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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Seeking Care At Free Episodic Health Care Clinics In Appalachia, Malerie Lazar, Sandra Thomas, Lisa Davenport Apr 2020

Seeking Care At Free Episodic Health Care Clinics In Appalachia, Malerie Lazar, Sandra Thomas, Lisa Davenport

Journal of Appalachian Health

Background: People who live in rural Appalachia experience a wide variety of problems when seeking access to health care. Health care disparities continue to be one of the most complex and prevalent problems, and many barriers exist for impoverished men and women such as a lack of education, complications with health insurance, and personal distrust of healthcare providers.

Purpose: A critical gap in the literature is the unheard voice of persons in rural underserved areas. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of persons in rural Appalachia who seek healthcare services at free episodic health care clinics ...


Skin Cancer And Uv Exposure-Related Behaviors Among Appalachian And Non-Appalachian Adults, Minal Patel, Katrina Serrano, Elise Rice, Chan Thai, Kelly Blake, Robin C. Vanderpool Apr 2020

Skin Cancer And Uv Exposure-Related Behaviors Among Appalachian And Non-Appalachian Adults, Minal Patel, Katrina Serrano, Elise Rice, Chan Thai, Kelly Blake, Robin C. Vanderpool

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: Appalachian communities experience elevated rates of cancer incidence and mortality relative to other regions in the U.S. Specifically, melanoma mortality rates are higher in Appalachia compared to the national average, despite comparable incidence rates.

Purpose: To examine differences in self-reported history of skin cancer and prevalence of two UV exposure behaviors between Appalachian and non-Appalachian adults in a nationally representative sample.

Methods: Data are from four cross-sectional cycles of the Health Information National Trends Survey (2011–2014) (N=14,451). We examined sunscreen use and tanning bed use, and self-reported history of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Descriptive ...


Impact Of The Affordable Care Act On Referral To Care For People Living With Hiv In Appalachia, Cameron A. Wade, Timothy N. Crawford, Nicole Leedy, Alice C. Thornton Apr 2020

Impact Of The Affordable Care Act On Referral To Care For People Living With Hiv In Appalachia, Cameron A. Wade, Timothy N. Crawford, Nicole Leedy, Alice C. Thornton

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) enacted on March 23, 2010 significantly impacted access to healthcare for people living with HIV (PLWH). Expansion of care was accomplished in three areas: eliminating exclusions for pre-existing conditions, elimination of lifetime caps on healthcare expenditures, and expansion of Medicaid eligibility.

Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of state implementation of the ACA Medicaid expansion on referral to HIV care at a Ryan White federally funded clinic in Kentucky (University of Kentucky Bluegrass Care Clinic [UK BCC]).

Methods: Retrospective chart review of all newly enrolled patients at the UK BCC between March 2010 and ...


Food Insecurity Among College Students With And Without Medical Disorders At A University In Appalachia, Laura Mcarthur, Melissa D. Gutschall, Kimberly Fasczewski, Anna Jackson Apr 2020

Food Insecurity Among College Students With And Without Medical Disorders At A University In Appalachia, Laura Mcarthur, Melissa D. Gutschall, Kimberly Fasczewski, Anna Jackson

Journal of Appalachian Health

Objective: This study compared severity of food insecurity, characteristics, and behaviors of college students with and without diagnosed medical disorders.

Design: Data were collected using a cross-sectional online questionnaire. Variables measured were food security status, disorders, coping strategies, and perceived barriers to food access. Descriptive and inferential statistics examined associations and compared groups. Statistical significance was p≤0.05.

Setting: Data were collected at Appalachian State University in North Carolina.

Participants: The sample was 247 food insecure students, of whom 60% were females, 50% 3rd- and 4th-year students, and 75% whites.

Results: Medical disorders were reported by 67.2% of ...


A Nutritional And Environmental Analysis Of Local Food Pantries Accessible To College Students In Rural North Carolina, Emily E. Frymark, Jonathon Stickford, Alisha Farris Apr 2020

A Nutritional And Environmental Analysis Of Local Food Pantries Accessible To College Students In Rural North Carolina, Emily E. Frymark, Jonathon Stickford, Alisha Farris

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: Food insecurity is a growing concern among college students and is especially prevalent in rural areas. Food pantries often serve as a resource to food insecure individuals yet, their policies, standards, and nutritional quality vary due to the unpredictability of food donations.

Purpose: To examine the nutritional quality of food items and adherence of best practices at local food pantries accessible to college students near a university in rural Appalachia.

Methods: Three food pantries in North Carolina were selected due to their proximity to a local, rural university. Food items were analyzed for nutrient and food group content and ...


Use And Perceptions Of A Campus Food Pantry Among Food Insecure College Students: An Exploratory Study From Appalachia, Laura Mcarthur, Kimberly S. Fasczewski, Alisha Farris, Miranda R. Petrone Apr 2020

Use And Perceptions Of A Campus Food Pantry Among Food Insecure College Students: An Exploratory Study From Appalachia, Laura Mcarthur, Kimberly S. Fasczewski, Alisha Farris, Miranda R. Petrone

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: Food insecurity has emerged as a public health problem among college students in Appalachia, jeopardizing their physical, mental, and emotional health and academic success. Campus food pantries have been established in this region, but no data are available concerning student use or perception of services.

Purpose: This study measured use and perceptions of a campus food pantry by students at a mid-sized university in rural North Carolina.

Methods: An online questionnaire collected behavioral and perceptual data, and follow-up interviews explored these variables. Descriptive statistics with significance at p<0.05 and thematic analytical procedures were used.

Results: Questionnaires were submitted by 896 of 6000 recruited students (14 ...


The Need For Evidence-Based Interventions To Reduce Food Insecurity Among College Students, Sarah Brothers, Stephanie Jilcott-Pitts Phd Apr 2020

The Need For Evidence-Based Interventions To Reduce Food Insecurity Among College Students, Sarah Brothers, Stephanie Jilcott-Pitts Phd

Journal of Appalachian Health

Food insecurity is defined as insufficient resources to meet food needs. This is a global problem but is not confined to those countries identified as poor. One group of Americans who are particularly affected, and for whom the effects are particularly severe, is college students.


Research Data Management From The Stem Perspective: Reproducibility, Data Reuse, Data Integration, Melissa D. Clarkson Apr 2020

Research Data Management From The Stem Perspective: Reproducibility, Data Reuse, Data Integration, Melissa D. Clarkson

Institute of Biomedical Informatics Presentations

This presentation highlights three big ideas in STEM data management:

  • Reproducibility requires scripted pipelines
  • Data reuse requires metadata and documentation
  • Data integration requires use of standards

It also provides an overview of the FAIR principles for research data management.


First-In-Human Studies Of Mw01-6-189wh, A Brain-Penetrant, Antineuroinflammatory Small-Molecule Drug Candidate: Phase 1 Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetic, And Pharmacodynamic Studies In Healthy Adult Volunteers, Linda J. Van Eldik, Lumy Sawaki, Karen Bowen, Daniel T. Laskowitz, Robert J. Noveck, Byron Hauser, Lynn Jordan, Tracy G. Spears, Huali Wu, Kevin Watt, Shruti Raja, Saktimayee M. Roy, D. Martin Watterson, Jeffrey T. Guptill Apr 2020

First-In-Human Studies Of Mw01-6-189wh, A Brain-Penetrant, Antineuroinflammatory Small-Molecule Drug Candidate: Phase 1 Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetic, And Pharmacodynamic Studies In Healthy Adult Volunteers, Linda J. Van Eldik, Lumy Sawaki, Karen Bowen, Daniel T. Laskowitz, Robert J. Noveck, Byron Hauser, Lynn Jordan, Tracy G. Spears, Huali Wu, Kevin Watt, Shruti Raja, Saktimayee M. Roy, D. Martin Watterson, Jeffrey T. Guptill

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

MW01-6-189WH (MW189) is a novel central nervous system-penetrant small-molecule drug candidate that selectively attenuates stressor-induced proinflammatory cytokine overproduction and is efficacious in intracerebral hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury animal models. We report first-in-human, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 studies to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of single and multiple ascending intravenous doses of MW189 in healthy adult volunteers. MW189 was safe and well tolerated in single and multiple doses up to 0.25 mg/kg, with no clinically significant concerns. The most common drug-related treatment-emergent adverse event was infusion-site reactions, likely related to drug solution acidity. No clinically ...


Did Social-Distancing Measures In Kentucky Help To Flatten The Covid-19 Curve?, Charles J. Courtemanche, Joseph Garuccio, Anh Le, Joshua C. Pinkston, Aaron Yelowitz Apr 2020

Did Social-Distancing Measures In Kentucky Help To Flatten The Covid-19 Curve?, Charles J. Courtemanche, Joseph Garuccio, Anh Le, Joshua C. Pinkston, Aaron Yelowitz

Institute for the Study of Free Enterprise Working Papers

In the absence of a vaccine or more effective treatment options, containing the spread of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) must rely on non-pharmaceutical interventions. All U.S. states adopted social-distancing measures in March and April of 2020, though they varied in both timing and scope. Kentucky began by closing public schools and restaurant dining rooms on March 16th before progressing to closing other non-essential businesses and eventually issuing a “Healthy at Home” order with restrictions similar to the shelter-in-place (SIPO) orders adopted by other states. We aim to quantify the impact of these measures on COVID-19 case growth in ...


Healthcare Reform In The U.S. Must Be Driven By Policy And Data, Not Politics And Idealogy, Teresa M. Waters, Michael Karpf Mar 2020

Healthcare Reform In The U.S. Must Be Driven By Policy And Data, Not Politics And Idealogy, Teresa M. Waters, Michael Karpf

Health Management and Policy Faculty Publications

Background U.S. healthcare spending will reach 20% of GDP by 2026. Despite this spending, almost 14% of our under-65 population still lacks health insurance and out-of-pocket healthcare spending is high. To date, much of the healthcare reform debate has focused on who pays—the government, employers or individuals. Objective To review current healthcare reform issues and evidence. Method We address the questions of how much we pay, how we pay and what we receive for the money as a potential foundation for constructive dialogue. Results U.S. healthcare spending continues to exceed that of other countries, without offering universal ...


B Cells Migrate Into Remote Brain Areas And Support Neurogenesis And Functional Recovery After Focal Stroke In Mice, Sterling B. Ortega, Vanessa O. Torres, Sarah E. Latchney, Cody W. Whoolery, Ibrahim Z. Noorbhai, Katie Poinsatte, Uma M. Selvaraj, Monica A. Benson, Anouk J. M. Meeuwissen, Erik J. Plautz, Xiangmei Kong, Denise M. Ramirez, Apoorva D. Ajay, Julian P. Meeks, Mark P. Goldberg, Nancy L. Monson, Amelia J. Eisch, Ann M. Stowe Feb 2020

B Cells Migrate Into Remote Brain Areas And Support Neurogenesis And Functional Recovery After Focal Stroke In Mice, Sterling B. Ortega, Vanessa O. Torres, Sarah E. Latchney, Cody W. Whoolery, Ibrahim Z. Noorbhai, Katie Poinsatte, Uma M. Selvaraj, Monica A. Benson, Anouk J. M. Meeuwissen, Erik J. Plautz, Xiangmei Kong, Denise M. Ramirez, Apoorva D. Ajay, Julian P. Meeks, Mark P. Goldberg, Nancy L. Monson, Amelia J. Eisch, Ann M. Stowe

Neurology Faculty Publications

Lymphocytes infiltrate the stroke core and penumbra and often exacerbate cellular injury. B cells, however, are lymphocytes that do not contribute to acute pathology but can support recovery. B cell adoptive transfer to mice reduced infarct volumes 3 and 7 d after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo), independent of changing immune populations in recipient mice. Testing a direct neurotrophic effect, B cells cocultured with mixed cortical cells protected neurons and maintained dendritic arborization after oxygen-glucose deprivation. Whole-brain volumetric serial two-photon tomography (STPT) and a custom-developed image analysis pipeline visualized and quantified poststroke B cell diapedesis throughout the brain, including ...


Hierarchical Clustering Analyses Of Plasma Proteins In Subjects With Cardiovascular Risk Factors Identify Informative Subsets Based On Differential Levels Of Angiogenic And Inflammatory Biomarkers, Zachary Winder, Tiffany L. Sudduth, David W. Fardo, Qiang Cheng, Larry B. Goldstein, Peter T. Nelson, Frederick A. Schmitt, Gregory A. Jicha, Donna M. Wilcock Feb 2020

Hierarchical Clustering Analyses Of Plasma Proteins In Subjects With Cardiovascular Risk Factors Identify Informative Subsets Based On Differential Levels Of Angiogenic And Inflammatory Biomarkers, Zachary Winder, Tiffany L. Sudduth, David W. Fardo, Qiang Cheng, Larry B. Goldstein, Peter T. Nelson, Frederick A. Schmitt, Gregory A. Jicha, Donna M. Wilcock

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) is a commonly used unsupervised machine learning approach for identifying informative natural clusters of observations. HCA is performed by calculating a pairwise dissimilarity matrix and then clustering similar observations until all observations are grouped within a cluster. Verifying the empirical clusters produced by HCA is complex and not well studied in biomedical applications. Here, we demonstrate the comparability of a novel HCA technique with one that was used in previous biomedical applications while applying both techniques to plasma angiogenic (FGF, FLT, PIGF, Tie-2, VEGF, VEGF-D) and inflammatory (MMP1, MMP3, MMP9, IL8, TNFα) protein data to ...


Hsp47 Promotes Cancer Metastasis By Enhancing Collagen-Dependent Cancer Cell-Platelet Interaction, Gaofeng Xiong, Jie Chen, Guoying Zhang, Shike Wang, Kunito Kawasaki, Jieqing Zhu, Yan Zhang, Kazuhiro Nagata, Zhenyu Li, Binhua P. Zhou, Ren Xu Feb 2020

Hsp47 Promotes Cancer Metastasis By Enhancing Collagen-Dependent Cancer Cell-Platelet Interaction, Gaofeng Xiong, Jie Chen, Guoying Zhang, Shike Wang, Kunito Kawasaki, Jieqing Zhu, Yan Zhang, Kazuhiro Nagata, Zhenyu Li, Binhua P. Zhou, Ren Xu

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Increased expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) suggests potential function of cancer cell-produced ECM in initiation of cancer cell colonization. Here, we showed that collagen and heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47), a chaperone facilitating collagen secretion and deposition, were highly expressed during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and in CTCs. Hsp47 expression induced mesenchymal phenotypes in mammary epithelial cells (MECs), enhanced platelet recruitment, and promoted lung retention and colonization of cancer cells. Platelet depletion in vivo abolished Hsp47-induced cancer cell retention in the lung, suggesting that Hsp47 promotes cancer cell colonization by enhancing cancer cell–platelet ...


Nanoparticle Brain Delivery: A Guide To Verification Methods, Robert A. Yokel Jan 2020

Nanoparticle Brain Delivery: A Guide To Verification Methods, Robert A. Yokel

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Many reports conclude nanoparticle (NP) brain entry based on bulk brain analysis. Bulk brain includes blood, cerebrospinal fluid and blood vessels within the brain contributing to the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers. Considering the brain as neurons, glia and their extracellular space (brain parenchyma), most studies did not show brain parenchymal NP entry. Blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers anatomy and function are reviewed. Methods demonstrating brain parenchymal NP entry are presented. Results demonstrating bulk brain versus brain parenchymal entry are classified. Studies are reviewed, critiqued and classified to illustrate results demonstrating bulk brain versus parenchymal entry. Brain, blood and peripheral ...


A Brief Educational Intervention Enhances Basic Cancer Literacy Among Kentucky Middle And High School Students, Lauren Hudson, Kerrigan M. Samons, Haley E. Dicken, Chris Prichard, L. Todd Weiss, Jean Edward, Robin C. Vanderpool, Nathan L. Vanderford Jan 2020

A Brief Educational Intervention Enhances Basic Cancer Literacy Among Kentucky Middle And High School Students, Lauren Hudson, Kerrigan M. Samons, Haley E. Dicken, Chris Prichard, L. Todd Weiss, Jean Edward, Robin C. Vanderpool, Nathan L. Vanderford

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Kentucky experiences the highest overall cancer incidence and mortality rates in the USA with the greatest burden in the eastern, Appalachian region of the state. Cancer disparities in Kentucky are driven in part by poor health behaviors, poverty, lack of health care access, low education levels, and low health literacy. Individuals with inadequate health literacy are less likely to participate in preventive measures such as obtaining screenings and making healthy lifestyle choices, thus increasing their chances of developing and dying from cancer. By increasing cancer literacy among youth and adults, it may be possible to decrease cancer disparities across Kentucky ...


Identification Of Ebsulfur Analogues With Broad-Spectrum Antifungal Activity, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova, Huy X. Ngo, Sanjib K. Shrestha Jan 2020

Identification Of Ebsulfur Analogues With Broad-Spectrum Antifungal Activity, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova, Huy X. Ngo, Sanjib K. Shrestha

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Patents

The invention relates to novel ebsulfur analogues and novel pharmaceutical compositions comprising ebsulfur analogues. The invention also relates to novel methods of treating infections caused by fungal species comprising administration of ebselen, ebsulfur, and ebsulfur analogues.


Reviewer Acknowledgments For 2019, F. Douglas Scutchfield Md, Erin N. Haynes, Erin Bouldin, Robert M. Shapiro Ii, Tim Marema, Charlotte S. Seidman Jan 2020

Reviewer Acknowledgments For 2019, F. Douglas Scutchfield Md, Erin N. Haynes, Erin Bouldin, Robert M. Shapiro Ii, Tim Marema, Charlotte S. Seidman

Journal of Appalachian Health

The Editorial Team extends a heart-felt “thank you” to those who have given their time and expertise in the past year to participate in this process with the Journal of Appalachian Health. We know that you have many competing pressures on your time, and that you are not financially compensated for the time you spend reviewing manuscripts. We hope that there are other forms of compensation that make the sacrifice worth the effort.


A Healthy Attitude: Rural Leaders In Tn County Organize To Address Well-Being In Appalachia, Tim Marema, Erin Bouldin Jan 2020

A Healthy Attitude: Rural Leaders In Tn County Organize To Address Well-Being In Appalachia, Tim Marema, Erin Bouldin

Journal of Appalachian Health

When it came to formal philanthropy, Grundy County was not on the map. That changed with the 2012 establishment of South Cumberland Community Fund, which serves the plateau portions of Grundy, Franklin, and Marion counties.


The Nuclear Legacy In Appalachia, Michele Morrone, Harold Perkins Jan 2020

The Nuclear Legacy In Appalachia, Michele Morrone, Harold Perkins

Journal of Appalachian Health

Nestled in the rolling hills of Appalachia Ohio is a reminder of the role that the region played in winning the Cold War. For more than 40 years in rural Pike County, the 3,700-acre Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), or the “A-Plant” as the locals refer to it, enriched uranium for use in nuclear weapons. While the facility produced nuclear fuel for national security, it simultaneously exposed plant workers to chemicals and radiation and discharged pollution into the surrounding community. The A-Plant is now being demolished and the site repurposed. However, the site continues to affect the community as ...


Appalachian Environmental Health Literacy: Building Knowledge And Skills To Protect Health, Anna G. Hoover, Annie Koempel, W. Jay Christian, Kimberly I. Tumlin, Kelly G. Pennell, Steven Evans, Malissa Mcalister, Lindell E. Ormsbee, Dawn Brewer Jan 2020

Appalachian Environmental Health Literacy: Building Knowledge And Skills To Protect Health, Anna G. Hoover, Annie Koempel, W. Jay Christian, Kimberly I. Tumlin, Kelly G. Pennell, Steven Evans, Malissa Mcalister, Lindell E. Ormsbee, Dawn Brewer

Journal of Appalachian Health

Environmental health literacy (EHL) is an emerging, multidisciplinary field that promotes understanding of how environmental exposures can affect human health. After discussing the regional relevance of environmental health knowledge and skills, this article describes three ongoing Appalachian projects that are focused on measuring and building EHL.


Development And Early Outcomes Of The Watauga Compassionate Community Initiative, North Carolina, Tim Marema, Erin Bouldin Jan 2020

Development And Early Outcomes Of The Watauga Compassionate Community Initiative, North Carolina, Tim Marema, Erin Bouldin

Journal of Appalachian Health

Addressing adverse childhood experiences has become a public health imperative, and communities across the United States are working to develop and implement programs and policies to both prevent childhood trauma and support adults who experienced trauma as children. Here we describe the development of the Watauga Compassionate Community Initiative (WCCI) in Watauga, County, North Carolina.


Access To Autism Spectrum Disorder Services For Rural Appalachian Citizens, Angela Scarpa, Laura S. Jensen, Denis Gracanin, Sharon L. Ramey, Angela V. Dahiya, L. Maria Ingram, Jordan Albright, Alyssa J. Gatto, Jen P. Scott, Lisa Ruble Jan 2020

Access To Autism Spectrum Disorder Services For Rural Appalachian Citizens, Angela Scarpa, Laura S. Jensen, Denis Gracanin, Sharon L. Ramey, Angela V. Dahiya, L. Maria Ingram, Jordan Albright, Alyssa J. Gatto, Jen P. Scott, Lisa Ruble

Journal of Appalachian Health

Background: Low-resource rural communities face significant challenges regarding availability and adequacy of evidence-based services.

Purposes: With respect to accessing evidence-based services for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), this brief report summarizes needs of rural citizens in the South-Central Appalachian region, an area notable for persistent health disparities.

Methods: A mixed-methods approach was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data during focus groups with 33 service providers and 15 caregivers of children with ASD in rural southwest Virginia.

Results: Results supported the barriers of availability and affordability of ASD services in this region, especially relating to the need for more ASD-trained providers ...


Introduction To The New “Early Reports Of Innovation” Section, Erin Bouldin, Tim Marema Jan 2020

Introduction To The New “Early Reports Of Innovation” Section, Erin Bouldin, Tim Marema

Journal of Appalachian Health

The Journal of Appalachian Health is introducing a new section this issue. While the journal is centralizing some of the best research and commentary on Appalachian health, the editorial team felt that practice-focused groups, organizations, and agencies may not be fully represented in the publication.


Barn-Raising On The Digital Frontier: The L.A.U.N.C.H. Collaborative, Bradford W. Hesse, David Ahern, Michele Ellison, Eliah Aronoff-Spencer, Robin C. Vanderpool, Karen Onyeije, Michael C. Gibbons, Timothy W. Mullett, Ming-Yuan Chih, Victoria Attencio, Grant Patterson, Jessica Boten, Christopher Hartshorn, Ben Bartolome, Katie Gorscak, Melanie Mccomsey, Alexandra Hubenko, Bin Huang, Corey Baker, Don Norman Jan 2020

Barn-Raising On The Digital Frontier: The L.A.U.N.C.H. Collaborative, Bradford W. Hesse, David Ahern, Michele Ellison, Eliah Aronoff-Spencer, Robin C. Vanderpool, Karen Onyeije, Michael C. Gibbons, Timothy W. Mullett, Ming-Yuan Chih, Victoria Attencio, Grant Patterson, Jessica Boten, Christopher Hartshorn, Ben Bartolome, Katie Gorscak, Melanie Mccomsey, Alexandra Hubenko, Bin Huang, Corey Baker, Don Norman

Journal of Appalachian Health

A meta-analysis of oncology papers from around the world revealed that cancer patients who lived more than 50 miles away from hospital centers routinely presented with more advanced stages of disease at diagnosis, exhibited lower adherence to prescribed treatments, presented with poorer diagnoses, and reported a lower quality of life than patients who lived nearer to care facilities. Connected health approaches—or the use of broadband and telecommunications technologies to evaluate, diagnose, and monitor patients beyond the clinic—are becoming an indispensable tool in medicine to overcome the obstacle of distance.


Introducing The L.A.U.N.C.H. Collaborative, F. Douglas Scutchfield Md, Kevin Patrick Jan 2020

Introducing The L.A.U.N.C.H. Collaborative, F. Douglas Scutchfield Md, Kevin Patrick

Journal of Appalachian Health

The L.A.U.N.C.H. Collaborative: Linking & Amplifying User-Centered Networks through Connected Health: A Demonstration of Broadband-Enabled Connected Health and Community-Based Co-Design brings together a group of organizations that are eager to use Appalachian Kentucky as a site for the development of a project aimed at creating an environment that addresses two of the nation’s major concerns about cancer. First, individuals who live in rural and remote areas are more likely to die of cancer than those who live in urban or suburban settings. And second, geographic obstacles hinder their ability to access evidence-based strategies that can ...


Frontotemporal Dementia Nonsense Mutation Of Progranulin Rescued By Aminoglycosides, Lisha Kuang, Kei Hashimoto, Eric J. Huang, Matthew S. Gentry, Haining Zhu Jan 2020

Frontotemporal Dementia Nonsense Mutation Of Progranulin Rescued By Aminoglycosides, Lisha Kuang, Kei Hashimoto, Eric J. Huang, Matthew S. Gentry, Haining Zhu

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is an early onset dementia and is characterized by progressive atrophy of the frontal and/or temporal lobes. FTD is highly heritable with mutations in progranulin accounting for 5-26% of cases in different populations. Progranulin is involved in endocytosis, secretion and lysosomal processes, but its function under physiological and pathological conditions remains to be defined. Many FTD-causing nonsense progranulin mutations contain a premature termination codon (PTC), thus progranulin haploinsufficiency has been proposed as a major disease mechanism. Currently, there is no effective FTD treatment or therapy.

Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics that possess a less known ...


Immune-Mediated Genetic Pathways Resulting In Pulmonary Function Impairment Increase Lung Cancer Susceptibility, Linda Kachuri, Mattias Johansson, Sara R. Rashkin, Rebecca E. Graff, Yohan Bossé, Venkata Manem, Neil E. Caporaso, Maria Teresa Landi, David C. Christiani, Paolo Vineis, Geoffrey Liu, Ghislaine Scelo, David Zaridze, Sanjay S Shete, Demetrius Albanes, Melinda C. Aldrich, Adonina Tardón, Gad Rennert, Chu Chen, Gary E. Goodman, Jennifer A. Doherty, Heike Bickeböller, John K. Field, Michael P Davies, M. Dawn Teare, Lambertus A. Kiemeney, Stig E. Bojesen, Aage Haugen, Shanbeh Zienolddiny, Stephen Lam, Loïc Le Marchand, Iona Cheng, Matthew B. Schabath, Eric J. Duell, Angeline S. Andrew, Jonas Manjer, Philip Lazarus, Susanne M. Arnold, James D. Mckay, Nima C. Emami, Matthew T. Warkentin, Yonathan Brhane, Ma'en Obeidat, Richard M. Martin, Caroline Relton, George Davey Smith, Philip C. Haycock, Christopher I. Amos, Paul Brennan, John S. Witte, Rayjean J. Hung Jan 2020

Immune-Mediated Genetic Pathways Resulting In Pulmonary Function Impairment Increase Lung Cancer Susceptibility, Linda Kachuri, Mattias Johansson, Sara R. Rashkin, Rebecca E. Graff, Yohan Bossé, Venkata Manem, Neil E. Caporaso, Maria Teresa Landi, David C. Christiani, Paolo Vineis, Geoffrey Liu, Ghislaine Scelo, David Zaridze, Sanjay S Shete, Demetrius Albanes, Melinda C. Aldrich, Adonina Tardón, Gad Rennert, Chu Chen, Gary E. Goodman, Jennifer A. Doherty, Heike Bickeböller, John K. Field, Michael P Davies, M. Dawn Teare, Lambertus A. Kiemeney, Stig E. Bojesen, Aage Haugen, Shanbeh Zienolddiny, Stephen Lam, Loïc Le Marchand, Iona Cheng, Matthew B. Schabath, Eric J. Duell, Angeline S. Andrew, Jonas Manjer, Philip Lazarus, Susanne M. Arnold, James D. Mckay, Nima C. Emami, Matthew T. Warkentin, Yonathan Brhane, Ma'en Obeidat, Richard M. Martin, Caroline Relton, George Davey Smith, Philip C. Haycock, Christopher I. Amos, Paul Brennan, John S. Witte, Rayjean J. Hung

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Impaired lung function is often caused by cigarette smoking, making it challenging to disentangle its role in lung cancer susceptibility. Investigation of the shared genetic basis of these phenotypes in the UK Biobank and International Lung Cancer Consortium (29,266 cases, 56,450 controls) shows that lung cancer is genetically correlated with reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1: rg = 0.098, p = 2.3 × 10-8) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC: rg = 0.137, p = 2.0 × 10-12). Mendelian randomization analyses demonstrate that reduced FEV1 ...


Opioid And Non-Opioid Prescribing Rates For Ankle Fractures In Emergency Departments Across The United States Between 2006 And 2015, Lucy C. Bowers, Kyle B. Kosik, Alejandro G. Villasante Tezanos, Matthew C. Hoch, Phillip A. Gribble Jan 2020

Opioid And Non-Opioid Prescribing Rates For Ankle Fractures In Emergency Departments Across The United States Between 2006 And 2015, Lucy C. Bowers, Kyle B. Kosik, Alejandro G. Villasante Tezanos, Matthew C. Hoch, Phillip A. Gribble

Posters-at-the-Capitol Presentations

This presentation describes the percentage of patients prescribed a controlled and non-controlled medication in an United States Emergency Department for a diagnosed ankle fracture.


What Contributes To High Adolescent Pregnancy Rates In Ecuador? A Secondary Analysis Of A Qualitative Study, Isabel D. Gollmar, Hartley C. Feld Jan 2020

What Contributes To High Adolescent Pregnancy Rates In Ecuador? A Secondary Analysis Of A Qualitative Study, Isabel D. Gollmar, Hartley C. Feld

Posters-at-the-Capitol Presentations

Introduction: Ecuador has the second highest rates of adolescent pregnancy in South America. Adolescent pregnancy is associated with negative health implications, including miscarriage, neonatal and maternal demise, cephalopelvic disproportion, and illness throughout infancy. Additionally, adolescent pregnancy perpetuates the cycle of poverty and is associated with lower educational attainment and increased reliance on social services.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe experiences that contributed to unintended adolescent pregnancy of Ecuadorian women living in a low-resource community. Specifically, this work aimed to identify barriers to seeking or utilizing birth control in sexually active adolescents. The long-term goal of this ...