have not been fully elucidated. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in regulating immune responses mediated by innate and adaptive immune systems, but regulatory mechanisms of DCs in CD4+ T cell-mediated immune responses have not yet been elucidated. Here we show that IL-27 treated mature DCs induced by LPS inhibit immune tolerance mediated by LPS-stimulated DCs. IL-27 treatment facilitates development of the CD4+ CD127+3G11+ regulatory T cell subset in vitro and in ...


Development Of A Pd-L1 Pet Imaging Biomarker, Caleb Jack Bridgwater Nov 2018

Development Of A Pd-L1 Pet Imaging Biomarker, Caleb Jack Bridgwater

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Immunotherapy strategies are very promising treatments for cancer patients. Specifically, Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy focusing on the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway shows long-lasting positive results in many cancer patients. Unfortunately, not all the patients can benefit from this highly effective treatment. Hence, there is a great need for predictive biomarkers. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining has been used as a way of predicting patient response, yet shows many problems. For example, IHC utilizes an invasive biopsy and sample fixing, which creates an incomplete and delayed picture of the patient’s biochemistry and the tumor microenvironment, consequently ignoring metastases.

The purpose of this study ...


Initiating Patient Discussions About Oocyte Cryopreservation: Attitudes Of Obstetrics And Gynaecology Resident Physicians, Brennan Peterson, C. Gordon, Julia K. Boehm, M. C. Inhorn, P. Patrizio Nov 2018

Initiating Patient Discussions About Oocyte Cryopreservation: Attitudes Of Obstetrics And Gynaecology Resident Physicians, Brennan Peterson, C. Gordon, Julia K. Boehm, M. C. Inhorn, P. Patrizio

Marriage and Family Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

This study examined the attitudes of obstetrics and gynaecology (OB/GYN) resident physicians to initiating patient discussions regarding medical and elective oocyte cryopreservation (OC). The study used a cross-sectional online survey of OB/GYN medical residents in the USA, sampled from residency programmes approved by the American Council for Graduate Medical Education. In total, 208 medical residents, distributed evenly between postgraduate years 1–4, participated in the study. Residents' fertility knowledge and attitudes to initiating discussions about OC were gathered. Forty percent (n = 83) believed that OB/GYN residents should initiate discussions about OC with patients (initiators), while 60% (n ...


31 - The Critical Role Of Atad3a In The Estrogen Signaling Pathway In Breast Cancer Cells, Parth Thakkar Nov 2018

31 - The Critical Role Of Atad3a In The Estrogen Signaling Pathway In Breast Cancer Cells, Parth Thakkar

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Abstract

Breast cancer is the leading malignancy and leading cause of cancer-related death in women globally. The greatest barrier to a treatment is the incomplete understanding of mechanisms underlying molecular regulators whose function is cellular adaptation to estrogen. One such enzyme, ATAD3A, a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial enzyme, has been brought under this lab’s scrutiny. The role of ATAD3A in breast cancer progression is largely unknown but it has been shown to be a crucial mediator in promoting cell cycle progression. The two objectives of this project were: to determine whether the ATAd3A is an Estrogen Receptor-α target (ERα) and to ...


Nox1-Evoked Ros Causes Fibrosis In Caerulein-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis Through The P38/Akt Pathway, Ananya Chakraborty Nov 2018

Nox1-Evoked Ros Causes Fibrosis In Caerulein-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis Through The P38/Akt Pathway, Ananya Chakraborty

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Inflammation of the pancreas can occur in two distinct forms, either in the acute form (AP) or the chronic form (CP). AP is a short-term inflammation that develops suddenly. By contrast, CP manifests from a long-term inflammation, which results in significant fibrosis of the pancreatic tissue and permanent organ damage. This is because of pro-inflammatory mediators, including reactive oxygen species (ROS). One of the sources of ROS is NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes, which transfer electrons across biological membranes to reduce oxygen to superoxide. The rodent genome encodes four Nox enzymes: Nox1-4. We found that Nox1 is implicated in pancreatic fibrogenesis ...


21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, Jessica Nix Nov 2018

21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, Jessica Nix

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

CIGARETTE SMOKE EXPOSURE UPREGULATION OF PGE₂ EXPRESSION IN THE BLADDER

Jessica Nix, Jane McHowat, Shannon Kispert

Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death and disease in the United States. Despite known risks, 42.1 million Americans continue to smoke, making research into tobacco-related pathologies relevant and necessary. We previously discovered that cigarette smoke exposure leads to tumor progression in the breast via platelet activating factor (PAF) and other phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) metabolic pathways. These results led us to examine the PLA2 metabolite, prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂). We observed the expression of PGE₂ in mouse bladder and human heart ...


42 - Evaluating Erk Inhibitor Sensitivity In Hras-Mutant Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Da'jhnae Gambrell-Sanders Nov 2018

42 - Evaluating Erk Inhibitor Sensitivity In Hras-Mutant Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Da'jhnae Gambrell-Sanders

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a significant public health problem and the prognosis is very poor. There are limited treatments. RAS is a membrane-associated GTP binding protein that is a well-established driver for cancer progression. One approach to target RAS is to inhibit the activity of its downstream effectors. Of many pathways that is downstream of RAS, a critical pathway in other cancers is the MAPK pathway. Activated RAS binds to RAF which in turns activates MEK1 and MEK2 protein kinases. Ultimately, the MEK1/2 protein kinases phosphorylate ERK1/2 which control critical cell processes. SCH772984 is ...


Robust Genome Editing With Short Single-Stranded And Long, Partially Single-Stranded Dna Donors In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Gregoriy A. Dokshin, Krishna S. Ghanta, Katherine M. Piscopo, Craig C. Mello Nov 2018

Robust Genome Editing With Short Single-Stranded And Long, Partially Single-Stranded Dna Donors In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Gregoriy A. Dokshin, Krishna S. Ghanta, Katherine M. Piscopo, Craig C. Mello

Open Access Articles

CRISPR-based genome editing using ribonucleoprotein complexes and synthetic single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN) donors can be highly effective. However, reproducibility can vary, and precise, targeted integration of longer constructs-such as green fluorescent protein tags remains challenging in many systems. Here, we describe a streamlined and optimized editing protocol for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans We demonstrate its efficacy, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness by affinity-tagging 14 Argonaute proteins in C. elegans using ssODN donors. In addition, we describe a novel PCR-based, partially single-stranded, "hybrid" donor design that yields high efficiency editing with large (kilobase-scale) constructs. We use these hybrid donors to introduce fluorescent protein tags ...


Stem Cell Generated Β-Cells: A Possible Solution To The Growing Problem Of Type 1 Diabetes, Danielle Rae Steffen Nov 2018

Stem Cell Generated Β-Cells: A Possible Solution To The Growing Problem Of Type 1 Diabetes, Danielle Rae Steffen

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Type 1 diabetes is a growing problem throughout the world. At this time, there is no functional cure, only various treatment options. However, in recent years there has been a significant increase in both the quantity and quality of research into potential cures for type 1 diabetes. This has led to a variety of new possibilities, the most promising of which are β-cells generated from the patient’s own stem cells.


Cell Specific Control Of The Pallidostriatal Pathway, Shubha Verma '19 Nov 2018

Cell Specific Control Of The Pallidostriatal Pathway, Shubha Verma '19

Student Publications & Research

Parkinson’s Disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the basal ganglia. The main cause for Parkinson’s Disease is the depletion of dopamine, a neurotransmitter. The basal ganglia contains four major nuclei: the substantia nigra, the subthalamic nucleus, the external globus pallidus, and the striatum. These nuclei communicate with each other by the use of neurons.


Download Entire Issue: Gibbon Surgical Review, Volume 1, Issue 2, 2018 Nov 2018

Download Entire Issue: Gibbon Surgical Review, Volume 1, Issue 2, 2018

Gibbon Surgical Review

Download Entire Issue: Gibbon Surgical Review, Volume 1, Number 2, 2018


Potential Role Of Csf Cytokine Profiles In Discriminating Infectious From Non-Infectious Cns Disorders., Danielle Fortuna, D. Craig Hooper, Amity L. Roberts, Larry A. Harshyne, Michelle Nagurney, Mark T. Curtis Oct 2018

Potential Role Of Csf Cytokine Profiles In Discriminating Infectious From Non-Infectious Cns Disorders., Danielle Fortuna, D. Craig Hooper, Amity L. Roberts, Larry A. Harshyne, Michelle Nagurney, Mark T. Curtis

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Current laboratory testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) does not consistently discriminate between different central nervous system (CNS) disease states. Rapidly distinguishing CNS infections from other brain and spinal cord disorders that share a similar clinical presentation is critical. New approaches focusing on aspects of disease biology, such as immune response profiles that can have stimulus-specific attributes, may be helpful. We undertook this preliminary proof-of-concept study using multiplex ELISA to measure CSF cytokine levels in various CNS disorders (infections, autoimmune/demyelinating diseases, lymphomas, and gliomas) to determine the potential utility of cytokine patterns in differentiating CNS infections from other CNS diseases ...


Alpha-Amino-Beta-Carboxy-Muconate-Semialdehyde Decarboxylase Controls Dietary Niacin Requirements For Nad+ Synthesis, Laura Palzer, Jessica J. Bader, Frances Angel, Megan Witzel, Sydney Blaser, Alexis Mcneil, Miles K. Wandersee, N. Adrian Leu, Christopher J. Lengner, Clara E. Cho, Kevin D. Welch, James B. Kirkland, Ralph G. Meyer, Mirella L. Meyer-Ficca Oct 2018

Alpha-Amino-Beta-Carboxy-Muconate-Semialdehyde Decarboxylase Controls Dietary Niacin Requirements For Nad+ Synthesis, Laura Palzer, Jessica J. Bader, Frances Angel, Megan Witzel, Sydney Blaser, Alexis Mcneil, Miles K. Wandersee, N. Adrian Leu, Christopher J. Lengner, Clara E. Cho, Kevin D. Welch, James B. Kirkland, Ralph G. Meyer, Mirella L. Meyer-Ficca

Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

NAD+ is essential for redox reactions in energy metabolism and necessary for DNA repair and epigenetic modification. Humans require sufficient amounts of dietary niacin (nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and nicotinamide riboside) for adequate NAD+ synthesis. In contrast, mice easily generate sufficient NAD+ solely from tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway. We show that transgenic mice with inducible expression of human alpha-amino-beta-carboxy-muconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD) become niacin dependent similar to humans when ACMSD expression is high. On niacin-free diets, these acquired niacin dependency (ANDY) mice developed reversible, mild-to-severe NAD+ deficiency, depending on the nutrient composition of the diet. NAD deficiency in mice contributed to ...


Quantitative Analysis Of Three-Dimensional Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Using Image Quality Phantoms, Rudy Baronette Oct 2018

Quantitative Analysis Of Three-Dimensional Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Using Image Quality Phantoms, Rudy Baronette

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In the clinical setting, weight-bearing static 2D radiographic imaging and supine 3D radiographic imaging modalities are used to evaluate radiographic changes such as, joint space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and osteophyte formation. These respective imaging modalities cannot distinguish between tissues with similar densities (2D imaging), and do not accurately represent functional joint loading (supine 3D imaging). Recent advances in cone-beam CT (CBCT) have allowed for scanner designs that can obtain weight-bearing 3D volumetric scans. The purpose of this thesis was to analyze, design, and implement advanced imaging techniques to quantify image quality parameters of reconstructed image volumes generated by a commercially-available ...


Role Of The Fractalkine Receptor In Cns Autoimmune Inflammation: New Approach Utilizing A Mouse Model Expressing The Human Cx3cr1, Sandra M. Cardona, Sangwon V. Kim, Kaira A. Church, Vanessa O. Torres, Ian A. Cleary, Andrew S. Mendiola, Stephen P. Saville, Stephanie S. Watowich, Jan Parker-Thornburg, Alejandro Soto-Ospina, Pedronel Araque, Richard M. Ransohoff, Astrid E. Cardona Oct 2018

Role Of The Fractalkine Receptor In Cns Autoimmune Inflammation: New Approach Utilizing A Mouse Model Expressing The Human Cx3cr1, Sandra M. Cardona, Sangwon V. Kim, Kaira A. Church, Vanessa O. Torres, Ian A. Cleary, Andrew S. Mendiola, Stephen P. Saville, Stephanie S. Watowich, Jan Parker-Thornburg, Alejandro Soto-Ospina, Pedronel Araque, Richard M. Ransohoff, Astrid E. Cardona

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) is the leading cause of non-traumatic neurological disability in young adults. Immune mediated destruction of myelin and oligodendrocytes is considered the primary pathology of MS, but progressive axonal loss is the major cause of neurological disability. In an effort to understand microglia function during CNS inflammation, our laboratory focuses on the fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling as a regulator of microglia neurotoxicity in various models of neurodegeneration. Fractalkine (FKN) is a transmembrane chemokine expressed in the CNS by neurons and signals through its unique receptor CX3CR1 present in microglia ...


Validation Of A Hyperspectral Nirs Method For Measuring Tissue Oxygen Saturation, Matthew Kewin Oct 2018

Validation Of A Hyperspectral Nirs Method For Measuring Tissue Oxygen Saturation, Matthew Kewin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Brain injury during preterm infancy can cause serious intellectual and behavioral disabilities, as such, measurements of cerebral health are needed to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of these injuries. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is considered ideal for this purpose because it is non-invasive and provides a continuous measure of tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), a key marker of cerebral health. Current commercial NIRS systems have considerable variability between devices and between infants restricting them to monitoring trends. Time-resolved (TR) NIRS is considered the gold standard in biomedical optics for quantifying tissue optical properties, but the technology is more complex ...


Effects Of Maternal Protein Restriction On The Pulmonary Surfactant System During The Early Life And Adulthood, Reza Khazaee Oct 2018

Effects Of Maternal Protein Restriction On The Pulmonary Surfactant System During The Early Life And Adulthood, Reza Khazaee

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined by low birth weight and contributes to a variety of adult-onset diseases with different severities between males and females. However, the effects of FGR on the pulmonary surfactant are not fully elucidated. In this thesis, first, we investigated the FGR effects on the lung function and the surfactant system at the early postnatal life. It was hypothesized that FGR contributes to alterations of lung mechanics and the surfactant system during the neonatal period. Second, we assessed the FGR effects on the surfactant system in response to sepsis in adulthood. It was hypothesized that FGR ...


Student And Faculty Perceptions Of Live Synchronous Distance Education For Allied Health Students Following Program Expansion To A Rural Campus, Betsy J. Becker, Kelsey Rutt, Allyson Huntley, Harlan Sayles, Kim Michael Oct 2018

Student And Faculty Perceptions Of Live Synchronous Distance Education For Allied Health Students Following Program Expansion To A Rural Campus, Betsy J. Becker, Kelsey Rutt, Allyson Huntley, Harlan Sayles, Kim Michael

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Background & Purpose: Distance education (DE) is a means to meet allied health workforce needs in rural locations where healthcare worker shortages are apparent. Five allied health programs were expanded to a rural campus teaching synchronously using distance education technology. The purpose of this convergent parallel mixed methods study was to explore perceptions of allied health students and faculty at two campus locations.

Methods: Quantitative and qualitative information were collected through a survey of students and faculty (physical therapy, physician assistant, and medical imaging [diagnostic medical sonography, radiography, magnetic resonance imaging] programs). Both campuses served as live and distance sites depending on instructor location and area of content expertise. For example, morning courses may be taught live from one campus, and afternoon classes taught live from the other campus. Only one program, physical therapy, offered labs by distance education. Response distributions were compared for questions by campus using Cochran-Armitage trend tests and analyzed de-identified qualitative comments using constant comparisons to establish themes.

Results: Student (n=121) and faculty (n=19) mostly agreed distance education technology was effective for teaching and learning. Significant differences were found in student opinions about receiving a similar educational experience between the two campuses. More students at the Main campus somewhat or strongly disagreed (n=34, 37%) it was similar compared to the Rural campus (n= 5, 17%, p=0.024). There were no comments specifically related to the physical therapy lab experience. Open-ended comment themes included training, purposeful engagement of both campus locations, and setting clear expectations.

Conclusions: Although differences in learning experiences exist between the main and rural campus locations; the results indicated using distance education technology is an effective means to deliver the curriculum. Both students and faculty commented about the lack of experience with the educational technology before implementation. Synchronous, distance education offers the opportunity for program expansion and effective delivery of curriculum content. Using the results of this study can enhance future education in allied health professions using synchronous distance education technology.


Proteomic Profiling Of Serum Derived Exosomes From Prostate Cancer Patients, David Turay Oct 2018

Proteomic Profiling Of Serum Derived Exosomes From Prostate Cancer Patients, David Turay

David Turay, MD

Touted among the major achievements in the diagnosis and management of Prostate cancer (PCa) in the past few decades has been, the dramatic decline of men with advanced/metastatic PCa at diagnosis coupled with a significant improvement ( >90%) in the five and ten year survival rates of the disease. Non-palpable PCa (potentially clinically treatable disease) now accounts for 70-80% of all newly diagnosed cases of PCa. Preceding these changes by about a decade was the introduction of Prostatic Specific Antigen (PSA) into clinical practice; first as biomarker for monitoring response to therapy and subsequently as a complementary screening tool. It ...


Vancomycin Delays Clindamycin-Induced Fatality In The Hamster Model Of Clostridioides [Clostridium] Difficile Infection, Amelia E. Fox-King, Chrisabelle Mefferd, Jacqueline R. Phan, Nancy O. Nou, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund Oct 2018

Vancomycin Delays Clindamycin-Induced Fatality In The Hamster Model Of Clostridioides [Clostridium] Difficile Infection, Amelia E. Fox-King, Chrisabelle Mefferd, Jacqueline R. Phan, Nancy O. Nou, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund

LSAMP Poster Presentations

Antibiotics can leave the host gut microbiome susceptible to Clostridioides [Clostridium] difficile colonization and lethal toxin production. For instance, clindamycin-induced susceptibility to C. difficile infection (CDI) results in rapid fatality in hamster models, yet vancomycin has been shown to offer increased survival in hamsters challenged with C. difficile. We aim to develop an antibiotic treatment that will facilitate CDI susceptibility without prompt fatality in hamster models. An antibiotic regimen starting with a continuous vancomycin treatment along with a single clindamycin dosage is thought to reduce the major disruption in the indigenous gut microbiome and prevent clindamycin-induced death. Quantitative polymerase chain ...