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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Update: Rural/Urban Disparities In Pneumococcal Vaccine Service Delivery Among The Fee-For-Service Medicare Population, 2012-2015, Joseph C. Vanghelof, Aric Schadler, Patricia R. Freeman, Jeffery C. Talbert Nov 2018

Update: Rural/Urban Disparities In Pneumococcal Vaccine Service Delivery Among The Fee-For-Service Medicare Population, 2012-2015, Joseph C. Vanghelof, Aric Schadler, Patricia R. Freeman, Jeffery C. Talbert

Rural & Underserved Health Research Center Publications

Overview of Key Findings

  • Between 2014 and 2015, the number of pneumococcal vaccine services delivered to fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare beneficiaries increased by 380% as a result of uptake of PCV13 vaccine.
  • Continued disparities in delivery of pneumococcal vaccine services to FFS Medicare beneficiaries in rural and urban communities are noted, with a 63% higher vaccination rate observed in urban areas.
  • The majority of pneumococcal vaccine services delivered to FFS Medicare beneficiaries were provided by primary care providers, although pharmacy providers delivered close to one-fourth (24.2%) of these services.
  • Pharmacy providers in rural communities play an increasing role in pneumococcal ...


Implanted Hemodynamic Monitoring In Management Of Significant Right Heart Failure Before And After Lvad Implantation: Creation And Maintenance Of Fontan Physiology In Severe Rv Dysfunction, Kevin Yei, Casey Kaisi, Rajeev Mohan, Ajay Srivastava, J Thomas Heywood Nov 2018

Implanted Hemodynamic Monitoring In Management Of Significant Right Heart Failure Before And After Lvad Implantation: Creation And Maintenance Of Fontan Physiology In Severe Rv Dysfunction, Kevin Yei, Casey Kaisi, Rajeev Mohan, Ajay Srivastava, J Thomas Heywood

The VAD Journal

In the left ventricular assist device (LVAD) population, right ventricular (RV) failure represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. It is unclear whether hemodynamic monitoring with the implantable CardioMEMS system can improve outcomes within this population. This case report highlights two patients in our clinic who had CardioMEMS implanted after LVAD, enabling us to modify their medical regimens remotely and more frequently in the management of their RV failure.


Restoration Of Left Ventricular Function Following Lvad Implantation – Remission Or Recovery? A Case Series., Shiksha Joshi, Mariah Barlow, Maya Guglin Nov 2018

Restoration Of Left Ventricular Function Following Lvad Implantation – Remission Or Recovery? A Case Series., Shiksha Joshi, Mariah Barlow, Maya Guglin

The VAD Journal

Background

A wide range of left ventricular (LV) recovery rates on left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support have been reported. In this case series, we summarize our experience with LVAD explantation for presumed LV recovery.

Case series

Out of 240 patients who received an LVAD implant in our program since its inception, we explanted/inactivated the pump for presumed LV recovery in only three patients. All three of these patients had relapse of cardiomyopathy within 6 months of explantation.

Conclusion

Our experience does not support the existence of LV recovery following LVAD implantation as a common phenomenon. Improvement in LV ...


De-Airing Method Of An Axial Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device Influences Post-Operative Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels: A Possible Explanation For Some Episodes Of Pump Thrombosis, Daizo Tanaka, Saif Rizvi, Andrew Boyle, Md, John W..C. Entwistle Sep 2018

De-Airing Method Of An Axial Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device Influences Post-Operative Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels: A Possible Explanation For Some Episodes Of Pump Thrombosis, Daizo Tanaka, Saif Rizvi, Andrew Boyle, Md, John W..C. Entwistle

The VAD Journal

Background

Pump thrombosis (PT) is a relatively uncommon but serious complication of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). We believe that de-airing of the HeartMate II (HMII) with the pump turned on and a clamp across the outflow graft may lead to early thrombus formation due to heat generation on the bearings.

Methods

Patients who underwent HMII implantation from November 2012 to February 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were separated into two groups depending on the timing of removing the clamp from the outflow graft. Patients in Group 1 underwent de-airing by turning on the pump with the vascular clamp ...


Methods For Treating Neuropathic Pain, Joseph R. Holtman, Peter Anthony Crooks, Linda Phyliss Dwoskin, Michael J. Mcintosh, Elzbieta Pogonowska Wala Sep 2018

Methods For Treating Neuropathic Pain, Joseph R. Holtman, Peter Anthony Crooks, Linda Phyliss Dwoskin, Michael J. Mcintosh, Elzbieta Pogonowska Wala

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Patents

Provided are methods for using bis-quaternary ammonium compounds to treat inflammatory pain, neuropathic pain and nociceptive pain.


A Modified Access Technique Of Impella 5.0 Axillary Artery Insertion, Abdallah Alameddine, Brian J. Binnall, Eric Dibiasio-White, Khaled Alameddine Sep 2018

A Modified Access Technique Of Impella 5.0 Axillary Artery Insertion, Abdallah Alameddine, Brian J. Binnall, Eric Dibiasio-White, Khaled Alameddine

The VAD Journal

The conventional method for the axillary artery insertion of Impella 5.0 is a non-tunneling route of the side-graft. We present an alternative technique in order to facilitate device insertion and to ensure protection from potential wound contamination. The technique consists of exiting the graft separately and away from the main incision with an intact skin and subcutaneous fat between the two sites. By proper isolation of the main wound, the risk of infection can thus be largely mitigated. Furthermore, this technique allows a better landing entry angle of graft insertion; the resulting smoother curve trajectory leads to facile device ...


Effects Of Beta Blockers And Ace Inhibitors After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation, Gaurang Vaidya, Emma Birks, Jessica Pillarella, Benjamin Salgado, Rajakrishnan Vijayakrishnan, Andrew Lenneman, Mark Slaughter, Dmitry Abramov Sep 2018

Effects Of Beta Blockers And Ace Inhibitors After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation, Gaurang Vaidya, Emma Birks, Jessica Pillarella, Benjamin Salgado, Rajakrishnan Vijayakrishnan, Andrew Lenneman, Mark Slaughter, Dmitry Abramov

The VAD Journal

Purpose: While Beta blockers(BB) and Angiotensin system blockers(ACEinh/ARB) are important components in advanced heart failure therapy, their use after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation remains controversial. Concern has been raised about possible adverse effects of BB on right ventricular(RV) function while tolerance and efficacy/outcome data for ACEinh are lacking. This study aimed to characterize the use of medical therapy post-LVAD implantation and to evaluate its safety and efficacy. Methods: Demographic, clinical and echocardiographic variables of patients implanted with a continuous-flow LVAD between 2012 and 2015 at a single center were retrospectively reviewed. Mortality and ...


The Conquest Of Pus -- A History Of Bitumen, Creosote And Carbolic Acid, Charles T. Ambrose Sep 2018

The Conquest Of Pus -- A History Of Bitumen, Creosote And Carbolic Acid, Charles T. Ambrose

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

In the Western world from antiquity on, open wounds were treated topically with petroleum-derived substances, such as bitumen, asphalt, pitch, and tar. The immediate aim was to stifle bleeding and ease pain but a potential benefit was preventing local corruption with pus formation. In the early 19th century, creosote was recovered from bitumen and found to reduce suppuration. Carbolic acid was later isolated from creosote and recognized as an underlying active agent. In the 1860s, carbolic acid was first employed by Jules Lemaire to treat local skin infections and later by Joseph Lister to prevent the suppuration in compound fractures ...


Electrocardiographic Characteristics, Antiarrhythmic Utilization, And Outcomes In Patients With Left Ventricular Assist Devices, Scott Lundgren, Elizabeth Lyden, Douglas Stoller, Marshall Hyden, Adam Burdorf, Ronald Zolty, John Um, Brian Lowes Aug 2018

Electrocardiographic Characteristics, Antiarrhythmic Utilization, And Outcomes In Patients With Left Ventricular Assist Devices, Scott Lundgren, Elizabeth Lyden, Douglas Stoller, Marshall Hyden, Adam Burdorf, Ronald Zolty, John Um, Brian Lowes

The VAD Journal

Background: Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are an increasingly used therapy for patients with advanced heart failure. Arrhythmias are common complications following LVAD implantation requiring admission, initiation, and escalation of medical therapy. Despite their frequent use in the treatment of arrhythmias, little has been reported regarding electrocardiographic changes, antiarrhythmic utilization, and outcomes post-LVAD.

Methods: A total of 309 patients who received a LVAD underwent retrospective chart review pre- and post-LVAD. Kaplan-Meier curves were calculated and compared using the log-rank test. Cox regression model was used for univariate analysis and those with a p

Results: There was a significant reduction in ...


Targeting The Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore In Traumatic Central Nervous System Injury, Joe E. Springer, Pareshkumar Prajapati, Patrick G. Sullivan Aug 2018

Targeting The Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore In Traumatic Central Nervous System Injury, Joe E. Springer, Pareshkumar Prajapati, Patrick G. Sullivan

Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Center Faculty Publications

The mitochondrion serves many functions in the central nervous system (CNS) and other organs beyond the well-recognized role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. This includes calcium-dependent cell signaling, regulation of gene expression, synthesis and release of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, and the release of cytochrome c and other apoptotic cell death factors. Traumatic injury to the CNS results in a rapid and, in some cases, sustained loss of mitochondrial function. One consequence of compromised mitochondrial function is induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) state due to formation of the cyclosporine A sensitive permeability transition pore (mPTP). In this mini-review ...


Safety And Efficacy Of Routine Bridging Anticoagulation For Subtherapeutic Anticoagulation In Outpatients With A Left Ventricular Assist Device, David C. Shisler, Gaurang N. Vaidya, Lori Muncy, Rajakrishnan Vijayakrishnan, Mark S. Slaughter, Emma J. Birks, Dmitry Abramov Aug 2018

Safety And Efficacy Of Routine Bridging Anticoagulation For Subtherapeutic Anticoagulation In Outpatients With A Left Ventricular Assist Device, David C. Shisler, Gaurang N. Vaidya, Lori Muncy, Rajakrishnan Vijayakrishnan, Mark S. Slaughter, Emma J. Birks, Dmitry Abramov

The VAD Journal

Background

Anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists is vital to prevent pump thrombosis in patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). However, the safety and efficacy of bridging anticoagulation for the routine management of subtherapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) in stable outpatients remains poorly characterized.

Methods

In this retrospective study, a total of 60 LVAD outpatients had 110 episodes of subtherapeutic INR noted on routine testing. 34 of these episodes were managed with parenteral bridging anticoagulation and 76 were managed with only an adjusted dose of warfarin. The rates of bleeding and thromboembolic adverse events following these episodes of subtherapeutic INR ...


The Impact Of Serum Glucose, Anti-Diabetic Agents, And Statin Usage In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Definitive Chemoradiation, Nick A. Iarrobino, Beant S. Gill, Mark E. Bernard, Rainer J. Klement, Maria Werner-Wasik, Colin E. Champ Jul 2018

The Impact Of Serum Glucose, Anti-Diabetic Agents, And Statin Usage In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Definitive Chemoradiation, Nick A. Iarrobino, Beant S. Gill, Mark E. Bernard, Rainer J. Klement, Maria Werner-Wasik, Colin E. Champ

Radiation Medicine Faculty Publications

Introduction: Epidemiologic data indicate diabetes confers an augmented risk of lung cancer development, yet the relationship between hyperglycemia, metabolic agents, and prognosis is unclear. We analyzed the impact of hyperglycemia, anti-diabetic agents, and statins on outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing chemoradiation.

Method and Materials: In total, data from 170 patients with stage III NSCLC treated at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between 2001 and 2014 were obtained for analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate time-to-event for overall survival (OS), disease-free survival, distant metastasis (DM), and loco-regional control (LRC). Blood glucose values (n = 2870 ...


Select Biomarkers On The Day Of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Predict Poor Patient-Reported Outcomes At 2-Year Follow-Up: A Pilot Study, Christian Lattermann, Caitlin E. -W. Conley, Darren L. Johnson, Emily K. Reinke, Laura J. Huston, Janet L. Huebner, Ching-Heng Chou, Virginia B. Kraus, Kurt P. Spindler, Cale A. Jacobs Jul 2018

Select Biomarkers On The Day Of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Predict Poor Patient-Reported Outcomes At 2-Year Follow-Up: A Pilot Study, Christian Lattermann, Caitlin E. -W. Conley, Darren L. Johnson, Emily K. Reinke, Laura J. Huston, Janet L. Huebner, Ching-Heng Chou, Virginia B. Kraus, Kurt P. Spindler, Cale A. Jacobs

Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine Faculty Publications

Background. The majority of patients develop posttraumatic osteoarthritis within 15 years of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Inflammatory and chondrodegenerative biomarkers have been associated with both pain and the progression of osteoarthritis; however, it remains unclear if preoperative biomarkers differ for patients with inferior postoperative outcomes. Hypothesis/Purpose. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare biomarkers collected on the day of ACL reconstruction between patients with "good" or "poor" 2-year postoperative outcomes. We hypothesized that inflammatory cytokines and chondrodegenerative biomarker concentrations would be significantly greater in patients with poorer outcomes. Study Design. Prospective cohort design. Methods. 22 patients ...


Exploring The “Weekend Effect” On The Care Of Patients With Left Ventricular Assist Devices, Gbolahan O. Ogunbayo, Le Dung Ha, Naoki Misumida, Ayman Elbadawi, Qamar Ahmad, Remi Okwechime, Deborah Akanya, Andrew Kolodziej, Claude S. Elayi, Maya E. Guglin Jul 2018

Exploring The “Weekend Effect” On The Care Of Patients With Left Ventricular Assist Devices, Gbolahan O. Ogunbayo, Le Dung Ha, Naoki Misumida, Ayman Elbadawi, Qamar Ahmad, Remi Okwechime, Deborah Akanya, Andrew Kolodziej, Claude S. Elayi, Maya E. Guglin

The VAD Journal

Many studies have described differences in in-hospital outcomes and length of stay between patients treated for major cardiac conditions on weekdays versus weekends.1 Our study aimed to explore the “weekend effect” on in-hospital care among patients with left ventricular assist devices.

Using data from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database, with a weighted estimate of more than 35 million admissions per year.2 We identified patients 18 years or older with an ICD code signifying presence of a LVAD. Characteristics, comorbidities and clinical outcomes were compared between patients admitted on a weekend versus patients admitted on a weekday. The ...


Roles Of Plods In Collagen Synthesis And Cancer Progression, Yifei Qi, Ren Xu Jun 2018

Roles Of Plods In Collagen Synthesis And Cancer Progression, Yifei Qi, Ren Xu

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Collagen is the major component of extracellular matrix. Collagen cross-link and deposition depend on lysyl hydroxylation, which is catalyzed by procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase (PLOD). Aberrant lysyl hydroxylation and collagen cross-link contributes to the progression of many collagen-related diseases, such as fibrosis and cancer. Three lysyl hydroxylases (LH1, LH2, and LH3) are identified, encoded by PLOD1, PLOD2, and PLOD3 genes. Expression of PLODs is regulated by multiple cytokines, transcription factors and microRNAs. Dysregulation of PLODs promotes cancer progression and metastasis, suggesting that targeting PLODs is potential strategy for cancer treatment. Here, we summarize the recent progress in the investigation of function ...


Central Venous Access System, John Gurley Jun 2018

Central Venous Access System, John Gurley

Internal Medicine Faculty Patents

A catheter system and method of use for re-establishing venous access near an occluded vessel.


Reversal Of Fixed Pulmonary Hypertension With Transcatheter Valve Replacement For Aortic Insufficiency On Ventricular Assist Device Support, Faraz S. Ahmad, Mark J. Ricciardi, Laura J. Davidson, Allen S. Anderson, Kambiz Ghafourian, Ike Okwuosa, Esther Vorovich, Jane E. Wilcox, Daniel D. Holloway, Duc T. Pham, Jonathan D. Rich Jun 2018

Reversal Of Fixed Pulmonary Hypertension With Transcatheter Valve Replacement For Aortic Insufficiency On Ventricular Assist Device Support, Faraz S. Ahmad, Mark J. Ricciardi, Laura J. Davidson, Allen S. Anderson, Kambiz Ghafourian, Ike Okwuosa, Esther Vorovich, Jane E. Wilcox, Daniel D. Holloway, Duc T. Pham, Jonathan D. Rich

The VAD Journal

We present a 43-year-old woman with a nonischemic cardiomyopathy implanted with a ventricular assist device (VAD) as bridge to transplant due to severe, “fixed” pulmonary hypertension (PH). Within three months of VAD implant, her “fixed” PH had resolved entirely. Nearly two years later, still supported with a VAD because of severe HLA allosensitization, she developed dyspnea and “moderate” aortic insufficiency (AI) by standard criteria. Invasive hemodynamics revealed recurrence of severe PH in the setting of elevated left-sided filling pressures. We concluded the AI was indeed severe and the cause of her symptoms and recurrent PH. Despite her minimally calcified aortic ...


Three Years In - Changing Plan Features In The U.S. Health Insurance Marketplace, Caitlin N. Mckillop, Teresa M. Waters, Cameron M. Kaplan, Erin K. Kaplan, Michael P. Thompson, Ilana Graetz Jun 2018

Three Years In - Changing Plan Features In The U.S. Health Insurance Marketplace, Caitlin N. Mckillop, Teresa M. Waters, Cameron M. Kaplan, Erin K. Kaplan, Michael P. Thompson, Ilana Graetz

Health Management and Policy Faculty Publications

Background: A central objective of recent U.S. healthcare policy reform, most notably the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) Health Insurance Marketplace, has been to increase access to stable, affordable health insurance. However, changing market dynamics (rising premiums, changes in issuer participation and plan availability) raise significant concerns about the marketplaces' ability to provide a stable source of healthcare for Americans that rely on them. By looking at the effect of instability on changes in the consumer choice set, we can analyze potential incentives to switch plans among price-sensitive enrollees, which can then be used to inform policy going forward ...


What Insights Do Patients And Caregivers Have On Acute Kidney Injury And Posthospitalization Care? A Single-Centre Qualitative Study From Toronto, Canada, Samuel A. Silver, Marianne Saragosa, Neill K. Adhikari, Chaim M. Bell, Ziv Harel, Andrea Harvey, Abhijat Kitchlu, Javier A. Neyra, Ron Wald, Lianne Jeffs Jun 2018

What Insights Do Patients And Caregivers Have On Acute Kidney Injury And Posthospitalization Care? A Single-Centre Qualitative Study From Toronto, Canada, Samuel A. Silver, Marianne Saragosa, Neill K. Adhikari, Chaim M. Bell, Ziv Harel, Andrea Harvey, Abhijat Kitchlu, Javier A. Neyra, Ron Wald, Lianne Jeffs

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Objectives Hospitalisation with acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with short-term and long-term adverse events, but patient and caregiver experiences with AKI are not well described. We sought to better understand patient and caregiver perspectives after a hospitalisation with AKI to inform discharge strategies that may improve outcomes for this high-risk population.

Design Qualitative study with semistructured interviews.

Setting Tertiary care hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Participants Adult patients (n=15) who survived a hospitalisation with Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes stage 2 or 3 AKI from May to December 2016. We also interviewed five patient caregivers. We required patients ...


Apoe And Alzheimer’S Disease: Neuroimaging Of Metabolic And Cerebrovascular Dysfunction, Jason A. Brandon, Brandon C. Farmer, Holden C. Williams, Lance A. Johnson Jun 2018

Apoe And Alzheimer’S Disease: Neuroimaging Of Metabolic And Cerebrovascular Dysfunction, Jason A. Brandon, Brandon C. Farmer, Holden C. Williams, Lance A. Johnson

Physiology Faculty Publications

Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) is the strongest genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), and is associated with impairments in cerebral metabolism and cerebrovascular function. A substantial body of literature now points to E4 as a driver of multiple impairments seen in AD, including blunted brain insulin signaling, mismanagement of brain cholesterol and fatty acids, reductions in blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity, and decreased cerebral glucose uptake. Various neuroimaging techniques, in particular positron emission topography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have been instrumental in characterizing these metabolic and vascular deficits associated with this important AD risk factor ...


Static Multiple-Sample Nmr Probe, Eric Jon Munson, Matthew Jon Nethercott Jun 2018

Static Multiple-Sample Nmr Probe, Eric Jon Munson, Matthew Jon Nethercott

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Patents

A static solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe includes multiple probe subunits each configured for holding a sample. Each probe subunit includes at least an associated magic angle spinning (MAS) module, a radio-frequency (RF) coil and an RF transmission line together defining an RF circuit. Each of the multiple probe subunits is individually held in a conducting housing isolating the RF circuit of the each of the probe subunit from any other of the plurality of probe subunits. The static solid-state NMR probe may include four or more probe subunits including four or more MAS modules.


Using Mhealth To Increase Treatment Utilization Among Recently Incarcerated Homeless Adults (Link2care): Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Jennifer M. Reingle Gonzalez, Michael S. Businelle, Darla Kendzor, Michele Staton, Carol S. North, Michael Swartz Jun 2018

Using Mhealth To Increase Treatment Utilization Among Recently Incarcerated Homeless Adults (Link2care): Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Jennifer M. Reingle Gonzalez, Michael S. Businelle, Darla Kendzor, Michele Staton, Carol S. North, Michael Swartz

Behavioral Science Faculty Publications

Background: There is a significant revolving door of incarceration among homeless adults. Homeless adults who receive professional coordination of individualized care (ie, case management) during the period following their release from jail experience fewer mental health and substance use problems, are more likely to obtain stable housing, and are less likely to be reincarcerated. This is because case managers work to meet the various needs of their clients by helping them to overcome barriers to needed services (eg, food, clothing, housing, job training, substance abuse and mental health treatment, medical care, medication, social support, proof of identification, and legal aid ...


Alcohol Consumption Promotes Colorectal Carcinoma Metastasis Via A Ccl5-Induced And Ampk-Pathway-Mediated Activation Of Autophagy, Haodong Zhao, Danlei Chen, Rui Cao, Shiqing Wang, Dandan Yu, Yakun Liu, Yu Jiang, Mei Xu, Jia Luo, Siying Wang Jun 2018

Alcohol Consumption Promotes Colorectal Carcinoma Metastasis Via A Ccl5-Induced And Ampk-Pathway-Mediated Activation Of Autophagy, Haodong Zhao, Danlei Chen, Rui Cao, Shiqing Wang, Dandan Yu, Yakun Liu, Yu Jiang, Mei Xu, Jia Luo, Siying Wang

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

There is a definite relationship between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We investigated effect of alcohol consumption on CRC patients’ progression and prognosis by utilizing epidemiological data and found patients with alcohol consumption increased risks of tumor-node-metastasis (TNM), organ metastasis and poorer prognosis. Because their tumor tissues displayed increased expression of C-C chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), we hypothesized CCL5 might participate in cancer progression in such patients. Ethanol increased the secretion of CCL5 in two CRC cell lines, HT29 and DLD-1. Treatment with CCL5 directly increased migratory ability of these cells, whereas neutralization or knockdown of CCL5 can ...


Shifts In Assemblage Of Foraging Bats At Mammoth Cave National Park Following Arrival Of White-Nose Syndrome, Marissa M. Thalken, Michael J. Lacki, Joseph S. Johnson Jun 2018

Shifts In Assemblage Of Foraging Bats At Mammoth Cave National Park Following Arrival Of White-Nose Syndrome, Marissa M. Thalken, Michael J. Lacki, Joseph S. Johnson

Forestry and Natural Resources Faculty Publications

The arrival of white-nose syndrome (WNS) to North America in 2006, and the subsequent decline in populations of cave-hibernating bats have potential long-term implications for communities of forest-dwelling bats in affected regions. Severe declines in wintering populations of bats should lead to concomitant shifts in the composition and relative abundance of species during the staging, maternity, and swarming seasons in nearby forested habitats. We examined capture rates of bats collected in mist nets from 2009 to 2016 to evaluate summer patterns in abundance of species pre- and post-arrival of WNS to Mammoth Cave National Park, KY. The data demonstrated a ...


Borrelia Burgdorferi Spovg Dna- And Rna-Binding Protein Modulates The Physiology Of The Lyme Disease Spirochete, Christina R. Savage, Brandon L. Jutras, Aaron Bestor, Kit Tilly, Patricia A. Rosa, Yvonne Tourand, Philip E. Stewart, Catherine A. Brissette, Brian Stevenson Jun 2018

Borrelia Burgdorferi Spovg Dna- And Rna-Binding Protein Modulates The Physiology Of The Lyme Disease Spirochete, Christina R. Savage, Brandon L. Jutras, Aaron Bestor, Kit Tilly, Patricia A. Rosa, Yvonne Tourand, Philip E. Stewart, Catherine A. Brissette, Brian Stevenson

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The SpoVG protein of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, binds to specific sites of DNA and RNA. The bacterium regulates transcription of spoVG during the natural tick-mammal infectious cycle and in response to some changes in culture conditions. Bacterial levels of spoVG mRNA and SpoVG protein did not necessarily correlate, suggesting that posttranscriptional mechanisms also control protein levels. Consistent with this, SpoVG binds to its own mRNA, adjacent to the ribosome-binding site. SpoVG also binds to two DNA sites in the glpFKD operon and to two RNA sites in glpFKD mRNA; that operon encodes genes necessary for glycerol catabolism ...


Spatial Distribution Of Partner-Seeking Men Who Have Sex With Men Using Geosocial Networking Apps: Epidemiologic Study, Angel B. Algarin, Patrick J. Ward, W. Jay Christian, Abby E. Rudolph, Ian W. Holloway, April M. Young May 2018

Spatial Distribution Of Partner-Seeking Men Who Have Sex With Men Using Geosocial Networking Apps: Epidemiologic Study, Angel B. Algarin, Patrick J. Ward, W. Jay Christian, Abby E. Rudolph, Ian W. Holloway, April M. Young

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

Background: Geosocial networking apps have made sexual partner-seeking easier for men who have sex with men, raising both challenges and opportunities for human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted infection prevention and research. Most studies on men who have sex with men geosocial networking app use have been conducted in large urban areas, despite research indicating similar patterns of online- and app-based sex-seeking among men who have sex with men in rural and midsize cities.

Objective: The goal of our research was to examine the spatial distribution of geosocial networking app usage and characterize areas with increasing numbers of partner-seeking men ...


Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity Among Skeletal Muscle Tissues, Erin E. Terry, Xiping Zhang, Christy Hoffmann, Laura D. Hughes, Scott A. Lewis, Jiajia Li, Matthew J. Wallace, Lance A. Riley, Collin M. Douglas, Miguel A. Gutierrez-Monreal, Nicholas F. Lahens, Ming C. Gong, Francisco H. Andrade, Karyn A. Esser, Michael E. Hughes May 2018

Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity Among Skeletal Muscle Tissues, Erin E. Terry, Xiping Zhang, Christy Hoffmann, Laura D. Hughes, Scott A. Lewis, Jiajia Li, Matthew J. Wallace, Lance A. Riley, Collin M. Douglas, Miguel A. Gutierrez-Monreal, Nicholas F. Lahens, Ming C. Gong, Francisco H. Andrade, Karyn A. Esser, Michael E. Hughes

Physiology Faculty Publications

Skeletal muscle comprises a family of diverse tissues with highly specialized functions. Many acquired diseases, including HIV and COPD, affect specific muscles while sparing others. Even monogenic muscular dystrophies selectively affect certain muscle groups. These observations suggest that factors intrinsic to muscle tissues influence their resistance to disease. Nevertheless, most studies have not addressed transcriptional diversity among skeletal muscles. Here we use RNAseq to profile mRNA expression in skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle tissues from mice and rats. Our data set, MuscleDB, reveals extensive transcriptional diversity, with greater than 50% of transcripts differentially expressed among skeletal muscle tissues. We detect ...


Visualizing Mutation-Specific Differences In The Trafficking-Deficient Phenotype Of Kv11.1 Proteins Linked To Long Qt Syndrome Type 2, Allison R. Hall, Corey L. Anderson, Jennifer L. Smith, Tooraj Mirshahi, Samy-Claude Elayi, Craig T. January, Brian P. Delisle May 2018

Visualizing Mutation-Specific Differences In The Trafficking-Deficient Phenotype Of Kv11.1 Proteins Linked To Long Qt Syndrome Type 2, Allison R. Hall, Corey L. Anderson, Jennifer L. Smith, Tooraj Mirshahi, Samy-Claude Elayi, Craig T. January, Brian P. Delisle

Physiology Faculty Publications

KCNH2 encodes the Kv11.1 α-subunit that underlies the rapidly activating delayed-rectifier K+ current in the heart. Loss-of-function KCNH2 mutations cause long QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2), and most LQT2-linked missense mutations inhibit the trafficking of Kv11.1 channel protein to the cell surface membrane. Several trafficking-deficient LQT2 mutations (e.g., G601S) generate Kv11.1 proteins that are sequestered in a microtubule-dependent quality control (QC) compartment in the transitional endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We tested the hypothesis that the QC mechanisms that regulate LQT2-linked Kv11.1 protein trafficking are mutation-specific. Confocal imaging analyses of HEK293 cells stably expressing the trafficking-deficient LQT2 ...


Treatment Of Mci And Alzheimer's Disease, Mark A. Lovell, Bert C. Lynn May 2018

Treatment Of Mci And Alzheimer's Disease, Mark A. Lovell, Bert C. Lynn

Chemistry Faculty Patents

The present invention provides, among other things, therapeutic compositions and methods that can effectively treat, slow or prevent a neurological disease (e.g., a neurodegenerative disease, e.g., mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's disease (AD)), in particular, based on therapeutically effective amount of nifedipine, oxidized or nitroso nifedipine derivatives, lactam (e.g., a compound of formula (Ic) or (Ic-i), e.g., NFD-L1), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and combinations thereof.


Adaptation Of Microelectrode Array Technology For The Study Of Anesthesia-Induced Neurotoxicity In The Intact Piglet Brain, Emily D. Geyer, Prithvi A. Shetty, Christopher J. Suozzi, David Z. Allen, Pamela P. Benavidez, Joseph Liu, Charles N. Hollis, Greg A. Gerhardt, Jorge E. Quintero, Jason J. Burmeister, Emmett E. Whitaker May 2018

Adaptation Of Microelectrode Array Technology For The Study Of Anesthesia-Induced Neurotoxicity In The Intact Piglet Brain, Emily D. Geyer, Prithvi A. Shetty, Christopher J. Suozzi, David Z. Allen, Pamela P. Benavidez, Joseph Liu, Charles N. Hollis, Greg A. Gerhardt, Jorge E. Quintero, Jason J. Burmeister, Emmett E. Whitaker

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Every year, millions of children undergo anesthesia for a multitude of procedures. However, studies in both animals and humans have called into question the safety of anesthesia in children, implicating anesthetics as potentially toxic to the brain in development. To date, no studies have successfully elucidated the mechanism(s) by which anesthesia may be neurotoxic. Animal studies allow investigation of such mechanisms, and neonatal piglets represent an excellent model to study these effects due to their striking developmental similarities to the human brain.

This protocol adapts the use of enzyme-based microelectrode array (MEA) technology as a novel way to study ...