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2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 13368

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Use Of The T2*-Weighted Gradient Recalled Echo Sequence For Magnetic Resonance Imaging Of The Canine And Feline Brain., A Hodshon, Silke Hecht, William Thomas Apr 2015

Use Of The T2*-Weighted Gradient Recalled Echo Sequence For Magnetic Resonance Imaging Of The Canine And Feline Brain., A Hodshon, Silke Hecht, William Thomas

William B. Thomas, MS, DACVIM (Neurology)

T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been reported to help improve detection of intracranial hemorrhage and is widely used in human neuroimaging. To assess the utility of this technique in small animals, interpretations based on this sequence were compared with those based on paired T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences in 200 dogs and cats that underwent brain MRI for suspected intracranial disease. Two sets of images (T2 + FLAIR and T2*) were reviewed separately in random order unaccompanied by patient information and were interpreted as normal or abnormal based on whether intracranial abnormalities were seen. The number and ...


Use Of A Novel Morphometric Method And Body Fat Index System For Estimation Of Body Composition In Overweight And Obese Dogs, Angela Witzel, Claudia Kirk, George Henry, Philip Toll, John Brejda, Inke Paetau-Robinson Mar 2015

Use Of A Novel Morphometric Method And Body Fat Index System For Estimation Of Body Composition In Overweight And Obese Dogs, Angela Witzel, Claudia Kirk, George Henry, Philip Toll, John Brejda, Inke Paetau-Robinson

Claudia A Kirk

Objective-To develop morphometric equations for prediction of body composition and create a body fat index (BFI) to estimate body fat percentage in overweight and obese dogs.

Design-Prospective evaluation study.

Animals-83 overweight or obese dogs >= 1 year of age.

Procedures-Body condition score (BCS) was assessed on a 5-point scale, morphometric measurements were made, and visual and palpation-based assessments and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were performed. Equations for predicting lean body mass, fat mass, and body fat as a percentage of total body weight (ie, body fat percentage) on the basis of morphometric measurements were generated with best-fit statistical models. Visual and ...


Use Of A Novel Morphometric Method And Body Fat Index System For Estimation Of Body Composition In Overweight And Obese Dogs, Angela Witzel, Claudia Kirk, George Henry, Philip Toll, John Brejda, Inke Paetau-Robinson Mar 2015

Use Of A Novel Morphometric Method And Body Fat Index System For Estimation Of Body Composition In Overweight And Obese Dogs, Angela Witzel, Claudia Kirk, George Henry, Philip Toll, John Brejda, Inke Paetau-Robinson

George A Henry, DVM

Objective-To develop morphometric equations for prediction of body composition and create a body fat index (BFI) to estimate body fat percentage in overweight and obese dogs.

Design-Prospective evaluation study.

Animals-83 overweight or obese dogs >= 1 year of age.

Procedures-Body condition score (BCS) was assessed on a 5-point scale, morphometric measurements were made, and visual and palpation-based assessments and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were performed. Equations for predicting lean body mass, fat mass, and body fat as a percentage of total body weight (ie, body fat percentage) on the basis of morphometric measurements were generated with best-fit statistical models. Visual and ...


Effect Of Small Interfering Rnas On In Vitro Replication And Gene Expression Of Feline Coronavirus, Eman Anis, Rebecca Wilkes, Stephen Kania, Alfred Legendre, Melissa Kennedy Mar 2015

Effect Of Small Interfering Rnas On In Vitro Replication And Gene Expression Of Feline Coronavirus, Eman Anis, Rebecca Wilkes, Stephen Kania, Alfred Legendre, Melissa Kennedy

Stephen A Kania

Objective-To evaluate the ability of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to inhibit in vitro viral replication and gene expression of feline coronavirus (FCoV).

Sample-Cell cultures of Crandell-Rees feline kidney cells.

Procedures-5 synthetic siRNAs that each targeted a different region of the FCoV genome were tested individually and in various combinations for their antiviral effects against 2 strains of FCoV (feline infectious peritonitis virus WSU 79-1146 and feline enteric coronavirus WSU 79-1683) in cell cultures. Tested combinations targeted the FCoV leader and 3' untranslated region, FCoV leader region and nucleocapsid gene, and FCoV leader region, 3' untranslated region, and nucleocapsid gene. For ...


Expression Of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor And Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 In Periocular Squamous Cell Carcinomas Of Horses, Diane Hendrix, Kim Newkirk Mar 2015

Expression Of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor And Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 In Periocular Squamous Cell Carcinomas Of Horses, Diane Hendrix, Kim Newkirk

Kim M Newkirk

Objective-To determine whether epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are expressed in periocular squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of horses. Sample-Biopsy specimens of SCCs from 46 horses. Procedures-Pathology records were searched retrospectively for biopsy specimens of periocular SCCs obtained from horses. Slides of the specimens were reviewed histologically to confirm the SCC diagnosis and stained for EGFR and HER2 by immunohistochemical methods. For both EGFR and HER2, the immunohistochemical staining intensity and percentage of stain-positive cells on the slides were determined. Results-43 of 46 (93%) SCCs were immunoreactive for EGFR. The median score for ...


Effect Of Small Interfering Rnas On In Vitro Replication And Gene Expression Of Feline Coronavirus, Eman Anis, Rebecca Wilkes, Stephen Kania, Alfred Legendre, Melissa Kennedy Mar 2015

Effect Of Small Interfering Rnas On In Vitro Replication And Gene Expression Of Feline Coronavirus, Eman Anis, Rebecca Wilkes, Stephen Kania, Alfred Legendre, Melissa Kennedy

Melissa A. Kennedy

Objective-To evaluate the ability of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to inhibit in vitro viral replication and gene expression of feline coronavirus (FCoV).

Sample-Cell cultures of Crandell-Rees feline kidney cells.

Procedures-5 synthetic siRNAs that each targeted a different region of the FCoV genome were tested individually and in various combinations for their antiviral effects against 2 strains of FCoV (feline infectious peritonitis virus WSU 79-1146 and feline enteric coronavirus WSU 79-1683) in cell cultures. Tested combinations targeted the FCoV leader and 3' untranslated region, FCoV leader region and nucleocapsid gene, and FCoV leader region, 3' untranslated region, and nucleocapsid gene. For ...


Effect Of Small Interfering Rnas On In Vitro Replication And Gene Expression Of Feline Coronavirus, Eman Anis, Rebecca Wilkes, Stephen Kania, Alfred Legendre, Melissa Kennedy Mar 2015

Effect Of Small Interfering Rnas On In Vitro Replication And Gene Expression Of Feline Coronavirus, Eman Anis, Rebecca Wilkes, Stephen Kania, Alfred Legendre, Melissa Kennedy

Alfred M Legendre DVM, MS, DACVIM

Objective-To evaluate the ability of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to inhibit in vitro viral replication and gene expression of feline coronavirus (FCoV).

Sample-Cell cultures of Crandell-Rees feline kidney cells.

Procedures-5 synthetic siRNAs that each targeted a different region of the FCoV genome were tested individually and in various combinations for their antiviral effects against 2 strains of FCoV (feline infectious peritonitis virus WSU 79-1146 and feline enteric coronavirus WSU 79-1683) in cell cultures. Tested combinations targeted the FCoV leader and 3' untranslated region, FCoV leader region and nucleocapsid gene, and FCoV leader region, 3' untranslated region, and nucleocapsid gene. For ...


Development Of In Vitro Denture Biofilm Models For Halitosis Related Bacteria And Their Application In Testing The Efficacy Of Antimicrobial Agents, Tingxi Wu, Xuesong He, David J. Bradshaw, Alyson Axe, Zvi G. Loewy, Honghu Liu, Renate Lux Dec 2014

Development Of In Vitro Denture Biofilm Models For Halitosis Related Bacteria And Their Application In Testing The Efficacy Of Antimicrobial Agents, Tingxi Wu, Xuesong He, David J. Bradshaw, Alyson Axe, Zvi G. Loewy, Honghu Liu, Renate Lux

Touro College of Pharmacy (New York) Publications and Research

Objective: Since dentures can serve as a reservoir for halitosis-causing oral bacteria, halitosis development is a concern for denture wearers. In this study, we surveyed the prevalence of four selected halitosis-related species (Fusobacterium nucleatum, Tannerella forsythia, Veillonella atypica and Klebsiella pneumoniae) in clinical denture plaque samples, and developed denture biofilm models for these species in vitro to facilitate assessment of antimicrobial treatment efficacy. Design: Denture plaque from ten healthy and ten denture stomatitis patients was screened for the presence of aforementioned four species by PCR. Biofilm formation by these halitosis-associated species on the surfaces of denture base resin (DBR) discs ...


Knowledge Of Nurse Practitioners In Managing Chronic Copd Patients, Donna S. Reese Dec 2014

Knowledge Of Nurse Practitioners In Managing Chronic Copd Patients, Donna S. Reese

Nursing Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


An Examination Of Intimate Partner Violence And Cigarette Smoking Among African American Women In 12 States, Eboneka Coleman Dec 2014

An Examination Of Intimate Partner Violence And Cigarette Smoking Among African American Women In 12 States, Eboneka Coleman

Theses and Dissertations--Public Health (M.P.H. & Dr.P.H.)

Abstract

Introduction. African American female intimate partner victims (IVP) are more likely to abuse substances, suffer from depression and anxiety, and experience mental health issues, including PTSD, all of which are risk factors for smoking. The purpose of this study is to determine among African American women who have ever experienced IPV the prevalence of smoking and whether it is influenced by education and income.

Methods. Data for this study comes from the 2005 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) state-based Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This primary study population was African American females who answered IPV-related questions ...


Effect Of Feeding Distillers Grains And Supplementing With Dietary Antioxidants On Ground Beef Color During Retail Display, Brandy D. Cleveland, Chad G. Bower, Amy L. Redfield, Gary A. Sullivan Dec 2014

Effect Of Feeding Distillers Grains And Supplementing With Dietary Antioxidants On Ground Beef Color During Retail Display, Brandy D. Cleveland, Chad G. Bower, Amy L. Redfield, Gary A. Sullivan

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Ground beef patties from cattle fed corn-based diets with no wet distillers grains (control), wet distillers grains (WDGS), WDGS + 1000 IU/head/day vitamin E, WDGS + 150 ppm/head/day, Ethoxyquin/TBHQ (Agrado Plus, Novus International, St. Louis, Mo.), or WDGS + 500 IU/head/day vitamin E + 150 ppm/head/day Ethoxyquin/TBHQ during the finishing phase were compared to analyze color stability during retail display. As display time increased, patties from all dietary treatments had greater discoloration and became darker, less red, and more yellow. Therefore, beef patties discolored during retail display, but the rate and degree of discoloration ...


Public Health System Partnerships And The Scope Of Maternal And Child Services: A Longitudinal Study, Sharla Smith, Glen Mays, Tommy Mac Bird, Michael A. Preston Dec 2014

Public Health System Partnerships And The Scope Of Maternal And Child Services: A Longitudinal Study, Sharla Smith, Glen Mays, Tommy Mac Bird, Michael A. Preston

Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research

Local health departments (LHDs) struggle to serve their communities in the face of ongoing fiscal constraints. Fiscal constraints have led to the elimination and reduction of maternal and child health services (MCH). LHDs have used various strategies to minimize the negative impact fiscal constraints of elimination or reduction of services provided to their communities. Many LHDs have used strategies such as developing partnerships. While these strategies are assumed to increase the delivery of services and improve outcomes, there is limited research on the type of partnerships needed to service delivery. Our interest was identifying the type of partnerships associated with ...


Exploring The Process, Models, And Outcomes Of Hospital-Public Health Partnerships, Danielle M. Varda, Jessica H. Retrum, Carrie Chapman Dec 2014

Exploring The Process, Models, And Outcomes Of Hospital-Public Health Partnerships, Danielle M. Varda, Jessica H. Retrum, Carrie Chapman

Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research

Health care reform has resulted in changes throughout the health system, including the Affordable Care Act (ACA) requirement that hospitals conduct community health needs assessments, taking into greater consideration the public health of their respective communities. This has led to growing strategies to develop partnerships between hospitals and public health (PH) as a way to meet these needs1. Meantime, there is a need for data on Hospital-PH partnerships, due to the growing emphasis that these types of partnerships get implemented in practice. In this paper we analyze a secondary data set to explore how hospitals and public health have ...


A Case Study Of Cross-Jurisdiction Resource Sharing: The Merger Of Two Tuberculosis Clinics In East Tennessee., Anne Kershenbaum, Margaret A. Knight, Martha L. Buchanan, Janet Ridley, Paul C. Erwin Dec 2014

A Case Study Of Cross-Jurisdiction Resource Sharing: The Merger Of Two Tuberculosis Clinics In East Tennessee., Anne Kershenbaum, Margaret A. Knight, Martha L. Buchanan, Janet Ridley, Paul C. Erwin

Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research

Cross-jurisdiction resource sharing is considered a possible means to improve efficiency and effectiveness of public health service delivery. A merger of the Tuberculosis (TB) clinics of a rural and a metropolitan jurisdiction in East Tennessee provided an opportunity to study service provision changes in real time. A mixed methods approach was used, including quantitative data on latent TB treatment outcomes and qualitative data from staff interviews, as well as documentation of changes in staffing time in TB services. Results showed a mix of efficiency changes, indicating probable increased pressure on key service providers after the merger, in addition to expected ...


Health Communication As A Public Health Training And Workforce Development Issue, Nancy L. Winterbauer, Ann P. Rafferty, Katherine A. Jones, Mary Tucker-Mclaughlin, Colleen Bridger Dec 2014

Health Communication As A Public Health Training And Workforce Development Issue, Nancy L. Winterbauer, Ann P. Rafferty, Katherine A. Jones, Mary Tucker-Mclaughlin, Colleen Bridger

Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research

Effective communication is one of the core competencies for public health professionals and is required for local health department (LHD) accreditation. Public health communication specialists play a critical role as conduits of health information, particularly with regard to managing relationships with media and the message that is ultimately represented by news outlets. However, capacity for engagement with traditional media in community health improvement at the local level has not been well-described. As part of a larger study examining the use and impact of the County Health Rankings in North Carolina, LHD media staffing and interaction with traditional media were examined ...


What “Community Building” Activities Are Nonprofit Hospitals Reporting As Community Benefit?, Erik Bakken, David Kindig, Jo Ivey Boufford Dec 2014

What “Community Building” Activities Are Nonprofit Hospitals Reporting As Community Benefit?, Erik Bakken, David Kindig, Jo Ivey Boufford

Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research

In 2008, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) revised and standardized the reporting policy for community benefit expenses for nonprofit hospitals. These expenses are required for tax exemption. At that time, the IRS designated some categories of activities as non-eligible as a community benefit, but still mandated their reporting on hospitals’ Form 990, the annual tax filing for nonprofit organizations. One such category was community building, which encompasses a broad range of nonmedical determinants of health and an important potential source of population health revenue. This is the first study to analyze community-building dollars at any level, examining New York State ...


Well-Born: Black Women And The Infertility Crisis No One Is Talking About, Kaara Baptiste Dec 2014

Well-Born: Black Women And The Infertility Crisis No One Is Talking About, Kaara Baptiste

Capstones

Black women are twice as likely to experience infertility than white women, but are less likely to seek treatment or to have successful fertility results once treated. Despite this alarming number, this topic is not often discussed, even among the black community. My narrative piece t tells the story of a black woman confronting her infertility diagnosis and the role her race played in her fertility treatment, while exploring the role racism and sexuality have had in keeping this issue in the shadows.


Antibacterial Activity Of Novel Cationic Peptides Against Clinical Isolates Of Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius From Infected Dogs, Mohamed F. Mohamed, G. Kenitra Hammac, Lynn F. Guptil, Mohamed N. Seleem Dec 2014

Antibacterial Activity Of Novel Cationic Peptides Against Clinical Isolates Of Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius From Infected Dogs, Mohamed F. Mohamed, G. Kenitra Hammac, Lynn F. Guptil, Mohamed N. Seleem

Department of Comparative Pathobiology Faculty Publications

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections in companion animals and has zoonotic potential. Additionally, methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has emerged with resistance to virtually all classes of antimicrobials. Thus, novel treatment options with new modes of action are required. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of six synthetic short peptides against clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible and MRSP isolated from infected dogs. All six peptides demonstrated potent antistaphylococcal activity regardless of existing resistance phenotype. The most effective peptides were RRIKA (with modified C terminus to increase amphipathicity and hydrophobicity) and WR-12 (α-helical peptide consisting exclusively ...


Efficacy Of Female Rat Models In Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research, Kevin M. Rice, J. C. Fannin, C. Gillette, Eric Blough Dec 2014

Efficacy Of Female Rat Models In Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research, Kevin M. Rice, J. C. Fannin, C. Gillette, Eric Blough

Pharmaceutical Science and Research

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into humans. To compound the complication of aging gender has also been indicated as a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases ...


Gaining Traction In Research Data Management Support: A Case Study, Donna L. O'Malley Dec 2014

Gaining Traction In Research Data Management Support: A Case Study, Donna L. O'Malley

Journal of eScience Librarianship

With the implementation of an institutional repository, librarians at the University of Vermont (UVM) began receiving inquiries about data management. In an effort to explore research data management roles for librarians at UVM the author led workshops based on Module One of the New England Collaborative Data Management Curriculum (NECDMC) with two audiences. In addition, the author consulted with faculty and staff from around the university to ascertain their support of research data management and integrate that information into the workshops. The first workshop was directed at UVM librarians and resulted in an understanding of their willingness to engage with ...


Lady Luck: The Rise Of Women Problem Gamblers, Antonia Massa Dec 2014

Lady Luck: The Rise Of Women Problem Gamblers, Antonia Massa

Capstones

Gambling addiction, once considered a nearly exclusively male affliction, is becoming more common among women. This story looks at the lives and addictions of two women problem gamblers. The project includes text, audio, images and a web app for smartphones, designed to help women who think they may have a gambling problem.


Mapping A City's Invisible Residents, Kelly Dickerson Dec 2014

Mapping A City's Invisible Residents, Kelly Dickerson

Capstones

A scientist is mapping the microbes of New York City in hopes of eventually creating a real-time map that could help prevent the spread of diseases.


The Wild West Of Edible Insects, Kyle Ligman Dec 2014

The Wild West Of Edible Insects, Kyle Ligman

Capstones

After the UN came out with a report in 2013 recommending insects for human consumption, businesses and restaurants in the U.S. have been racing to grow a new industry. This project explores the psychological, regulatory and production challenges they face.


Turning Waste Into Resources In Haiti, Alexis Barnes Dec 2014

Turning Waste Into Resources In Haiti, Alexis Barnes

Capstones

Sanitation infrastructure in Haiti is an ongoing problem- one that only exacerbated a massive cholera epidemic brought to the country by Nepalese United Nations peacekeeping troops. SOIL is an NGO that works in alternative sanitation- using "urine-diverting dry toilets" to turn waste into a fertile resource. In my capstone, I explore the potential for alternative sanitation in Haiti, how it works and what internal and external political and economic factors lead to the current state of water and sanitation infrastructure in the country.


Sending Drugs Into The Fast Lane, Ross Keith Dec 2014

Sending Drugs Into The Fast Lane, Ross Keith

Capstones

Speedy drug approvals have become increasingly the norm at the FDA, a trend that began in 1992 with the passage of the Prescription Drug User Fee Act. Over the past 20 years, the approval process has shrunk, on average, from three years to ten months. As speed has risen, the number of safety issues has as well. Some notoriously harmful drugs, such as Vioxx and Avandia, that were pulled from the market because of dangerous side effects, were fast-tracked. Some doctors and industry analysts question whether the agency’s laissez faire approach is essentially moving the testing phase of drugs ...


Overcoming Obstacles, Melisa Stumpf Dec 2014

Overcoming Obstacles, Melisa Stumpf

Capstones

the contributing factors that lead to the purported low life expectancy for transgenders (suicide, high risks of HIV, lack of healthcare access, refusal of care, etc.) which some experts, advocates and transgender individuals themselves think it's of about 35 years-old.


Urgent Cares Outpace Health Policy In The U.S., Ashley Rodriguez Dec 2014

Urgent Cares Outpace Health Policy In The U.S., Ashley Rodriguez

Capstones

More and more medical practices across the country are rebranding themselves as urgent care centers to meet the growing demand for fast, affordable health care. In many states, they are regulated like physicians groups. However, there is a debate brewing among health care policy experts and government officials over whether these centers should have their own regulations. Such oversight could help patients expecting acute care avoid confusion to such a degree that they receive poor treatment from professionals who aren’t prepared to offer emergency services, or delayed treatment because they are bounced around from facility to facility.


When You Can't Watch What You Eat: Examining The Fda’S Recall Process For Food Allergies, Jacob Passy Dec 2014

When You Can't Watch What You Eat: Examining The Fda’S Recall Process For Food Allergies, Jacob Passy

Capstones

Over a third of all recalls for food products in the United States occur due to an undeclared allergen. In these situations, a food product is often mislabeled or contaminated in some way, resulting in the unknown presence of allergen. For food-allergic consumers, a company's mistake can become life-threatening. By investigating data from the Food and Drug Administration, I found that supermarket chains are responsible for about a fifth of all recalls, and that many recalls occur past the product's expiration date. These factors point to the need to improve the FDA's handling of food allergies in ...


Mcdonald's Or Mesquite: Struggles On The Salt River Pima Reservation, Stefani Kim Dec 2014

Mcdonald's Or Mesquite: Struggles On The Salt River Pima Reservation, Stefani Kim

Capstones

The Salt River Pima Indians, prior to colonization, had a strong tradition of harvesting and food sovereignity. As the tribe adapted to a more Westernized diet which consisted mainly of processed food rations, the rate of diabetes began to skyrocket on the reservation and, at one point, the tribe had one of the highest per capita diabetes rates in the world. This year, the tribe's cultural resources department will resurrect a 16-year-old community garden program originally funded by a USDA/Habitat for Humanity grant as a way to help combat health problems related to a poor diet such as ...


A Randomized Controlled Trial Of Mental Health Interventions For Survivors Of Systematic Violence In Kurdistan, Northern Iraq, Paul Bolton, Judith K. Bass, Goran Zangana, Talar Kamal, Sarah Murray, Debra Kaysen, Carl W. Lejuez, Kristen Lindgren, Sherry L. Pagoto, Laura K. Murray, Stephanie Van Wyk, Ahmed Ahmed, Nazar M. Mohammad Amin, Michael Rosenblum Dec 2014

A Randomized Controlled Trial Of Mental Health Interventions For Survivors Of Systematic Violence In Kurdistan, Northern Iraq, Paul Bolton, Judith K. Bass, Goran Zangana, Talar Kamal, Sarah Murray, Debra Kaysen, Carl W. Lejuez, Kristen Lindgren, Sherry L. Pagoto, Laura K. Murray, Stephanie Van Wyk, Ahmed Ahmed, Nazar M. Mohammad Amin, Michael Rosenblum

Open Access Articles

Background: Experiencing systematic violence and trauma increases the risk of poor mental health outcomes; few interventions for these types of exposures have been evaluated in low resource contexts. The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the effectiveness of two psychotherapeutic interventions, Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD) and Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), in reducing depression symptoms using a locally adapted and validated version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and dysfunction measured with a locally developed scale. Secondary outcomes included posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and traumatic grief symptoms.

Methods: Twenty community mental health workers, working in rural health clinics ...