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Articles 1 - 30 of 6104

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Acute Inflammatory Profiles Differ With Sex And Age After Spinal Cord Injury, Andrew N. Stewart, John L. Lowe, Ethan P. Glaser, Caitlin A. Mott, Ryan K. Shahidehpour, Katelyn E. Mcfarlane, William M. Bailey, Bei Zhang, John C. Gensel May 2021

Acute Inflammatory Profiles Differ With Sex And Age After Spinal Cord Injury, Andrew N. Stewart, John L. Lowe, Ethan P. Glaser, Caitlin A. Mott, Ryan K. Shahidehpour, Katelyn E. Mcfarlane, William M. Bailey, Bei Zhang, John C. Gensel

Physiology Faculty Publications

Background

Sex and age are emerging as influential variables that affect spinal cord injury (SCI) recovery. Despite a changing demographic towards older age at the time of SCI, the effects of sex or age on inflammation remain to be elucidated. This study determined the sex- and age-dependency of the innate immune response acutely after SCI.

Methods

Male and female mice of ages 4- and 14-month-old received T9 contusion SCI and the proportion of microglia, monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), and neutrophils surrounding the lesion were determined at 3- and 7-day post-injury (DPI) using flow cytometry. Cell counts of microglia and MDMs were ...


A Screen Of Fda-Approved Drugs Identifies Inhibitors Of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 4a3 (Ptp4a3 Or Prl-3), Dylan R. Rivas, Mark Vincent C. Dela Cerna, Caroline N. Smith, Shilpa Sampathi, Blaine G. Patty, Donghan Lee, Jessica S. Blackburn May 2021

A Screen Of Fda-Approved Drugs Identifies Inhibitors Of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 4a3 (Ptp4a3 Or Prl-3), Dylan R. Rivas, Mark Vincent C. Dela Cerna, Caroline N. Smith, Shilpa Sampathi, Blaine G. Patty, Donghan Lee, Jessica S. Blackburn

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Protein tyrosine phosphatase 4A3 (PTP4A3 or PRL-3) is highly expressed in a variety of cancers, where it promotes tumor cell migration and metastasis leading to poor prognosis. Despite its clinical significance, small molecule inhibitors of PRL-3 are lacking. Here, we screened 1443 FDA-approved drugs for their ability to inhibit the activity of the PRL phosphatase family. We identified five specific inhibitors for PRL-3 as well as one selective inhibitor of PRL-2. Additionally, we found nine drugs that broadly and significantly suppressed PRL activity. Two of these broad-spectrum PRL inhibitors, Salirasib and Candesartan, blocked PRL-3-induced migration in human embryonic kidney cells ...


Myeloid Arginase 1 Insufficiency Exacerbates Amyloid-Β Associated Neurodegenerative Pathways And Glial Signatures In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease: A Targeted Transcriptome Analysis, Chao Ma, Jerry B. Hunt, Andrii Kovalenko, Huimin Liang, Maj-Linda B. Selenica, Michael B. Orr, Bei Zhang, John C. Gensel, David J. Feola, Marcia N. Gordon, Dave Morgan, Paula C. Bickford, Daniel C. Lee May 2021

Myeloid Arginase 1 Insufficiency Exacerbates Amyloid-Β Associated Neurodegenerative Pathways And Glial Signatures In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease: A Targeted Transcriptome Analysis, Chao Ma, Jerry B. Hunt, Andrii Kovalenko, Huimin Liang, Maj-Linda B. Selenica, Michael B. Orr, Bei Zhang, John C. Gensel, David J. Feola, Marcia N. Gordon, Dave Morgan, Paula C. Bickford, Daniel C. Lee

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Brain myeloid cells, include infiltrating macrophages and resident microglia, play an essential role in responding to and inducing neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) implicate many AD casual and risk genes enriched in brain myeloid cells. Coordinated arginine metabolism through arginase 1 (Arg1) is critical for brain myeloid cells to perform biological functions, whereas dysregulated arginine metabolism disrupts them. Altered arginine metabolism is proposed as a new biomarker pathway for AD. We previously reported Arg1 deficiency in myeloid biased cells using lysozyme M (LysM) promoter-driven deletion worsened amyloidosis-related neuropathology and behavioral impairment. However, it ...


Measuring The Impact Of The Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion On Access To Primary Care Using An Interrupted Time Series Approach, Elizabeth A. Brown, Brandi M. White, Walter J. Jones, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Kit N. Simpson May 2021

Measuring The Impact Of The Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion On Access To Primary Care Using An Interrupted Time Series Approach, Elizabeth A. Brown, Brandi M. White, Walter J. Jones, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Kit N. Simpson

Health and Clinical Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly referred to as the Affordable Care Act (ACA), was created to increase access to primary care, improve quality of care, and decrease healthcare costs. A key provision in the law that mandated expansion of state Medicaid programme changed when states were given the option to voluntarily expand Medicaid. Our study sought to measure the impact of ACA Medicaid expansion on preventable hospitalization (PH) rates, a measure of access to primary care.

METHODS: We performed an interrupted time series analysis of quarterly hospitalization rates across eight states from 2012 to ...


Water Exchange Rate Across The Blood-Brain Barrier Is Associated With Csf Amyloid-Β 42 In Healthy Older Adults, Brian T. Gold, Xingfeng Shao, Tiffany L. Sudduth, Gregory A. Jicha, Donna M. Wilcock, Elayna R. Seago, Danny J. J. Wang May 2021

Water Exchange Rate Across The Blood-Brain Barrier Is Associated With Csf Amyloid-Β 42 In Healthy Older Adults, Brian T. Gold, Xingfeng Shao, Tiffany L. Sudduth, Gregory A. Jicha, Donna M. Wilcock, Elayna R. Seago, Danny J. J. Wang

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: We tested if water exchange across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), estimated with a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, is associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and neuropsychological function.

METHODS: Forty cognitively normal older adults (67–86 years old) were scanned with diffusion‐prepared, arterial spin labeling (DP‐ASL), which estimates water exchange rate across the BBB (kw). Participants also underwent CSF draw and neuropsychological testing. Multiple linear regression models were run with kw as a predictor of CSF concentrations and neuropsychological scores.

RESULTS: In multiple brain regions, BBB kw was positively associated ...


Cardiovascular Complications Of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Impact Of Risk Factors And Therapeutic Efficacy--A Tertiary Centre Experience In An Appalachian State, Elise Danielle Mcveigh, Amna Batool, Arnold J. Stromberg, Ahmed K. Abdel-Latif, Nayef Mohammed Kazzaz May 2021

Cardiovascular Complications Of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Impact Of Risk Factors And Therapeutic Efficacy--A Tertiary Centre Experience In An Appalachian State, Elise Danielle Mcveigh, Amna Batool, Arnold J. Stromberg, Ahmed K. Abdel-Latif, Nayef Mohammed Kazzaz

Statistics Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular complications became a notable cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with lupus as therapeutic advancements became more efficient at managing other complications. The Appalachian community in Kentucky has a higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, predisposing them to cardiovascular events. Namely, the mean body mass index of the members of the Kentucky Appalachian community was reported at 33 kg/m2 and 94.3% of male members of this community use tobacco. We sought to identify risk factors that predispose patients with lupus to cardiovascular morbidities and examine the effect of immunomodulatory drugs.

METHODS: We identified ...


Review Of: The Cancer Crisis In Appalachia: Kentucky Students Take Action, Stephenie Kennedy-Rea May 2021

Review Of: The Cancer Crisis In Appalachia: Kentucky Students Take Action, Stephenie Kennedy-Rea

Journal of Appalachian Health

The Journal of Appalachian Health is committed to reviewing published media that relates to contemporary concepts affecting the health of Appalachia. With cancer mortality rates higher in rural and Appalachian communities, a focus on how cancer impacts our families and communities is more important than ever. Dr. Stephenie Kennedy-Rea reviews the book The Cancer Crisis in Appalachia: Kentucky Students Take Action.


Tracking The Impact Of Diseases Of Despair In Appalachia—2015 To 2018, Megan Heffernan, Michael Meit, Margaret Cherney, Victoria A. Hallman May 2021

Tracking The Impact Of Diseases Of Despair In Appalachia—2015 To 2018, Megan Heffernan, Michael Meit, Margaret Cherney, Victoria A. Hallman

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: This study provides an update on mortality due to diseases of despair within the Appalachian Region, comparing 2015 to 2018.

Methods: Diseases of despair include: alcohol, prescription drug and illegal drug overdose, suicide, and alcoholic liver disease/cirrhosis of the liver. Analyses are based on National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) mortality data for individuals aged 15-64.

Results: Between 2015 and 2017, the diseases of despair mortality rate increased in both Appalachia and the non-Appalachian U.S., and the disparity grew between Appalachia and the rest of the county. In 2018, the disease of despair mortality rate declined by 8 ...


Exploring Covid-19 Case Fatality In Relation To The Prevalence Of Chronic Conditions And Health Behaviors In Appalachian Kentucky, W. Jay Christian May 2021

Exploring Covid-19 Case Fatality In Relation To The Prevalence Of Chronic Conditions And Health Behaviors In Appalachian Kentucky, W. Jay Christian

Journal of Appalachian Health

Background: Research has demonstrated that common chronic conditions, especially those related to cardiovascular health, are important risk factors for severe COVID-19 symptoms or hospitalization. Population prevalence rates of such conditions have not previously been examined in relation to COVID-19 case fatality rates in the Central Appalachian region.

Purpose: This study examined prevalence rates of selected chronic conditions and COVID-19 case fatality rates to determine whether the relationship between them is consistent across Appalachian and non-Appalachian regions of Kentucky.

Methods: Data from Kentucky’s Behavioral Risk Factor Survey (KyBRFS) were used to calculate prevalence rates of asthma, diabetes, influenza vaccination, hypertension ...


Perceived Ability To Treat Opioid Use Disorder In West Virginia, A. Brianna Sheppard, Jonathan C. Young, Steve M. Davis, Garrett E. Moran May 2021

Perceived Ability To Treat Opioid Use Disorder In West Virginia, A. Brianna Sheppard, Jonathan C. Young, Steve M. Davis, Garrett E. Moran

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) is an evidence-based therapy for opioid use disorder (OUD) that has not been fully implemented in rural areas due to patient, provider, and logistical barriers. Limited information is available on provider perceptions of barriers to MAT in rural Central Appalachia which has very high rates of OUD compared to the rest the United States.

Purpose: Determine perceived barriers for potential prescribers to using MAT, including buprenorphine, as part of treatment for OUD in West Virginia.

Methods: A 30-question, anonymous survey was sent to physicians, physician assistants and advanced practice registered nurses using an online link. Link ...


Effects Of Sleep Duration On Falls In A West Virginia Population-Based Study, Brfss, 2018, R. Constance Wiener, Christopher Waters May 2021

Effects Of Sleep Duration On Falls In A West Virginia Population-Based Study, Brfss, 2018, R. Constance Wiener, Christopher Waters

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: West Virginia is a state in which most counties are rural, as well as a state with multiple health disparities among its population. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of sleep duration and falls for non-institutionalized West Virginia adults, aged 40 years and above, using the National Sleep Foundation’s definition of “may be appropriate” and “not recommended” sleep durations for specific ages.

Methods: Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) 2018 data concerning West Virginia residents were extracted for sleep duration and number of falls within the previous year. Data were analyzed with Chi square ...


Loss Of Obstetric Services In Rural Appalachia: A Qualitative Study Of Community Perceptions, Caroline R. Efird, David Dry, Rachel F. Seidman May 2021

Loss Of Obstetric Services In Rural Appalachia: A Qualitative Study Of Community Perceptions, Caroline R. Efird, David Dry, Rachel F. Seidman

Journal of Appalachian Health

Background: As rural hospitals across the United States increasingly downsize or close, the availability of inpatient obstetric services continues to decline in rural areas. In rural Appalachia, the termination of obstetric services threatens to exacerbate the existing risk of adverse birth outcomes for women and infants, yet less is known about how the cessation of these services affects the broader community.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explain how the loss of local obstetric services affects perceptions of healthcare among multi-generational residents of a remote, rural Appalachian community in western North Carolina.

Methods: An interdisciplinary team of researchers ...


Diseases Of Despair: A Commentary, Andrew Howard May 2021

Diseases Of Despair: A Commentary, Andrew Howard

Journal of Appalachian Health

Across the nation, and within Appalachia, communities that struggle economically experience greater health challenges, with disparities observed across leading causes of death. Within our region, these disparities are particularly notable across diseases of despair.


Medicare-Paid Naloxone: Trends In Non-Metropolitan And Metropolitan Areas, Chris Delcher, Yue Cheng, Minji Sohn, Jeffery C. Talbert, Patricia R. Freeman May 2021

Medicare-Paid Naloxone: Trends In Non-Metropolitan And Metropolitan Areas, Chris Delcher, Yue Cheng, Minji Sohn, Jeffery C. Talbert, Patricia R. Freeman

Rural & Underserved Health Research Center Publications

Overview of Key Findings

  • Medicare pays for the largest share (> 30%) of naloxone dispensed from retail pharmacies in non-metropolitan areas.
  • Medicare-paid dispensing has grown since 2013, but from 2017-2018 dispensing growth in non-metropolitan areas slowed considerably compared to metropolitan areas (42% v 121%, respectively).
  • As of 2018, the rate of naloxone dispensing to Medicare enrollees in metropolitan areas was approximately double that in non-metropolitan areas (4.9 v 2.9 per 1,000 enrollees, respectively).


School Reopenings, Mobility, And Covid-19 Spread: Evidence From Texas, Charles J. Courtemanche, Anh Le, Aaron Yelowitz, Ron Zimmer May 2021

School Reopenings, Mobility, And Covid-19 Spread: Evidence From Texas, Charles J. Courtemanche, Anh Le, Aaron Yelowitz, Ron Zimmer

Institute for the Study of Free Enterprise Working Papers

This paper examines the effect of fall 2020 school reopenings in Texas on county-level COVID19 cases and fatalities. Previous evidence suggests that schools can be reopened safely if community spread is low and public health guidelines are followed. However, in Texas, reopenings often occurred alongside high community spread and at near capacity, likely making it difficult to meet social distancing recommendations. Using event-study models and hand-collected instruction modality and start dates for all school districts, we find robust evidence that reopening Texas schools gradually but substantially accelerated the community spread of COVID-19. Results from our preferred specification imply that school ...


Epigenome-Wide Association Study Of Kidney Function Identifies Trans-Ethnic And Ethnic-Specific Loci, Charles E. Breeze, Anna Batorsky, Mi Kyeong Lee, Mindy D. Szeto, Xiaoguang Xu, Daniel L. Mccartney, Rong Jiang, Amit Patki, Holly J. Kramer, James M. Eales, Laura Raffield, Leslie Lange, Ethan Lange, Peter Durda, Yongmei Liu, Russ P. Tracy, David Van Den Berg, Nhlbi Trans-Omics For Precision Medicine (Topmed) Consortium, Topmed Mesa Multi-Omics Working Group, Kathryn L. Evans, William E. Kraus, Donna K. Arnett Apr 2021

Epigenome-Wide Association Study Of Kidney Function Identifies Trans-Ethnic And Ethnic-Specific Loci, Charles E. Breeze, Anna Batorsky, Mi Kyeong Lee, Mindy D. Szeto, Xiaoguang Xu, Daniel L. Mccartney, Rong Jiang, Amit Patki, Holly J. Kramer, James M. Eales, Laura Raffield, Leslie Lange, Ethan Lange, Peter Durda, Yongmei Liu, Russ P. Tracy, David Van Den Berg, Nhlbi Trans-Omics For Precision Medicine (Topmed) Consortium, Topmed Mesa Multi-Omics Working Group, Kathryn L. Evans, William E. Kraus, Donna K. Arnett

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (DNAm) is associated with gene regulation and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function. Decreased eGFR is more common among US Hispanics and African Americans. The causes for this are poorly understood. We aimed to identify trans-ethnic and ethnic-specific differentially methylated positions (DMPs) associated with eGFR using an agnostic, genome-wide approach.

METHODS: The study included up to 5428 participants from multi-ethnic studies for discovery and 8109 participants for replication. We tested the associations between whole blood DNAm and eGFR using beta values from Illumina 450K or EPIC arrays. Ethnicity-stratified analyses were performed using linear ...


Transcriptomic Phases Of Periodontitis Lesions Using The Nonhuman Primate Model, Jeffrey L. Ebersole, Radhakrishnan Nagarajan, Sreenatha S. Kirakodu, Octavio A. Gonzalez Apr 2021

Transcriptomic Phases Of Periodontitis Lesions Using The Nonhuman Primate Model, Jeffrey L. Ebersole, Radhakrishnan Nagarajan, Sreenatha S. Kirakodu, Octavio A. Gonzalez

Center for Oral Health Research Faculty Publications

We used a nonhuman primate model of ligature-induced periodontitis to identify patterns of gingival transcriptomic after changes demarcating phases of periodontitis lesions (initiation, progression, resolution). A total of 18 adult Macaca mulatta (12–22 years) had ligatures placed (premolar, 1st molar teeth) in all 4 quadrants. Gingival tissue samples were obtained (baseline, 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months during periodontitis and at 5 months resolution). Gene expression was analyzed by microarray [Rhesus Gene 1.0 ST Array (Affymetrix)]. Compared to baseline, a large array of genes were significantly altered at initiation (n = 6049), early progression (n = 4893), and late progression ...


Cross-Sectional Exploration Of Plasma Biomarkers Of Alzheimer's Disease In Down Syndrome: Early Data From The Longitudinal Investigation For Enhancing Down Syndrome Research (Life-Dsr) Study, James A. Hendrix, David C. Airey, Angela Britton, Anna D. Burke, George T. Capone, Ronelyn Chavez, Jacqueline Chen, Brian Chicoine, Alberto C. S. Costa, Jeffrey L. Dage, Eric Doran, Anna Esbensen, Casey L. Evans, Kelley M. Faber, Tatiana M. Foroud, Sarah Hart, Kelsey Haugen, Elizabeth Head, Suzanne Hendrix, Hampus Hillerstrom, Frederick A. Schmitt Apr 2021

Cross-Sectional Exploration Of Plasma Biomarkers Of Alzheimer's Disease In Down Syndrome: Early Data From The Longitudinal Investigation For Enhancing Down Syndrome Research (Life-Dsr) Study, James A. Hendrix, David C. Airey, Angela Britton, Anna D. Burke, George T. Capone, Ronelyn Chavez, Jacqueline Chen, Brian Chicoine, Alberto C. S. Costa, Jeffrey L. Dage, Eric Doran, Anna Esbensen, Casey L. Evans, Kelley M. Faber, Tatiana M. Foroud, Sarah Hart, Kelsey Haugen, Elizabeth Head, Suzanne Hendrix, Hampus Hillerstrom, Frederick A. Schmitt

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

With improved healthcare, the Down syndrome (DS) population is both growing and aging rapidly. However, with longevity comes a very high risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The LIFE-DSR study (NCT04149197) is a longitudinal natural history study recruiting 270 adults with DS over the age of 25. The study is designed to characterize trajectories of change in DS-associated AD (DS-AD). The current study reports its cross-sectional analysis of the first 90 subjects enrolled. Plasma biomarkers phosphorylated tau protein (p-tau), neurofilament light chain (NfL), amyloid β peptides (Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were undertaken with previously ...


Effects Of Endogenous Angiotensin Ii On Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms And Atherosclerosis In Angiotensin Ii-Infused Mice, Masayoshi Kukida, Hisashi Sawada, Satoko Ohno-Urabe, Deborah A. Howatt, Jessica J. Moorleghen, Marko Poglitsch, Alan Daugherty, Hong S. Lu Apr 2021

Effects Of Endogenous Angiotensin Ii On Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms And Atherosclerosis In Angiotensin Ii-Infused Mice, Masayoshi Kukida, Hisashi Sawada, Satoko Ohno-Urabe, Deborah A. Howatt, Jessica J. Moorleghen, Marko Poglitsch, Alan Daugherty, Hong S. Lu

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Intrauterine Blood Plasma Platelet-Therapy Mitigates Persistent Breeding-Induced Endometritis, Reduces Uterine Infections, And Improves Embryo Recovery In Mares, Lorenzo G. T. M. Segabinazzi, Igor F. Canisso, Giorgia Podico, Lais L. Cunha, Guilherme Novello, Michael F. Rosser, Shavanh C. Loux, Fabio S. Lima, Marco A. Alvarenga Apr 2021

Intrauterine Blood Plasma Platelet-Therapy Mitigates Persistent Breeding-Induced Endometritis, Reduces Uterine Infections, And Improves Embryo Recovery In Mares, Lorenzo G. T. M. Segabinazzi, Igor F. Canisso, Giorgia Podico, Lais L. Cunha, Guilherme Novello, Michael F. Rosser, Shavanh C. Loux, Fabio S. Lima, Marco A. Alvarenga

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Microorganisms, including pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria and fungi, may gain access to the uterus during breeding, and infectious endometritis plays a major role in equine subfertility. This study aimed to assess the post-breeding inflammatory response, endometrial culture, and embryo recovery of mares susceptible to persistent breeding-induced endometritis (PBIE) treated with plasma-rich (PRP) or -poor (PPP) plasma. Mares (n = 12) susceptible to PBIE had three cycles randomly assigned to receive intrauterine infusions of lactate ringer solution (LRS, control), or autologous PRP or PPP pre- (−48 and −24 h) and post-breeding (6 and 24 h). Mares were bred with fresh semen from ...


The Context-Dependent Impact Of Integrin-Associated Cd151 And Other Tetraspanins On Cancer Development And Progression: A Class Of Versatile Mediators Of Cellular Function And Signaling, Tumorigenesis And Metastasis, Sonia F. Erfani, Hui Hua, Yueyin Pan, Binhua P. Zhou, Xiuwei H. Yang Apr 2021

The Context-Dependent Impact Of Integrin-Associated Cd151 And Other Tetraspanins On Cancer Development And Progression: A Class Of Versatile Mediators Of Cellular Function And Signaling, Tumorigenesis And Metastasis, Sonia F. Erfani, Hui Hua, Yueyin Pan, Binhua P. Zhou, Xiuwei H. Yang

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

As a family of integral membrane proteins, tetraspanins have been functionally linked to a wide spectrum of human cancers, ranging from breast, colon, lung, ovarian, prostate, and skin carcinomas to glioblastoma. CD151 is one such prominent member of the tetraspanin family recently suggested to mediate tumor development, growth, and progression in oncogenic context- and cell lineage-dependent manners. In the current review, we summarize recent advances in mechanistic understanding of the function and signaling of integrin-associated CD151 and other tetraspanins in multiple cancer types. We also highlight emerging genetic and epigenetic evidence on the intrinsic links between tetraspanins, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition ...


Insects Provide Unique Systems To Investigate How Early-Life Experience Alters The Brain And Behavior, Rebecca R. Westwick, Clare C. Rittschof Apr 2021

Insects Provide Unique Systems To Investigate How Early-Life Experience Alters The Brain And Behavior, Rebecca R. Westwick, Clare C. Rittschof

Entomology Faculty Publications

Early-life experiences have strong and long-lasting consequences for behavior in a surprising diversity of animals. Determining which environmental inputs cause behavioral change, how this information becomes neurobiologically encoded, and the functional consequences of these changes remain fundamental puzzles relevant to diverse fields from evolutionary biology to the health sciences. Here we explore how insects provide unique opportunities for comparative study of developmental behavioral plasticity. Insects have sophisticated behavior and cognitive abilities, and they are frequently studied in their natural environments, which provides an ecological and adaptive perspective that is often more limited in lab-based vertebrate models. A range of cues ...


An Ensemble Of The Icluster Method To Analyze Longitudinal Lncrna Expression Data For Psoriasis Patients, Suyan Tian, Chi Wang Apr 2021

An Ensemble Of The Icluster Method To Analyze Longitudinal Lncrna Expression Data For Psoriasis Patients, Suyan Tian, Chi Wang

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is an immune-mediated, inflammatory disorder of the skin with chronic inflammation and hyper-proliferation of the epidermis. Since psoriasis has genetic components and the diseased tissue of psoriasis is very easily accessible, it is natural to use high-throughput technologies to characterize psoriasis and thus seek targeted therapies. Transcriptional profiles change correspondingly after an intervention. Unlike cross-sectional gene expression data, longitudinal gene expression data can capture the dynamic changes and thus facilitate causal inference.

METHODS: Using the iCluster method as a building block, an ensemble method was proposed and applied to a longitudinal gene expression dataset for psoriasis, with the ...


Improvisation As A Teaching Tool For Improving Oral Communication Skills In Premedical And Pre-Biomedical Graduate Students, Marianne Phelps, Catrina White, Lin Xiang, Hollie I. Swanson Apr 2021

Improvisation As A Teaching Tool For Improving Oral Communication Skills In Premedical And Pre-Biomedical Graduate Students, Marianne Phelps, Catrina White, Lin Xiang, Hollie I. Swanson

Theatre and Dance Faculty Publications

Objective:

To evaluate the relationship between training in theatre improvisation and empathy, communication, and other professional skills.

Methods:

Undergraduate and graduate students who were participants of a 10-week summer undergraduate research program engaged in theatre improvisation techniques during a 3-hour workshop. In Study #1, a de-identified, self-report questionnaire (known as the Empathy Quotient) was administered prior to and following the workshop. Paired sample 2-tailed t-tests were performed to evaluate pre- and post-test scores. To identify additional benefits of engaging in theatre improvisation techniques, Study #2 was performed. Here, a survey was administered to the participants following their completion of ...


Case Report: The Complexities Of Managing Medications And The Importance Of Deprescribing Anticholinergics In Older Adults, Taylor Elliott, Lynne Eckmann, Daniela C. Moga Apr 2021

Case Report: The Complexities Of Managing Medications And The Importance Of Deprescribing Anticholinergics In Older Adults, Taylor Elliott, Lynne Eckmann, Daniela C. Moga

Pharmacy Practice and Science Faculty Publications

Potentially inappropriate anticholinergic medications (including over-the-counter products), polypharmacy, and the existence of communication barriers among members of the interprofessional team frequently contribute to clinical complexity in older adults. We present the case of a frail 86-year old female from the perspective of a community pharmacist managing outpatient medications and transitions of care. CD’s past medical history is significant for dementia, multiple falls, recurrent urinary tract infections, depression, cardiac arrhythmia, macular degeneration, chronic pain, depression, and cerebrovascular disease.


Antibiotic Prescription Practices And Opinions Regarding Antimicrobial Resistance Among Veterinarians In Kentucky, Usa, Agricola Odoi, Ronita Samuels, Craig N. Carter, Jackie Smith Apr 2021

Antibiotic Prescription Practices And Opinions Regarding Antimicrobial Resistance Among Veterinarians In Kentucky, Usa, Agricola Odoi, Ronita Samuels, Craig N. Carter, Jackie Smith

Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Faculty Publications

Background
Inappropriate antimicrobial use (AMU) is a global concern. Opinions of veterinarians regarding AMU and its role in the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) may influence their prescription practices. It is important to understand these opinions, prescription practices and their potential impact on the development of AMR in order to guide efforts to curb the problem. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial prescription practices and opinions of veterinarians in Kentucky regarding AMU and AMR.

Methods
This cross-sectional study used a 30-question survey questionnaire administered to veterinarians who were members of the Kentucky Veterinary Medical Association ...


Functional Activation Of Newborn Neurons Following Alcohol-Induced Reactive Neurogenesis, Natalie N. Nawarawong, Chelsea G. Nickell, Deann M. Hopkins, James R. Pauly, Kimberly Nixon Apr 2021

Functional Activation Of Newborn Neurons Following Alcohol-Induced Reactive Neurogenesis, Natalie N. Nawarawong, Chelsea G. Nickell, Deann M. Hopkins, James R. Pauly, Kimberly Nixon

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Abstinence after alcohol dependence leads to structural and functional recovery in many regions of the brain, especially the hippocampus. Significant increases in neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and subsequent “reactive neurogenesis” coincides with structural recovery in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). However, whether these reactively born neurons are integrated appropriately into neural circuits remains unknown. Therefore, adult male rats were exposed to a binge model of alcohol dependence. On day 7 of abstinence, the peak of reactive NSC proliferation, rats were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. After six weeks, rats underwent Morris Water Maze (MWM) training then were ...


Gait And Balance Changes With Investigational Peripheral Nerve Cell Therapy During Deep Brain Stimulation In People With Parkinson’S Disease, Geetanjali Gera, Zain Guduru, Tritia R. Yamasaki, Julie A. Gurwell, Monica Chau, Anna Krotinger, Frederick A. Schmitt, John T. Slevin, Greg A. Gerhardt, Craig G. Van Horne, Jorge E. Quintero Apr 2021

Gait And Balance Changes With Investigational Peripheral Nerve Cell Therapy During Deep Brain Stimulation In People With Parkinson’S Disease, Geetanjali Gera, Zain Guduru, Tritia R. Yamasaki, Julie A. Gurwell, Monica Chau, Anna Krotinger, Frederick A. Schmitt, John T. Slevin, Greg A. Gerhardt, Craig G. Van Horne, Jorge E. Quintero

Physical Therapy Faculty Publications

Background: The efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and dopaminergic therapy is known to decrease over time. Hence, a new investigational approach combines implanting autologous injury-activated peripheral nerve grafts (APNG) at the time of bilateral DBS surgery to the globus pallidus interna. Objectives: In a study where APNG was unilaterally implanted into the substantia nigra, we explored the effects on clinical gait and balance assessments over two years in 14 individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Methods: Computerized gait and balance evaluations were performed without medication, and stimulation was in the off state for at least 12 h to best assess ...


Keap1 Is Required For Artesunate Anticancer Activity In Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer, Kristen S. Hill, Anthony Mcdowell Jr., J. Robert Mccorkle, Erin Schuler, Sally R. Ellingson, Rina Plattner, Jill M. Kolesar Apr 2021

Keap1 Is Required For Artesunate Anticancer Activity In Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer, Kristen S. Hill, Anthony Mcdowell Jr., J. Robert Mccorkle, Erin Schuler, Sally R. Ellingson, Rina Plattner, Jill M. Kolesar

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Faculty Publications

Artesunate is the most common treatment for malaria throughout the world. Artesunate has anticancer activity likely through the induction of reactive oxygen species, the same mechanism of action utilized in Plasmodium falciparum infections. Components of the kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1)/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) pathway, which regulates cellular response to oxidative stress, are mutated in approximately 30% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC); therefore, we tested the hypothesis that KEAP1 is required for artesunate sensitivity in NSCLC. Dose response assays identified A549 cells, which have a G333C-inactivating mutation in KEAP1, as resistant to artesunate, with an IC50 ...


Vitamin D Promotes Skeletal Muscle Regeneration And Mitochondrial Health, Christine M. Latham, Camille R. Brightwell, Alexander R. Keeble, Brooke D. Munson, Nicholas T. Thomas, Alyaa M. Zagzoog, Christopher S. Fry, Jean L. Fry Apr 2021

Vitamin D Promotes Skeletal Muscle Regeneration And Mitochondrial Health, Christine M. Latham, Camille R. Brightwell, Alexander R. Keeble, Brooke D. Munson, Nicholas T. Thomas, Alyaa M. Zagzoog, Christopher S. Fry, Jean L. Fry

Athletic Training and Clinical Nutrition Faculty Publications

Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for the maintenance of skeletal muscle and bone health. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is present in muscle, as is CYP27B1, the enzyme that hydroxylates 25(OH)D to its active form, 1,25(OH)D. Furthermore, mounting evidence suggests that vitamin D may play an important role during muscle damage and regeneration. Muscle damage is characterized by compromised muscle fiber architecture, disruption of contractile protein integrity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Muscle regeneration is a complex process that involves restoration of mitochondrial function and activation of satellite cells (SC), the resident skeletal muscle stem cells ...