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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Design For Success: Identifying A Process For Transitioning To An Intensive Online Course Delivery Model In Health Professions Education., Paige L Mcdonald, Kenneth J Harwood, Joan T Butler, Karen S Schlumpf, Carson W Eschmann, Daniela Drago Dec 2018

Design For Success: Identifying A Process For Transitioning To An Intensive Online Course Delivery Model In Health Professions Education., Paige L Mcdonald, Kenneth J Harwood, Joan T Butler, Karen S Schlumpf, Carson W Eschmann, Daniela Drago

Clinical Research and Leadership Faculty Publications

Intensive courses (ICs), or accelerated courses, are gaining popularity in medical and health professions education, particularly as programs adopt e-learning models to negotiate challenges of flexibility, space, cost, and time. In 2014, the Department of Clinical Research and Leadership (CRL) at the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences began the process of transitioning two online 15-week graduate programs to an IC model. Within a year, a third program also transitioned to this model. A literature review yielded little guidance on the process of transitioning from 15-week, traditional models of delivery to IC models, particularly in online learning ...


Dual-Display Laparoscopic Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging For Real-Time Surgical Assistance, Jaepyeong Cha, Corey Zheng, Lung Wai Lau Nov 2018

Dual-Display Laparoscopic Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging For Real-Time Surgical Assistance, Jaepyeong Cha, Corey Zheng, Lung Wai Lau

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) utilizes the speckle pattern of a laser to determine the blood flow in tissues. The current approaches for its use in a clinical setting require a camera system with a laser source on a separate optical axis making it unsuitable for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). With blood flow visualization, bowel viability, for example, can be determined. Thus, LSCI can be a valuable tool in gastrointestinal surgery. In this work, we develop the first-of-its-kind dual-display laparoscopic vision system integrating LSCI with a commercially available 10mm rigid laparoscope where the laser has the same optical axis as ...


Protecting Science At Federal Agencies: How Congress Can Help, Jacobs Institute Of Women’S Health, The George Washington University, Climate Science Legal Defense Fund, Democracy Forward, Environmental Integrity Project, Environmental Protection Network, Government Accountability Project, Greenpeace, National Federation Of Federal Employees, National Partnership For Women & Families, Power To Decide, Project On Government Oversight, Union Of Concerned Scientists Nov 2018

Protecting Science At Federal Agencies: How Congress Can Help, Jacobs Institute Of Women’S Health, The George Washington University, Climate Science Legal Defense Fund, Democracy Forward, Environmental Integrity Project, Environmental Protection Network, Government Accountability Project, Greenpeace, National Federation Of Federal Employees, National Partnership For Women & Families, Power To Decide, Project On Government Oversight, Union Of Concerned Scientists

Jacobs Institute of Women's Health

No abstract provided.


Gw Nursing, Fall 2018, George Washington University, School Of Nursing Oct 2018

Gw Nursing, Fall 2018, George Washington University, School Of Nursing

GW Nursing Magazine

No abstract provided.


Himmelfarb Headlines - September/October 2018, George Washington University, Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library Sep 2018

Himmelfarb Headlines - September/October 2018, George Washington University, Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library

Himmelfarb Headlines (2009 - present)

News and information about Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library of interest to users.


Atherosclerosis In Subjects Newly Diagnosed With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection., Tatiana V Kirichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Tatiana E Shimonova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Dmitri Sviridov, Igor A Sobenin, Alexey I Mazus, Alexander N Orekhov, Michael I Bukrinsky Aug 2018

Atherosclerosis In Subjects Newly Diagnosed With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection., Tatiana V Kirichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Tatiana E Shimonova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Dmitri Sviridov, Igor A Sobenin, Alexey I Mazus, Alexander N Orekhov, Michael I Bukrinsky

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

HIV infection is associated with the increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), even in patients successfully treated with the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, the relationship between HIV, cART, and pathogenesis of CVD remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, in HIV-infected subjects receiving or not receiving cART. One hundred nine newly diagnosed HIV-infected subjects and one hundred nine uninfected age-matched controls (all males) without the history of CVD, hypertension, or diabetes were recruited into the present study. Cross-sectional analysis at baseline (BL) showed significantly increased levels of triglycerides ...


Ascertainment Of The Estimated Excess Mortality From Hurricane Maria In Puerto Rico, Carlos Santos-Burgoa, Ann Goldman, Elizabeth Andrade, Nicole Barrett, Uriyoan Colon-Ramos, Mark Edberg, Alejandra Garcia-Meza, Lynn Goldman, Amira Roess, John Sandberg, Scott Zeger Aug 2018

Ascertainment Of The Estimated Excess Mortality From Hurricane Maria In Puerto Rico, Carlos Santos-Burgoa, Ann Goldman, Elizabeth Andrade, Nicole Barrett, Uriyoan Colon-Ramos, Mark Edberg, Alejandra Garcia-Meza, Lynn Goldman, Amira Roess, John Sandberg, Scott Zeger

Global Health Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of Cardiomems Heart Failure Device, Danielle Moe, Msn, Rn Aug 2018

Evaluation Of Cardiomems Heart Failure Device, Danielle Moe, Msn, Rn

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects

Background: Heart failure (HF) is a chronic condition where the heart cannot pump enough blood to adequately oxygenate cells. The CardioMEMS HF device is implanted into the pulmonary artery (PA) allowing practitioners to monitor pressures remotely and prescribe interventions. Objectives: The primary purpose of this project was to determine if CardioMEMS is an effective intervention in the reduction of hospital admissions, emergency department (ED), and clinic visits for HF patients. The secondary purpose was to determine if the quality of life (QOL) and exercise tolerance was improved post-implant. Methods: The author conducted a retrospective chart review by accessing previously compiled ...


Impact Of Timing Of Influenza Vaccination In Pregnancy On Transplacental Antibody Transfer, Influenza Incidence, And Birth Outcomes: A Randomized Trial In Rural Nepal., Joanne Katz, Janet A Englund, Mark C Steinhoff, Subarna K Khatry, Laxman Shrestha, Jane Kuypers, Luke C Mullany, Helen Y Chu, Steven C Leclerq, Naoko Kozuki, James M Tielsch Jul 2018

Impact Of Timing Of Influenza Vaccination In Pregnancy On Transplacental Antibody Transfer, Influenza Incidence, And Birth Outcomes: A Randomized Trial In Rural Nepal., Joanne Katz, Janet A Englund, Mark C Steinhoff, Subarna K Khatry, Laxman Shrestha, Jane Kuypers, Luke C Mullany, Helen Y Chu, Steven C Leclerq, Naoko Kozuki, James M Tielsch

Global Health Faculty Publications

Background: Maternal influenza vaccination protects mothers and their infants in low resource settings, but little is known about whether the protection varies by gestational age at vaccination.

Methods: Women of childbearing age in rural southern Nepal were surveilled for pregnancy, consented and randomized to receive maternal influenza vaccination or placebo, with randomization stratified on gestational age (17-25 or 26-34 weeks). Enrollment occurred in 2 annual cohorts, and vaccinations occurred from April 2011 through September 2013.

Results: In sum, 3693 women consented and enrolled, resulting in 3646 live births. Although cord blood antibody titers and the rise in maternal titers were ...


Results From A 78-Week, Single-Arm, Open-Label Phase 2 Study To Evaluate Ux007 In Pediatric And Adult Patients With Severe Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders (Lc-Faod)., Jerry Vockley, Barbara Burton, Gerard T Berry, Nicola Longo, John Phillips, Pranoot Tanpaiboon, +Several Additional Authors Jul 2018

Results From A 78-Week, Single-Arm, Open-Label Phase 2 Study To Evaluate Ux007 In Pediatric And Adult Patients With Severe Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders (Lc-Faod)., Jerry Vockley, Barbara Burton, Gerard T Berry, Nicola Longo, John Phillips, Pranoot Tanpaiboon, +Several Additional Authors

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders (LC-FAOD) are rare disorders characterized by acute crises of energy metabolism and severe energy deficiency that may present with cardiomyopathy, hypoglycemia, and/or rhabdomyolysis, which can lead to frequent hospitalizations and early death. An open-label Phase 2 study evaluated the efficacy of UX007, an investigational odd-carbon medium-chain triglyceride, in 29 subjects with severe LC-FAOD. UX007 was administered over 78 weeks at a target dose of 25-35% total daily caloric intake (mean 27.5%). The frequency and duration of major clinical events (hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and emergency home interventions due to rhabdomyolysis, hypoglycemia, and cardiomyopathy ...


Frequency Of Cd19, Qianzi Zhao, Lawrence K Jung Jul 2018

Frequency Of Cd19, Qianzi Zhao, Lawrence K Jung

Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: To understand the relationship between regulatory B cells (Bregs) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), we analyzed the percentages of Bregs and their function in peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) of JIA patients.

METHODS: Twenty-one JIA patients and 11 children with growing pain but without known rheumatic diseases as controls were included. The B cell phenotype and intracellular production of IL-10 of Bregs were assessed by flow cytometry. Mononuclear cells from PB and SF were stimulated to produce IL-10 in vitro for the identification of IL-10- producing regulatory B cells.

RESULTS: The percentage of CD24

CONCLUSIONS: The inability ...


Atypical Presentation Of Obstructed Hemivagina And Ipsilateral Renal Anomaly, Christopher Grant, Christopher E. Bayne, N. Kern, Craig A. Peters Jul 2018

Atypical Presentation Of Obstructed Hemivagina And Ipsilateral Renal Anomaly, Christopher Grant, Christopher E. Bayne, N. Kern, Craig A. Peters

Urology Faculty Publications

Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome, otherwise known as obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly (OHVIRA), is a rare Müllerian anomalyconsisting of uterine didelphys, hemivaginal septum, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Patients often present at the onset of menarche with abdominal pain and a pelvic mass from an obstructed hemivagina. We report a child who presented with a febrile urinary tract infection and upon further workup was found to have OHVIRA.


Exploring Standardized Patients’ Perspectives On Working With Medical Students, Samantha Starr, Margaret M. Plack, Karen Lewis, Benjamin Blatt Jul 2018

Exploring Standardized Patients’ Perspectives On Working With Medical Students, Samantha Starr, Margaret M. Plack, Karen Lewis, Benjamin Blatt

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Little is known about how working with emerging medical professionals affects Standardized Patients’ (SPs’) professional identities, yet understanding the SP-medical student interaction could be useful for screening SPs, supporting SP professional identity formation, and bridging the SP and medical student cultures. This project provides the unique perspective of SPs involved in the growth of medical students into physicians.

Qualitative methods were used to understand the SPs’ perspectives. Two researchers, without evaluative relationships with the SPs, conducted 2 one-hour focus group interviews (n=3; n=9) using a semi-structured interview protocol. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers independently analyzed ...


Opioid Administration And Prescribing In Older Adults In U.S. Emergency Departments (2005-2015)., Erin M Marra, Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Peter Mullins, Jesse M Pines Jul 2018

Opioid Administration And Prescribing In Older Adults In U.S. Emergency Departments (2005-2015)., Erin M Marra, Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Peter Mullins, Jesse M Pines

Emergency Medicine Faculty Publications

Introduction: We assess trends in opioid administration and prescribing from 2005-2015 in older adults in United States (U.S.) emergency departments (ED).

Methods: We analyzed data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) survey from 2005 to 2015. ED visits for painful conditions were selected and stratified by age (18-64, 65-74, 75-84, ≥ 85 years). We analyzed trends in opioid administration in the ED and prescribing at discharge to encounters ≥ 65 and assessed predictors of use using survey-weighted chi-square tests and logistic regression. Trends in the use of five commonly prescribed opioids were also explored.

Results: Opioid administration in ...


Gw Nursing, Summer 2018, George Washington University, School Of Nursing Jul 2018

Gw Nursing, Summer 2018, George Washington University, School Of Nursing

GW Nursing Magazine

No abstract provided.


Contextualization Of Psychological Treatments For Government Health Systems In Low-Resource Settings: Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy For Caregivers Of Children With Nodding Syndrome In Uganda., Byamah B Mutamba, Brandon A Kohrt, James Okello, Janet Nakigudde, Bernard Opar, Seggane Musisi, William Bazeyo, Joop De Jong Jun 2018

Contextualization Of Psychological Treatments For Government Health Systems In Low-Resource Settings: Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy For Caregivers Of Children With Nodding Syndrome In Uganda., Byamah B Mutamba, Brandon A Kohrt, James Okello, Janet Nakigudde, Bernard Opar, Seggane Musisi, William Bazeyo, Joop De Jong

Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the effectiveness of psychological treatments in low- and middle-income countries is increasing. However, there is a lack of systematic approaches to guide implementation in government health systems. The objective of this study was to address this gap by employing the Replicating Effective Programs (REP) framework to guide contextualization of a psychological treatment in the Uganda public health system for caregivers of children affected by nodding syndrome, a neuropsychiatric disorder endemic to Sub-Saharan Africa associated with high morbidity and disability.

METHODS: To contextualize a psychological treatment, we followed the four components of the REP framework: pre-conditions, pre-implementation, implementation ...


High-Risk Advanced Maternal Age And High Parity Pregnancy: Tackling A Neglected Need Through Formative Research And Action., Khadidiatou Ndiaye, Erin Portillo, Dieneba Ouedraogo, Allison Mobley, Stella Babalola Jun 2018

High-Risk Advanced Maternal Age And High Parity Pregnancy: Tackling A Neglected Need Through Formative Research And Action., Khadidiatou Ndiaye, Erin Portillo, Dieneba Ouedraogo, Allison Mobley, Stella Babalola

Global Health Faculty Publications

Pregnancy among women of advanced maternal age (those 35 years or older) or among women of high parity (those having had 5 or more births) is linked to maternal and infant mortality. Yet little is known about the drivers of these pregnancies as they are often neglected in existing family planning and reproductive health programs. To better understand the context in which advanced maternal age and high parity pregnancies occur and the acceptability of discussing associated pregnancy risks, the Health Communication Capacity Collaborative (HC3) conducted formative qualitative research between January and March 2015 on the perception and determinants of such ...


The Role Of Communities In Mental Health Care In Low- And Middle-Income Countries: A Meta-Review Of Components And Competencies., Brandon A Kohrt, Laura Asher, Anvita Bhardwaj, Mina Fazel, Mark J D Jordans, Byamah B Mutamba, Abhijit Nadkarni, Gloria A Pedersen, Daisy R Singla, Vikram Patel Jun 2018

The Role Of Communities In Mental Health Care In Low- And Middle-Income Countries: A Meta-Review Of Components And Competencies., Brandon A Kohrt, Laura Asher, Anvita Bhardwaj, Mina Fazel, Mark J D Jordans, Byamah B Mutamba, Abhijit Nadkarni, Gloria A Pedersen, Daisy R Singla, Vikram Patel

Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Faculty Publications

Abstract

Community-based mental health services are emphasized in the World Health Organization’s Mental Health Action Plan, the World Bank’s Disease Control Priorities, and the Action Plan of the World Psychiatric Association. There is increasing evidence for effectiveness of mental health interventions delivered by non-specialists in community platforms in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). However, the role of community components has yet to be summarized. Our objective was to map community interventions in LMIC, identify competencies for community-based providers, and highlight research gaps. Using a review-of-reviews strategy, we identified 23 reviews for the narrative synthesis. Motivations to employ community ...


Emerging Cellular And Molecular Strategies For Enhancing Central Nervous System (Cns) Remyelination., Mohammad Abu-Rub, Robert H Miller Jun 2018

Emerging Cellular And Molecular Strategies For Enhancing Central Nervous System (Cns) Remyelination., Mohammad Abu-Rub, Robert H Miller

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Myelination is critical for the normal functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) in vertebrates. Conditions in which the development of myelin is perturbed result in severely compromised individuals often with shorter lifespans, while loss of myelin in the adult results in a variety of functional deficits. Although some form of spontaneous remyelination often takes place, the repair process as a whole often fails. Several lines of evidence suggest it is feasible to develop strategies that enhance the capacity of the CNS to undergo remyelination and potentially reverse functional deficits. Such strategies include cellular therapies using either neural or mesenchymal ...


Tgf-Β Sustains Tumor Progression Through Biochemical And Mechanical Signal Transduction., Robert L Furler, Douglas F Nixon, Christine A Brantner, Anastas Popratiloff, Christel H Uittenbogaart Jun 2018

Tgf-Β Sustains Tumor Progression Through Biochemical And Mechanical Signal Transduction., Robert L Furler, Douglas F Nixon, Christine A Brantner, Anastas Popratiloff, Christel H Uittenbogaart

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling transduces immunosuppressive biochemical and mechanical signals in the tumor microenvironment. In addition to canonical SMAD transcription factor signaling, TGF-β can promote tumor growth and survival by inhibiting proinflammatory signaling and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. In this article, we review how TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) activation lies at the intersection of proinflammatory signaling by immune receptors and anti-inflammatory signaling by TGF-β receptors. Additionally, we discuss the role of TGF-β in the mechanobiology of cancer. Understanding how TGF-β dampens proinflammatory responses and induces pro-survival mechanical signals throughout cancer development is critical for designing therapeutics that ...


Economic Evaluation Of Patient Navigation Programs In Colorectal Cancer Care, A Systematic Review., Chloé Gervès-Pinquié, Anne Girault, Serena Phillips, Sarah Raskin, Mandi Pratt-Chapman Jun 2018

Economic Evaluation Of Patient Navigation Programs In Colorectal Cancer Care, A Systematic Review., Chloé Gervès-Pinquié, Anne Girault, Serena Phillips, Sarah Raskin, Mandi Pratt-Chapman

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Patient navigation has expanded as a promising approach to improve cancer care coordination and patient adherence. This paper addresses the need to identify the evidence on the economic impact of patient navigation in colorectal cancer, following the Health Economic Evaluation Publication Guidelines. Articles indexed in Medline, Cochrane, CINAHL, and Web of Science between January 2000 and March 2017 were analyzed. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The quality assessment of the included studies was based on the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist. Inclusion criteria ...


Sources And Fates Of Carbamyl Phosphate: A Labile Energy-Rich Molecule With Multiple Facets., Dashuang Shi, Ljubica Caldovic, Mendel Tuchman Jun 2018

Sources And Fates Of Carbamyl Phosphate: A Labile Energy-Rich Molecule With Multiple Facets., Dashuang Shi, Ljubica Caldovic, Mendel Tuchman

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

Carbamyl phosphate (CP) is well-known as an essential intermediate of pyrimidine and arginine/urea biosynthesis. Chemically, CP can be easily synthesized from dihydrogen phosphate and cyanate. Enzymatically, CP can be synthesized using three different classes of enzymes: (1) ATP-grasp fold protein based carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS); (2) Amino-acid kinase fold carbamate kinase (CK)-like CPS (anabolic CK or aCK); and (3) Catabolic transcarbamylase. The first class of CPS can be further divided into three different types of CPS as CPS I, CPS II, and CPS III depending on the usage of ammonium or glutamine as its nitrogen source, and whether


Lung Cancer Risk And Low (≤50 Μg/L) Drinking Water Arsenic Levels For Us Counties (2009⁻2013)-A Negative Association., Steven H Lamm, Isabella J Boroje, Hamid Ferdosi, Jaeil Ahn Jun 2018

Lung Cancer Risk And Low (≤50 Μg/L) Drinking Water Arsenic Levels For Us Counties (2009⁻2013)-A Negative Association., Steven H Lamm, Isabella J Boroje, Hamid Ferdosi, Jaeil Ahn

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

While epidemiologic studies clearly demonstrate drinking water with high levels of arsenic as a significant risk factor for lung cancer, the evidence at low levels (≤50 μg/L) is uncertain. Therefore, we have conducted an ecological analysis of recent lung cancer incidence for US counties with a groundwater supply of <50 μg/L, the historical limit for both the EPA and WHO. Data sources used included USGS for arsenic exposure, NCI for lung cancer outcome, and CDC and US Census Bureau forcovariates. Poisson log-linear models were conducted for male, female, and total populations using for exposure median county arsenic level, maximum arsenic level ≤50 μg/L, and ≥80% population groundwater dependency. Statistically significant negative associations were found in each of the six models in which the exposure was limited to those who had major exposure (≥80% dependency) to low-levels of arsenic (≤50 μg/L). This is the first large ecological study of lung cancer risk from drinking water arsenic levels that specifically examined the dose-response slope for populations whose exposure was below the historical limit of ≤50 μg/L. The models for each of the three populations (total; male; female) demonstrated an association that is both negative and statistically significant.


A Qualitative Study Examining The Benefits And Challenges Of Incorporating Patient-Reported Outcome Substance Use And Mental Health Questionnaires Into Clinical Practice To Improve Outcomes On The Hiv Care Continuum., Anne K Monroe, Sarah M Jabour, Sebastian Peña, Jeanne C Keruly, Richard D Moore, Geetanjali Chander, Kristin A Riekert Jun 2018

A Qualitative Study Examining The Benefits And Challenges Of Incorporating Patient-Reported Outcome Substance Use And Mental Health Questionnaires Into Clinical Practice To Improve Outcomes On The Hiv Care Continuum., Anne K Monroe, Sarah M Jabour, Sebastian Peña, Jeanne C Keruly, Richard D Moore, Geetanjali Chander, Kristin A Riekert

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Inadequate identification and treatment of substance use (SU) and mental health (MH) disorders hinders retention in HIV care. The objective of this study was to elicit stakeholder input on integration of SU/MH screening using computer-assisted patient-reported outcomes (PROs) into clinical practice.

METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with HIV-positive patients who self-reported SU/MH symptoms on a computer-assisted PROs (n = 19) and HIV primary care providers (n = 11) recruited from an urban academic HIV clinic. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. We iteratively developed codes and organized key themes using editing style analysis.

RESULTS: Two themes emerged: (1) Honest Disclosure ...


Ultrasound-Guided Introital Drainage Of Pyometrocolpos, I Kim, Ranjith Vellody, Hans G. Pohl, Karun Sharma, Kabir Yadav Jun 2018

Ultrasound-Guided Introital Drainage Of Pyometrocolpos, I Kim, Ranjith Vellody, Hans G. Pohl, Karun Sharma, Kabir Yadav

Radiology Faculty Publications

Pyometrocolpos can be caused by congenital malformations such as distal vaginal atresia and imperforate hymen. Patients usually present with obstructive urinary tract infections, acute kidney injury, or sepsis. Percutaneous drainage of the infected fluid can help treat the patient; however, recurrence is of concern. In this case report, we present a case of a child with recurrent pyometrocolpos due to distal vaginal atresia despite initial percutaneous drainage. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ultrasound-guided introital drainage of pyometrocolpos with relief of symptoms obviating the need for repeat drainage or immediate surgery. © 2017


Successful Embolization Of A Enterocutaneous Fistula Tract With Onyx 34 Following Low Anterior Resection For Rectal Cancer., Hamza Rahimi, Anthony C Venbrux, Vincent Obias Jun 2018

Successful Embolization Of A Enterocutaneous Fistula Tract With Onyx 34 Following Low Anterior Resection For Rectal Cancer., Hamza Rahimi, Anthony C Venbrux, Vincent Obias

Radiology Faculty Publications

Enterocutaneous fistulas (ECFs) can be one of the complications found after surgical intervention for rectal cancer. Interventional modalities consisting of surgical, endoscopic, and radiological methods are often implemented to treat postoperative symptomatic complications. We present the case of 61-year-old Caucasian man who presented to us with a recent diagnosis of rectal cancer that had invaded the levators as well as anteriorly into the prostate, and who underwent low anterior resection with a diverting loop ileostomy. The patient was found to have a persistent presacral abscess due to an ECF tract. This case highlights the off-label use of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer ...


First-Pass Cyp3a-Mediated Metabolism Of Midazolam In The Gut Wall And Liver In Preterm Neonates., Janneke M Brussee, Huixin Yu, Elke H J Krekels, Berend De Roos, Margreke J E Brill, Johannes N Van Den Anker, Amin Rostami-Hodjegan, Saskia N De Wildt, Catherijne A J Knibbe Jun 2018

First-Pass Cyp3a-Mediated Metabolism Of Midazolam In The Gut Wall And Liver In Preterm Neonates., Janneke M Brussee, Huixin Yu, Elke H J Krekels, Berend De Roos, Margreke J E Brill, Johannes N Van Den Anker, Amin Rostami-Hodjegan, Saskia N De Wildt, Catherijne A J Knibbe

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

To predict first-pass and systemic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A-mediated metabolism of midazolam in preterm neonates, a physiological population pharmacokinetic model was developed describing intestinal and hepatic midazolam clearance in preterm infants. On the basis of midazolam and 1-OH-midazolam concentrations from 37 preterm neonates (gestational age 26-34 weeks) receiving midazolam orally and/or via a 30-minute intravenous infusion, intrinsic clearance in the gut wall and liver were found to be very low, with lower values in the gut wall (0.0196 and 6.7 L/h, respectively). This results in a highly variable and high total oral bioavailability of 92.1 ...


Prevention Paradox: Medical Students Are Less Inclined To Prescribe Hiv Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis For Patients In Highest Need., Sarah K Calabrese, Valerie A Earnshaw, Kristen Underhill, Douglas S Krakower, Manya Magnus, Nathan B Hansen, Kenneth H Mayer, Joseph R Betancourt, Trace S Kershaw, John F Dovidio Jun 2018

Prevention Paradox: Medical Students Are Less Inclined To Prescribe Hiv Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis For Patients In Highest Need., Sarah K Calabrese, Valerie A Earnshaw, Kristen Underhill, Douglas S Krakower, Manya Magnus, Nathan B Hansen, Kenneth H Mayer, Joseph R Betancourt, Trace S Kershaw, John F Dovidio

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: Despite healthcare providers' growing awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), prescription rates remain low. PrEP is an efficacious HIV prevention strategy recommended for use with condoms but still protective in their absence. Concern about the impact of PrEP on condom use and other risk behaviour is, nonetheless, among the barriers to prescription commonly reported. To understand the implications of this concern for PrEP access, we examined how medical students' willingness to prescribe PrEP varied by patients' condom use and partnering practices. We also assessed the perceived acceptability of various reasons for condom discontinuation with PrEP.

METHODS: An online survey was ...


The Ramazzini Institute 13-Week Study On Glyphosate-Based Herbicides At Human-Equivalent Dose In Sprague Dawley Rats: Study Design And First In-Life Endpoints Evaluation., Simona Panzacchi, Daniele Mandrioli, Fabiana Manservisi, Luciano Bua, Laura Falcioni, Melissa J Perry, +Several Additional Authors May 2018

The Ramazzini Institute 13-Week Study On Glyphosate-Based Herbicides At Human-Equivalent Dose In Sprague Dawley Rats: Study Design And First In-Life Endpoints Evaluation., Simona Panzacchi, Daniele Mandrioli, Fabiana Manservisi, Luciano Bua, Laura Falcioni, Melissa J Perry, +Several Additional Authors

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are the most widely used pesticides worldwide, and glyphosate is the active ingredient of such herbicides, including the formulation known as Roundup. The massive and increasing use of GBHs results in not only the global burden of occupational exposures, but also increased exposure to the general population. The current pilot study represents the first phase of a long-term investigation of GBHs that we are conducting over the next 5 years. In this paper, we present the study design, the first evaluation of in vivo parameters and the determination of glyphosate and its major metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid ...


Admission Eeg Findings In Diverse Paediatric Cerebral Malaria Populations Predict Outcomes., Douglas G Postels, Xiaoting Wu, Chenxi Li, Peter W Kaplan, Karl B Seydel, Terrie E Taylor, Youssef A Kousa, Richard Idro, Robert Opoka, Chandy C John, Gretchen L Birbeck May 2018

Admission Eeg Findings In Diverse Paediatric Cerebral Malaria Populations Predict Outcomes., Douglas G Postels, Xiaoting Wu, Chenxi Li, Peter W Kaplan, Karl B Seydel, Terrie E Taylor, Youssef A Kousa, Richard Idro, Robert Opoka, Chandy C John, Gretchen L Birbeck

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography at hospital presentation may offer important insights regarding prognosis that can inform understanding of cerebral malaria (CM) pathophysiology and potentially guide patient selection and risk stratification for future clinical trials. Electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in children with CM in Uganda and Malawi were compared and associations between admission EEG findings and outcome across this diverse population were assessed. Demographic, clinical and admission EEG data from Ugandan and Malawian children admitted from 2009 to 2012 with CM were gathered, and survivors assessed for neurological abnormalities at discharge.

RESULTS: 281 children were enrolled (Uganda n = 122, Malawi n = 159). The Malawian ...