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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Is The Phq-9 A Unidimensional Measure Of Depression? A 58,272-Participant Study, Renzo Bianchi, Jay Verkuilen, Sharon Toker, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Markus Gerber, Elmar Brähler, Kurt Kroenke Jun 2022

Is The Phq-9 A Unidimensional Measure Of Depression? A 58,272-Participant Study, Renzo Bianchi, Jay Verkuilen, Sharon Toker, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Markus Gerber, Elmar Brähler, Kurt Kroenke

Publications and Research

The PHQ-9 has become a measure of reference in depression research and clinical practice. However, the issue of the PHQ-9’s unidimensionality has not been fully elucidated, and the usability of the PHQ-9’s total score requires clarification. In this study, we examined the dimensionality, scalability, and monotonicity properties of the PHQ-9 as well as the scale’s total-score reliability. We did so based on exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) bifactor analysis and Mokken scale analysis (MSA). We relied on a total of 58,272 participants (63% female; Mage = 43, SDage = 13) from 29 samples involving seven different countries (e ...


Imaging Of Transmetallation And Chelation Phenomena Involving Radiological Contrast Agents In Mineral-Rich Fruits, Subhendra Sarkar, Zoya Vinokur, Bleidis Buitrago, Lin Mousa, Hayley Sanchez, Analia Basilicata, Jodi-Ann Douglas, Seanetta Reddock May 2022

Imaging Of Transmetallation And Chelation Phenomena Involving Radiological Contrast Agents In Mineral-Rich Fruits, Subhendra Sarkar, Zoya Vinokur, Bleidis Buitrago, Lin Mousa, Hayley Sanchez, Analia Basilicata, Jodi-Ann Douglas, Seanetta Reddock

Publications and Research

Exogenous heavy metals or non-metallic waste products, for example lanthanide or iodinated contrast media for radiological procedures, may interfere with the biochemical pools in patients and in common food sources, creating an excess buildup of exogenous compounds which may reach toxic levels. Although the mechanisms are unknown, our experiments were designed to test if this toxicity can be attributed to “transmetallation” or “chelation” reactions freeing up lanthanides or chelated transition metals in acidic fruits used as phantoms representing the biologically active and mineral-rich carbohydrate matrix. The rapid breakdown of stable contrast agents have been reported at a lower pH. The ...


Effectiveness And Safety Of Oral Anticoagulants In Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation Patients With Prior Bleeding Events: A Retrospective Analysis Of Administrative Claims Databases, G. Y. H. Lip, Allison V. Keshishian, Amiee Kang, Xuemei Luo, Nipun Atreja, Yan Zhang, Patricia Schuler, Jenny Jiang, Huseyin Yuce, Steve Deitelzweig May 2022

Effectiveness And Safety Of Oral Anticoagulants In Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation Patients With Prior Bleeding Events: A Retrospective Analysis Of Administrative Claims Databases, G. Y. H. Lip, Allison V. Keshishian, Amiee Kang, Xuemei Luo, Nipun Atreja, Yan Zhang, Patricia Schuler, Jenny Jiang, Huseyin Yuce, Steve Deitelzweig

Publications and Research

Introduction

There are a paucity of real-world data examining effectiveness and safety of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients with prior bleeding.

Methods

This retrospective analysis included data from 5 insurance claims databases and included NVAF patients prescribed OACs with prior bleeding. One-to-one propensity score matching was conducted between NOACs and warfarin and between NOACs in each database. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the risk of stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and MB.

Results

A total of 244,563 patients (mean age 77; 50% female) with prior bleeding included 55 ...


Open Lab Vs. Radiologic Students Final Practical Grades, Navdeep Kaur, Safraz Harun, Katie Tam, Robert O'Brien May 2022

Open Lab Vs. Radiologic Students Final Practical Grades, Navdeep Kaur, Safraz Harun, Katie Tam, Robert O'Brien

Publications and Research

Open Lab provides the students of the Radiologic Technology & Medical Imaging Department the opportunity outside regular class time to practice communicating effectively in a health care setting, and grants the students the freedom to craft critical thinking skills in a radiologic environment. Our research aims to analyze the correlation between hourly time spent in Open Lab, and its contributing factor to a student's overall Radiographic Procedures grade. The amount of time spent in Open Lab can additionally contribute to a student's grasp of didactic concepts, and their integration into the clinical setting. Additional time spent in the laboratory ...


Covid-19 Vaccine Mandate, Mikhail Kun, Tatiana Ryzhakova May 2022

Covid-19 Vaccine Mandate, Mikhail Kun, Tatiana Ryzhakova

Publications and Research

The COVID-19 pandemic has wreaked havoc on the planet and killed millions of people. Health care workers and radiology technicians who come into direct contact with COVID-19 patients have indeed been the most affected by the virus. Since the pandemic began, the COVID-19 cases among health care workers have surged and quadrupled. COVID-19 vaccine mandate is the need of the time. Mandates have a history and are in effect for other diseases such as smallpox, measles, or mumps. But since the vaccines have come out for COVID-19, there is a public impetus to condemn these vaccines, based on the false ...


Depression Is Associated With Myocardial Infarction Within A Two-Year Period Among Adults In China, Lydia W. Li, Greta Cheng, Hongwei Xu, Zhenmei Zhang, Jinyu Liu, Yeates Conwell Apr 2022

Depression Is Associated With Myocardial Infarction Within A Two-Year Period Among Adults In China, Lydia W. Li, Greta Cheng, Hongwei Xu, Zhenmei Zhang, Jinyu Liu, Yeates Conwell

Publications and Research

We examined whether baseline depression is associated with MI within a two-year period among adults aged 45+ in China and whether the association varies by sociodemographic characteristics. Two-year longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of people aged 45+ in China were analyzed (N = 15,226). MI within the 2-year period was coded dichotomously. Baseline depression, assessed by the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, was used as a dichotomous and a continuous variable. After adjusting for medical conditions, lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics, the odds of having an MI within the 2-year period were 46% greater for respondents with ...


Promoting Healthy Eating In Latin American Restaurants: A Qualitative Survey Of Views Held By Owners And Staff, Fuster, Melissa, Rosa Abreu, Margaret A. Handley, Donald Rose, Michelle A. Rodriguez, Emily G. Dimond, Brian Elbel, Terry T. K. Huang Apr 2022

Promoting Healthy Eating In Latin American Restaurants: A Qualitative Survey Of Views Held By Owners And Staff, Fuster, Melissa, Rosa Abreu, Margaret A. Handley, Donald Rose, Michelle A. Rodriguez, Emily G. Dimond, Brian Elbel, Terry T. K. Huang

Publications and Research

Background

Restaurants, particularly independently-owned ones that serve immigrant communities, are important community institutions in the promotion of dietary health. Yet, these restaurants remain under-researched, preventing meaningful collaborations with the public health sector for healthier community food environments. This research aimed to examine levels of acceptability of healthy eating promotion strategies (HEPS) in independently-owned Latin American restaurants (LARs) and identify resource needs for implementing HEPS in LARs.

Methods

We completed semi-structured, online discussions with LAR owners and staff (n = 20), predominantly from New York City (NYC), to examine current engagement, acceptability, potential barriers, and resource needs for the implementation of HEPS ...


Feasibility Of Using Electronic Health Records For Cascade Monitoring And Cost Estimates In Implementation Science Studies In The Adolescent Trials Network For Hiv/Aids Interventions, Tyra Dark, Kit N. Simpson, Sitaji Gurung, Amy L. Pennar, Marshall Chew, Sylvie Naar Apr 2022

Feasibility Of Using Electronic Health Records For Cascade Monitoring And Cost Estimates In Implementation Science Studies In The Adolescent Trials Network For Hiv/Aids Interventions, Tyra Dark, Kit N. Simpson, Sitaji Gurung, Amy L. Pennar, Marshall Chew, Sylvie Naar

Publications and Research

Background:One of the most difficult areas in the fight against HIV/AIDS is reaching out to youth aged 13 to 24 years. The proportion of youth living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and who are virally undetectable is low, highlighting significant challenges for reaching the Joint United Nations Program on HIV targets.

Objective:This study aimed to assess the feasibility of obtaining key clinical indicators and monitoring treatment, viral suppression, and retention components of the youth HIV treatment cascade in Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions clinics using electronic health record (EHR) downloads and to provide ...


Occupational Depression In A Spanish-Speaking Sample: Associations With Cognitive Performance And Work-Life Characteristics, Bianchi Renzo, Guadalupe Manzano García, Maria Pilar Montanes, Emily A. Schonfeld, Irvin Sam Schonfeld Apr 2022

Occupational Depression In A Spanish-Speaking Sample: Associations With Cognitive Performance And Work-Life Characteristics, Bianchi Renzo, Guadalupe Manzano García, Maria Pilar Montanes, Emily A. Schonfeld, Irvin Sam Schonfeld

Publications and Research

This 386-participant study investigated the structural and psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Occupational Depression Inventory (ODI). Exploratory structural equation modeling bifactor analysis revealed that the ODI meets the requirements for essential unidimensionality. Measurement invariance held across our sample and the English- and French-speaking samples used in the ODI’s initial validation study. Mokken scale analysis indicated that (a) the scalability of the instrument was strong, (b) no violations of monotonicity or local independence were present, and (c) invariant item ordering was sufficiently accurate. The ODI’s reliability was optimal. The ODI exhibited both convergent validity and discriminant ...


An Evaluation Of The Effect Of The Oxycontin® Reformulation On Unintentional Fatal And Non-Fatal Overdose, Daniel C. Beachler, Kelsey Hall, Renu Garg, Geetanjoli Banerjee, Ling Li, Luke Boulanger, Huseyin Yuce, Alexander M. Walker Mar 2022

An Evaluation Of The Effect Of The Oxycontin® Reformulation On Unintentional Fatal And Non-Fatal Overdose, Daniel C. Beachler, Kelsey Hall, Renu Garg, Geetanjoli Banerjee, Ling Li, Luke Boulanger, Huseyin Yuce, Alexander M. Walker

Publications and Research

Objectives: OxyContin® was reformulated with a polyethylene oxide matrix in August 2010 to reduce the potential for intravenous abuse and for abuse by insufflation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of OxyContin’s reformulation on overdose risk for individuals dispensed OxyContin in comparison to those dispensed other opioids under regular care. Methods: Three national insurance databases with National Death Index linkage identified OD in individuals with any dispensing of OxyContin or a primary comparator opioid (ER morphine, transdermal fentanyl, or methadone) between July 2008 through September 2015. A difference-in-differences design was used to compare the pre-post ...


Diagnosis Of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy From Fluorescein Angiography Using Deep Learning, Yu-Yeh Tsai, Wei-Yang Ling, Shih-Jen Chen, Paisan Ruamviboonsuk, Cheng-Ho King, Chia-Ling Tsai Feb 2022

Diagnosis Of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy From Fluorescein Angiography Using Deep Learning, Yu-Yeh Tsai, Wei-Yang Ling, Shih-Jen Chen, Paisan Ruamviboonsuk, Cheng-Ho King, Chia-Ling Tsai

Publications and Research

Purpose: To differentiate polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) from choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and to determine the extent of PCV from fluorescein angiography (FA) using attention-based deep learning networks.

Methods: We build two deep learning networks for diagnosis of PCV using FA, one for detection and one for segmentation. Attention-gated convolutional neural network (AG-CNN) differentiates PCV from other types of wet age-related macular degeneration. Gradient-weighted class activation map (Grad-CAM) is generated to highlight important regions in the image for making the prediction, which offers explainability of the network. Attention-gated recurrent neural network (AG-PCVNet) for spatiotemporal prediction is applied for segmentation of PCV ...


Maintain The Sharp Cutting Edge Of Periodontal Instruments, Khrystyna Vyprynyuk, Annie Chitlall Feb 2022

Maintain The Sharp Cutting Edge Of Periodontal Instruments, Khrystyna Vyprynyuk, Annie Chitlall

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


From Abortion Rights To Reproductive Justice: A Call To Action, Erica Goldblatt Hyatt, Judith L.M. Mccoyd, Mery Diaz Feb 2022

From Abortion Rights To Reproductive Justice: A Call To Action, Erica Goldblatt Hyatt, Judith L.M. Mccoyd, Mery Diaz

Publications and Research

As aggressive cultural and legislative attacks on abortion rights and access continue, we call upon social workers to pursue the liberatory aims of the reproductive justice (RJ) movement. We argue that the RJ framework, rooted in feminist theory, aligns with social work’s social justice ethos and goals, appropriately guiding advocacy and intervention. After outlining the central aims and tenets of the RJ movement, we consider policies that impair RJ and those that could promote RJ, focusing on enhancing body sovereignty, childbearing, and parenting. We conclude with concrete recommendations for how social workers can pursue RJ professionally and personally.


Diagnosis Of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy From Fluorescein Angiography Using Deep Learning, Yu-Yeh Tsai, Wei-Yang Lin, Shih-Jen Chen, Paisan Ruamviboonsuk, Cheng-Ho King, Chia-Ling Tsai Feb 2022

Diagnosis Of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy From Fluorescein Angiography Using Deep Learning, Yu-Yeh Tsai, Wei-Yang Lin, Shih-Jen Chen, Paisan Ruamviboonsuk, Cheng-Ho King, Chia-Ling Tsai

Publications and Research

Purpose: To differentiate polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) from choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and to determine the extent of PCV from fluorescein angiography (FA) using attention-based deep learning networks.

Methods: We build two deep learning networks for diagnosis of PCV using FA, one for detection and one for segmentation. Attention-gated convolutional neural network (AG-CNN) differentiates PCV from other types of wet age-related macular degeneration. Gradient-weighted class activation map (Grad-CAM) is generated to highlight important regions in the image for making the prediction, which offers explainability of the network. Attention-gated recurrent neural network (AG-PCVNet) for spatiotemporal prediction is applied for segmentation of PCV ...


Metric-Driven Initiative For Promoting Staff Diversity, Dewi Brown-Deveaux, Brittany R. Richards Jan 2022

Metric-Driven Initiative For Promoting Staff Diversity, Dewi Brown-Deveaux, Brittany R. Richards

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Results Of A Phase 1, Randomized, Placebocontrolled First-In-Human Trial Of Griffithsin Formulated In A Carrageenan Vaginal Gel, Natalia Teleshova, Maria J. Keller, José A. Fernández Romero, Barbara A. Friedland, George W. Creasy, Marlena G. Plagianos, Laurie Ray, Patrick Barnable, Larisa Kizima, Aixa Rodriguez, Nadjet Cornejal, Claudia Melo, Gearoff Cruz Rodriguez, Sampurna Mukhopadhyay, Giulia Calenda, Shweta U. Sinkar, Thierry Bonnaire, Asa Wesenberg, Shimin Zhang, Kyle Kleinbeck, Kenneth Palmer, Mohcine Alami, Barry R. O'Keefe, Patrick Gillevet, Hong Hur, Yupu Liang, Gabriela Santone, Raina N. Fichorova, Tamara Kalir, Thomas M. Zydowsky Jan 2022

Results Of A Phase 1, Randomized, Placebocontrolled First-In-Human Trial Of Griffithsin Formulated In A Carrageenan Vaginal Gel, Natalia Teleshova, Maria J. Keller, José A. Fernández Romero, Barbara A. Friedland, George W. Creasy, Marlena G. Plagianos, Laurie Ray, Patrick Barnable, Larisa Kizima, Aixa Rodriguez, Nadjet Cornejal, Claudia Melo, Gearoff Cruz Rodriguez, Sampurna Mukhopadhyay, Giulia Calenda, Shweta U. Sinkar, Thierry Bonnaire, Asa Wesenberg, Shimin Zhang, Kyle Kleinbeck, Kenneth Palmer, Mohcine Alami, Barry R. O'Keefe, Patrick Gillevet, Hong Hur, Yupu Liang, Gabriela Santone, Raina N. Fichorova, Tamara Kalir, Thomas M. Zydowsky

Publications and Research

HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is dominated by clinical therapeutic antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Griffithsin (GRFT) is a non-ARV lectin with potent anti-HIV activity. GRFT’s preclinical safety, lack of systemic absorption after vaginal administration in animal studies, and lack of cross-resistance with existing ARV drugs prompted its development for topical HIV PrEP. We investigated safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and immunogenicity of PC-6500 (0.1% GRFT in a carrageenan (CG) gel) in healthy women after vaginal administration. This randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, double-blind first-in-human phase 1 study enrolled healthy, HIV-negative, non-pregnant women aged 24–45 years. In the open label period ...


Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation On Parkinson’S Disease: Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Paloma Cristina Alves De Oliveira, Thiago Anderson Brito De Araújo, Daniel Gomes Da Silva Machado, Abner Cardoso Rodrigues, Marom Bikson, Suellen Marinho Andrade, Alexandre Hideki Okano, Hougelle Simplicio, Rodrigo Pegado, Edgard Morya Jan 2022

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation On Parkinson’S Disease: Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Paloma Cristina Alves De Oliveira, Thiago Anderson Brito De Araújo, Daniel Gomes Da Silva Machado, Abner Cardoso Rodrigues, Marom Bikson, Suellen Marinho Andrade, Alexandre Hideki Okano, Hougelle Simplicio, Rodrigo Pegado, Edgard Morya

Publications and Research

Background: Clinical impact of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) alone for Parkinson’s disease (PD) is still a challenge. Thus, there is a need to synthesize available results, analyze methodologically and statistically, and provide evidence to guide tDCS in PD.

Objective: Investigate isolated tDCS effect in different brain areas and number of stimulated targets on PD motor symptoms.

Methods: A systematic review was carried out up to February 2021, in databases: Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of science. Full text articles evaluating effect of active tDCS (anodic or cathodic) vs. sham or control on motor symptoms of ...


Glycocalyx Mechanotransduction Mechanisms Are Involved In Renal Cancer Metastasis, Heriberto Moran, Limary M. Cancel, Peigen Huang, Sylvie Roberge, Tuoye Xu, John M. Tarbell, Lance L. Munn Jan 2022

Glycocalyx Mechanotransduction Mechanisms Are Involved In Renal Cancer Metastasis, Heriberto Moran, Limary M. Cancel, Peigen Huang, Sylvie Roberge, Tuoye Xu, John M. Tarbell, Lance L. Munn

Publications and Research

Mammalian cells, including cancer cells, are covered by a surface layer containing cell bound proteoglycans, glycoproteins, associated glycosaminoglycans and bound proteins that is commonly referred to as the glycocalyx. Solid tumors also have a dynamic fluid microenvironment with elevated interstitial flow. In the present work we further investigate the hypothesis that interstitial flow is sensed by the tumor glycocalyx leading to activation of cell motility and metastasis. Using a highly metastatic renal carcinoma cell line (SN12L1) and its low metastatic counterpart (SN12C) we demonstrate in vitro that the small molecule Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA) inhibits the heparan sulfate synthesis enzyme ...


Toward A Multimodal Computer-Aided Diagnostic Tool For Alzheimer’S Disease Conversion, Danilo Pena, Jessika Suescun, Mya Schiess, Timothy M. Ellmore, Luca Giancardo, Alzheimer’S Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Jan 2022

Toward A Multimodal Computer-Aided Diagnostic Tool For Alzheimer’S Disease Conversion, Danilo Pena, Jessika Suescun, Mya Schiess, Timothy M. Ellmore, Luca Giancardo, Alzheimer’S Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

Publications and Research

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It is one of the leading sources of morbidity and mortality in the aging population AD cardinal symptoms include memory and executive function impairment that profoundly alters a patient’s ability to perform activities of daily living. People with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) exhibit many of the early clinical symptoms of patients with AD and have a high chance of converting to AD in their lifetime. Diagnostic criteria rely on clinical assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many groups are working to help automate this process to improve the clinical ...


The Imaginal Lexicon Of Aging Studies, William Ebenstein Jan 2022

The Imaginal Lexicon Of Aging Studies, William Ebenstein

Publications and Research

Aging Studies focuses on the cultural, humanistic and experiential aspects of aging insofar as these are already embedded in literature, art, language and everyday life. The lexicon of this multi-disciplinary field has evolved in response to shifts in cultural attitudes, social roles, and conceptual frameworks. At the same time, many age-related words have links to poetic imagery and ancient myths, and to evocative etymologies that conjure an historical context. The article looks at the ongoing and surprisingly difficult effort to find the right word to call an older person. It reviews the language and literary genres associated with longevity. And ...


Understanding Covid-19 Among People Of Dominican Descent In The U.S.: A Comparison Of New York, New Jersey, Florida, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island And Connecticut, Ramona Hernandez, Pedro Ortega, Nancy Sohler, Sarah Marrara Jan 2022

Understanding Covid-19 Among People Of Dominican Descent In The U.S.: A Comparison Of New York, New Jersey, Florida, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island And Connecticut, Ramona Hernandez, Pedro Ortega, Nancy Sohler, Sarah Marrara

Publications and Research

The present study “Understanding COVID-19 Among People of Dominican Descent in the U.S.: A Comparison of New York, New Jersey, Florida, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Connecticut” is the first research study to examine the experience of people of Dominican origins residing in the United States (U.S.) amidst the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The current study is based on a probabilistic and representative sample of Dominicans across the seven states in which the majority—85%—of Dominicans living in the U.S. reside. The Dominican Studies Institute (CUNY-DSI) at City College and the School of Medicine ...


Righting Health Policy: Bioethics, Political Philosophy, And The Normative Justification Of Health Law And Policy, D. Robert Macdougall Jan 2022

Righting Health Policy: Bioethics, Political Philosophy, And The Normative Justification Of Health Law And Policy, D. Robert Macdougall

Publications and Research

In Righting Health Policy, D. Robert MacDougall argues that bioethics needs but does not have adequate tools for justifying law and policy. Bioethics’ tools are mostly theories about what we owe each other. But justifying laws and policies requires more; at a minimum, it requires tools for explaining the legitimacy of actions intended to control or influence others. It consequently requires political, rather than moral, philosophy. After showing how bioethicists have consistently failed to use tools suitable for achieving their political aims, MacDougall develops an interpretation of Kant’s political philosophy. On this account the legitimacy of health laws does ...


Automatic Cephalometric Landmark Detection On X-Ray Images Using Object Detection, Cheng-Ho King, Yin-Lin Wang, Chia-Ling Tsai Jan 2022

Automatic Cephalometric Landmark Detection On X-Ray Images Using Object Detection, Cheng-Ho King, Yin-Lin Wang, Chia-Ling Tsai

Publications and Research

We propose a new deep convolutional cephalometric landmark detection framework for orthodontic treatment. Our proposed method consists of two major steps: landmark detection using a deep neural network for object detection, and landmark repair to ensure one instance per landmark class. For landmark detection, we modify the loss function of the backbone network YOLOv3 to eliminate the constrains on the bounding box and incorporate attention mechanism to improve the detection accuracy. For landmark repair, a triangle mesh is generated from the average face to eliminate superfluous instances, followed by estimation of missing landmarks from the detected ones using Laplacian Mesh ...


Biomedical Applications Of Lanthanide Nanomaterials, For Imaging, Sensing And Therapy, Qize Zhang, Stephen O'Brien, Jan Grimm Jan 2022

Biomedical Applications Of Lanthanide Nanomaterials, For Imaging, Sensing And Therapy, Qize Zhang, Stephen O'Brien, Jan Grimm

Publications and Research

The application of nanomaterials made of rare earth elements within biomedical sciences continues to make significant progress. The rare earth elements, also called the lanthanides, play an essential role in modern life through materials and electronics. As we learn more about their utility, function, and underlying physics, we can contemplate extending their applications to biomedicine. This particularly applies to diagnosis and radiation therapy due to their relatively unique features, such as an ultra-wide Stokes shift in the luminescence, variable magnetism and potentially tunable properties, due to the library of lanthanides available and their multivalent oxidation state chemistry. The ability to ...


Cryptococcus Neoformans Melanization Incorporates Multiple Catecholamines To Produce Polytypic Melanin, Rosanna P. Baker, Christine Chrissian, Ruth E. Stark, Arturo Casadevall Dec 2021

Cryptococcus Neoformans Melanization Incorporates Multiple Catecholamines To Produce Polytypic Melanin, Rosanna P. Baker, Christine Chrissian, Ruth E. Stark, Arturo Casadevall

Publications and Research

Melanin is a major virulence factor in pathogenic fungi that enhances the ability of fungal cells to resist immune clearance. Cryptococcus neoformans is an important human pathogenic fungus that synthesizes melanin from exogenous tissue catecholamine precursors during infection, but the type of melanin made in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is unknown. We analyzed the efficacy of various catecholamines found in brain tissue in supporting melanization using animal brain tissue and synthetic catecholamine mixtures reflecting brain tissue proportions. Solid-state NMR spectra of the melanin pigment produced from such mixtures yielded more melanin than expected if only the preferred constituent dopamine had been incorporated ...


From Burnout To Occupational Depression: Recent Developments In Research On Job-Related Distress And Occupational Health, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Renzo Bianchi Dec 2021

From Burnout To Occupational Depression: Recent Developments In Research On Job-Related Distress And Occupational Health, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Renzo Bianchi

Publications and Research

Job-related distress has been a focal concern in occupational health science. Job-related distress has a well-documented health-damaging and life-threatening character, not to mention its economic cost. In this article, we review recent developments in research on job-related distress and examine ongoing changes in how job-related distress is conceptualized and assessed. By adopting an approach that is theoretically, empirically, and clinically informed, we demonstrate how the construct of burnout and its measures, long favored in research on job-related distress, have proved to be problematic. We underline a new recommendation for addressing job-related distress within the long-established framework of depression research. In ...


Comparative Analysis Of 3d Printed Denture Resins With Traditional Denture Materials At The Micro Level, Aneeza Hussain, Caleb Beckwith, Gaffar Gailani Dec 2021

Comparative Analysis Of 3d Printed Denture Resins With Traditional Denture Materials At The Micro Level, Aneeza Hussain, Caleb Beckwith, Gaffar Gailani

Publications and Research

The aim of this experiment was to evaluate and identify compression strength between traditionally manufactured acrylic dentures and additive manufacturing resin dentures. Specifically, the dentures produced by Uhler Dental, its Reveal line were compared against samples produced on the Formlabs Form 2 SLA, Stereolithography, 3D printer using their Denture Teeth A2 resin to test compression strength to assure they are compatible with the occlusal forces in the oral cavity. Using the ZwickRoell tensile testing machine, it appeared that the acrylic dentures were half as strong as the resin dentures. Then we went ahead to and did a comparative analysis under ...


A Closer Look At The Aha's Antibiotic Prophylaxis Guidelines, Dora-Ann Oddo Dec 2021

A Closer Look At The Aha's Antibiotic Prophylaxis Guidelines, Dora-Ann Oddo

Publications and Research

In May 2021, the American Heart Association (AHA) updated its antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines for the prevention of infective endocarditis (IE). As some dental and dental hygiene procedures may increase the risk of this potentially life-threatening infection in at-risk patients, oral health professionals must have a thorough understanding of this serious, albeit rare infection of the heart and understand appropriate precautions for treatment. This article focuses on the AHA's guidelines; however, oral health professionals should also consider the IE guidelines from the American Academy of Orthopedics Surgeons.


Expanding The Conceptualization Of Support In Low-Wage Carework: The Case Of Home Care Aides And Client Death, Emma K. Tsui, Marita Lamonica, Maryam Hyder, Paul Landsbergis, Jennifer Zelnick, Sherry Baron Dec 2021

Expanding The Conceptualization Of Support In Low-Wage Carework: The Case Of Home Care Aides And Client Death, Emma K. Tsui, Marita Lamonica, Maryam Hyder, Paul Landsbergis, Jennifer Zelnick, Sherry Baron

Publications and Research

Home care aides are a rapidly growing, non-standard workforce who face numerous health risks and stressors on the job. While research shows that aides receive limited support from their agency employers, few studies have explored the wider range of support that aides use when navigating work stress and considered the implications of these arrangements. To investigate this question, we conducted 47 in-depth interviews with 29 home care aides in New York City, focused specifically on aides’ use of support after client death. Theories of work stress, the social ecological framework, and feminist theories of care informed our research. Our analysis ...


The Nature Of Anti-Asian American Xenophobia During The Coronavirus Pandemic: A Preliminary Exploration Into Envy As A Key Motivator Of Hate, Daisuke Akiba Nov 2021

The Nature Of Anti-Asian American Xenophobia During The Coronavirus Pandemic: A Preliminary Exploration Into Envy As A Key Motivator Of Hate, Daisuke Akiba

Publications and Research

Background. The current Coronavirus pandemic has been linked to a dramatic increase in anti-Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) hate incidents in the United States. At the time of writing, there does not appear to be any published empirical research examining the mechanisms underlying Asiaphobia during the current pandemic. Based on the stereotype content model, we investigated the idea that ambivalent attitudes toward AAPIs, marked primarily with envy, may be contributing to anti-AAPI xenophobia. Methods. Study 1 (N = 140) explored, through a survey, the link between envious stereotypes toward AAPIs and Asiaphobia. Study 2 (N = 167), utilizing autobiographical recall tasks ...