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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Simulation Of Cu Precipitation In Fe-Cu Dilute Alloys With Cluster Mobility, Senlin Cui, Mahmood Mamivand, Dane Morgan Jun 2020

Simulation Of Cu Precipitation In Fe-Cu Dilute Alloys With Cluster Mobility, Senlin Cui, Mahmood Mamivand, Dane Morgan

Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Cu-rich precipitates formation is associated with the precipitation hardening of Fe-Cu based steels and the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels under neutron irradiation. The accurate modeling of the time evolution of Cu-rich precipitates is therefore of fundamental importance for the design of Fe-Cu based steels and the prediction of the irradiation induced shift of the ductile to brittle transition temperature of reactor pressure vessels. This work applies cluster dynamics with mobile Cu monomers and clusters to model Cu precipitation in dilute Fe-Cu alloys at several temperatures. Optimized model parameters can be used to simulate the mean radius, number density ...


A Microfluidic Platform For High-Throughput Screening Of Aquaporin Performance, Adriana Del Pino Herrera, Jordan Hoydick, Rachel Rauh, Elyssa El-Hajj, Madison Burchfield May 2020

A Microfluidic Platform For High-Throughput Screening Of Aquaporin Performance, Adriana Del Pino Herrera, Jordan Hoydick, Rachel Rauh, Elyssa El-Hajj, Madison Burchfield

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Aquaporins are a family of small integral membrane proteins that transport water across cell membranes in response to osmotic gradients. They facilitate fluid secretion and absorption across epithelial surfaces in kidney tubules, exocrine glands, and gastrointestinal tract. Here, we describe a novel microfluidic method to evaluate and screen for aquaporin-based transmembrane permeability in mammalian cells. A microfluidic device was designed and fabricated for the encapsulation of single mammalian and yeast cells in micron-sized droplets. For this purpose, Chinese Hamster Ovarian (CHO) cells were used. CHO cells express AQP1 (aquaporin-1) homologous to human kidney aquaporins. The cells were cultivated and exposed ...


Exploring Attacks And Defenses In Additive Manufacturing Processes: Implications In Cyber-Physical Security, Nicholas Deily May 2020

Exploring Attacks And Defenses In Additive Manufacturing Processes: Implications In Cyber-Physical Security, Nicholas Deily

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Many industries are rapidly adopting additive manufacturing (AM) because of the added versatility this technology offers over traditional manufacturing techniques. But with AM, there comes a unique set of security challenges that must be addressed. In particular, the issue of part verification is critically important given the growing reliance of safety-critical systems on 3D printed parts.

In this thesis, the current state of part verification technologies will be examined in the con- text of AM-specific geometric-modification attacks, and an automated tool for 3D printed part verification will be presented. This work will cover: 1) the impacts of malicious attacks on ...


Effects Of Hard-To-Soft Segment Ratios On The Synthesis And Physico-Mechanical Properties Of Polyurethane Films, Aaron C. Wilson May 2020

Effects Of Hard-To-Soft Segment Ratios On The Synthesis And Physico-Mechanical Properties Of Polyurethane Films, Aaron C. Wilson

Mechanical Engineering Theses

Blood-contacting cardiovascular stents often induce a secondary clotting event due to unrestricted enzymatic activities. The use of hemocompatible polyurethane coatings on these implantable devices is one of the most promising methods to reduce device rejection. In this study, four commercial polyurethane films of various thicknesses and compositions were evaluated for their anticoagulation properties. Results suggested that these films exhibited excellent thermal and physico-mechanical properties while capable of increasing contact time with blood plasma by over a thousand-fold as compared to a control surface. Due to the unknown structure and composition of these commercial films, polyurethane samples were synthesized from toluene ...


Implementation Of A Computer-Vision System As A Supportive Diagnostic Tool For Parkinson’S Disease, Diego Machado Reyes May 2020

Implementation Of A Computer-Vision System As A Supportive Diagnostic Tool For Parkinson’S Disease, Diego Machado Reyes

Honors Theses

Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting nearly 1 million people in the US and it is predicted that the number will keep increasing. Parkinson’s disease is difficult to diagnose due to its similarity with other diseases that share the parkinsonian symptoms and the subjectivity of its assessment, thus increasing the probabilities of misdiagnosis. Therefore, it is relevant to develop diagnostic tools that are quantitatively based and monitoring tools to improve the patient’s quality of life. Computer-based assessment systems have shown to be successful in this field through diverse approaches that can be classified ...


A Comparison Of Neural Activity For Peripersonal And Extrapersonal Viewing In Real And Virtual Environments, Olivia Eustice May 2020

A Comparison Of Neural Activity For Peripersonal And Extrapersonal Viewing In Real And Virtual Environments, Olivia Eustice

Honors Theses

This study involved a series of tests comparing the similarities and differences in neural activity at a subject’s peripheral and extrapersonal space in the real environment and virtual reality. We hypothesized that there would be similar brain activity at each of these environments depending on the focal distance of an object from the participant. Peripheral space is the visual space that is a reachable distance from a person. It has an overall neural pattern in the dorsal stream of the brain. Extrapersonal space is the visual space that does not directly surround a person and cannot be directly acted ...


Heel Down And Toe-Off Time Measured With Ultrasonic Doppler System And Force Plate Sensor, Sabin Timsina May 2020

Heel Down And Toe-Off Time Measured With Ultrasonic Doppler System And Force Plate Sensor, Sabin Timsina

Honors Theses

Collie Box is a medical device that measures the gait parameters of the person walk- ing in front of it. This device uses the Ultrasonic Doppler system to extract the heel-contact and toe-off times of a person walking within the range of 2-10 meters. These times are used to determine the leg’s swing phase and double stance times. The ultrasonic transducer of 10mm diameter is driven at 40kHz. At the time of the heel-contact and toe-off, foot velocity is zero while the torso part of the human body is still in motion. The wide directivity of 10mm diameter ultrasonic ...


Investigatin Actin-Myosin Mechanics To Model Heart Disease Using Fluorescence Microscopy And Optical Trapping, Justin Edward Reynolds May 2020

Investigatin Actin-Myosin Mechanics To Model Heart Disease Using Fluorescence Microscopy And Optical Trapping, Justin Edward Reynolds

Honors Theses

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a hereditary disease in which the myocardium becomes hypertrophied, making it more difficult for the heart to pump blood. HCM is commonly caused by a mutation in the β-cardiac myosin II heavy chain. Myosin is a motor protein that facilitates muscle contraction by converting chemical energy from ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work and concomitantly moving along actin filaments. Optical tweezers have been used previously to analyze single myosin biophysical properties; however, myosin does not work as a single unit within the heart. Multiple myosin interacts to displace actin filaments and do not have the same properties ...


Characterization Of Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry Signals, Craig Benzinger May 2020

Characterization Of Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry Signals, Craig Benzinger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Photoacoustic flow cytometry has been utilized to clinically determine the presence of melanoma circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Further investigation was conducted into the morphology of detection signals and how they could be manipulated to allow for further classification. Novel features were extracted from waveforms that appear to have strong classification ability. Neural networks were also used to determine classification potential and the creation of feature mapping for future unsupervised classification. Detections were expanded from single waves to a time dependent multiwave event. Waveforms were also determined to be of non-parametric distribution, allowing for classification by neural network but not allowing ...


Identification Of Human Adrenal Carcinoma Cells Using Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Alexis Stahl May 2020

Identification Of Human Adrenal Carcinoma Cells Using Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Alexis Stahl

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

With consistently high mortality rates in patients with adrenal cancer, lack of early detection and diagnosis are an ever increasing problem in fighting the deadly disease. Currently, very few patients are diagnosed with adrenal cancer within the early stages due to the absence of symptoms until large tumors are formed, which is in most cases is fatal. Because of this, early detection equipment is crucial to optimizing the survival rate in patients. We studied the absorbance wavelength of human adrenal carcinoma cells, as well as the minimum cell concentration needed in samples using photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC). PAFC generates ultrasonic ...


Design Of A 3d Printed Bioreactor For Bone Cancer Research, Brooklyn K. Vanderwolde, Katelyn Hillson May 2020

Design Of A 3d Printed Bioreactor For Bone Cancer Research, Brooklyn K. Vanderwolde, Katelyn Hillson

The Journal of Undergraduate Research

Bone cancer is an aggressive disease and has peak occurrence during physiological stimulation of growth and aging. Astronauts who undergo long-term space missions also acquire an increased risk of bone tissue degeneration and cancer. Few in-vitro models currently exist capable of reproducing the complex microenvironment of bone tissue to support multicellular activity in a three-dimensional structure. This limits the ability to understand disease progression and develop suitable treatment strategies. Therefore, developing a bone tissue model and an associated bioreactor is critical to understand the risks associated with cancer progression and improve treatment and preventions related to those risks. The goal ...


Toward Controlling Cardiac Tissue Pacing Using Modified Mrna, Yicheng Zhao May 2020

Toward Controlling Cardiac Tissue Pacing Using Modified Mrna, Yicheng Zhao

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Arrhythmia is a common heart disease that happens when the heart is beating too fast, too slow, or irregularly. To study the mechanisms and treatments of this disease, it is important to acutely control the beating rate of the model as it will help distinguish the contribution of different potassium currents and drug-induced action potential in cardiomyocytes. The current method of tissue pacing, electrical pacing, causes contamination and corrosive damage to tissues, thus the tissues fail to be used repeatedly or in future studies. In this study, red-shifted channelrhodopsin (ReaChR) is applied as a non-chemical means to control the beating ...


Emergency Eye Simulation Model, Gavin L. Warrington, Christopher Forsyth, Lexus Morris, Natalie Ledezma May 2020

Emergency Eye Simulation Model, Gavin L. Warrington, Christopher Forsyth, Lexus Morris, Natalie Ledezma

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Golf Swing Trainer Using Wii Balance Board, Brooks M. Leftwich, Nicholas Hassler, Clark A. Hall, Sam Gates, Thomas B. Vickery, Alec Rinehart, Zakkary B A Compton, Ryan A. Singley May 2020

Golf Swing Trainer Using Wii Balance Board, Brooks M. Leftwich, Nicholas Hassler, Clark A. Hall, Sam Gates, Thomas B. Vickery, Alec Rinehart, Zakkary B A Compton, Ryan A. Singley

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Characterization Of Oxone Mediated Tempo-Oxidized Nano Cellulose Mixed-Matrix Membranes During Ultrafiltration And Hemodialysis, Kristyn Robling May 2020

Characterization Of Oxone Mediated Tempo-Oxidized Nano Cellulose Mixed-Matrix Membranes During Ultrafiltration And Hemodialysis, Kristyn Robling

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The ninth leading cause of death in the United States is kidney disease, and hemodialysis is the process most commonly prescribed for treatment. It utilizes a selectively permeable membrane filter to remove toxins such as urea from the blood and retain necessary protein levels. However, traditional filters, such as cellulose triacetate, used during dialysis can be inefficient in terms of separation performance and reduction of fouling. Recent exploration of nanoparticles has resulted in the creation of Oxone Mediated TEMPO-Oxidized Nano Cellulose which has properties that are believed to increase hydrophilicity, increase tensile capacity, decrease membrane resistance and lower fouling, making ...


Design Of A Deep Flow Technique Hydroponic System And An Elementary Education Module For Tri Cycle Farms, Cady Rosenbaum May 2020

Design Of A Deep Flow Technique Hydroponic System And An Elementary Education Module For Tri Cycle Farms, Cady Rosenbaum

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hydroponics is an agricultural technique in which plants are grown without soil and are instead grown in water systems that include nutrients and other growth-supporting media. Hydroponic systems typically reside inside, so that the system can be fully controlled by the grower by manipulating the temperature and amount of light the plants receive. The benefits of growing plants using hydroponics include: the amount of water used is reduced, it is less labor to grow organic produce with an indoor system, less space used, and it allows for growing food anywhere. Tri Cycle Farms is planning for the construction of a ...


Analysis Of Blood Purification Studies On Oxone Mediated Tempo-Oxidized Nano Cellulose Mixed-Matrix Membranes, Tony Roller May 2020

Analysis Of Blood Purification Studies On Oxone Mediated Tempo-Oxidized Nano Cellulose Mixed-Matrix Membranes, Tony Roller

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is currently the ninth leading cause of death in the United States, and of the 661,00 Americans diagnosed with ESRD, approximately 468,800 were on hemodialysis in 2016. Hemodialysis refers to a technique where a machine combined with a membrane, often referred to as an artificial kidney, is used to clean blood by removing any waste such as urea, potassium, and other smaller waste products while preserving the concentrations and integrity of cells and proteins in the blood. It has been shown in artificial blood studies that cellulose nanomaterials, like TEMPO/Oxidized cellulose nanoparticles (TOCNs ...


Development Of A Matlab Gui To Assist The Active Comprehension Of Biomedical Transport Phenomena Using A Visual Aid, Pranav Suri May 2020

Development Of A Matlab Gui To Assist The Active Comprehension Of Biomedical Transport Phenomena Using A Visual Aid, Pranav Suri

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Studies show that inductive teaching methods for Biomedical Transport Phenomena greatly benefit from an accompanying visual aid. The following project aimed to develop a MATLAB GUI application that illustrates steady-state heat transfer with a graph and heat map using user-defined boundary conditions and numerical parameters. The application was evaluated using a survey that first familiarized the user with the GUI by running through heat transfer exercises, then allowed the user to experiment with the application, and finally asked users about their experiences using a questionnaire. The responses indicate that the GUI was received positively overall, and that a MATLAB component ...


Maximizing The Academic And Professional Success Of First-Generation College Students In Biomedical Engineering, Mona Ahmed May 2020

Maximizing The Academic And Professional Success Of First-Generation College Students In Biomedical Engineering, Mona Ahmed

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Although efforts to increase the inclusion, retention, and success of first-generation college students (FGCSs) in research universities have resulted in noticeable progress, FGCSs still feel academically challenged, isolated, and show more anxiety and depression compared to non-FGCSs. Moreover, FGCSs may possess additional underrepresented identities that exacerbates the problem. There is more risk of dropping out of academic programs for FGCSs enrolling in STEM degrees, especially those of more multidisciplinary nature such as Biomedical Engineering. From the overall population of the State of Arkansas, only 23.3% have a bachelor’s degree or higher which is the third least percentage in ...


Comparing Economics Of Traditional Carbonation Method And A Novel Carbonation Invention For Craft Beer, Kira Simonson May 2020

Comparing Economics Of Traditional Carbonation Method And A Novel Carbonation Invention For Craft Beer, Kira Simonson

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The traditional method for the carbonation of beer includes bubbling CO2 through a pressurized brite tank until the desired level of carbonation concentration is reached. The gas either dissolves in the liquid volume or passes through the beer into the gas headspace above the bulk volume of beer. The gas that passes through the liquid can strip the beer of flavors, and this undissolved gas is vented to the atmosphere. To reduce the gas lost to the atmosphere, the CO2 is dissolved into the beer slowly over a long period of time, which increases gas-use efficiency but sacrifices ...


Optical Metabolic Imaging As A Predictor Of Patient Tumor Response To Therapy And Apoptosis, Andrew Larey May 2020

Optical Metabolic Imaging As A Predictor Of Patient Tumor Response To Therapy And Apoptosis, Andrew Larey

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Despite a plethora of medical advancements, malignant tumors remain difficult to treat due to complex cancer biology and interpatient heterogeneity. Phenotypically similar tumors may respond differently to a given treatment. In clinical oncology, it is paramount to quantify tumor response to therapy for predicting treatment outcome, monitoring tumor changes, identifying effective therapies, and avoiding unnecessary cost and toxicity to the patient. Current standards of monitoring tumor response to therapy include CT, MRI, PET, and histopathology; these methods either take a merely anatomical approach or are invasive and time consuming, necessitating a functional biomarker approach. MPM represents a metabolic-level method of ...


Theoretical Applicability Of Crispr-Mediated Exon Skipping In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Andrew Greek May 2020

Theoretical Applicability Of Crispr-Mediated Exon Skipping In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Andrew Greek

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) affects approximately 1 in 5,000 males. DMD results from genetic mutations within the gene that interrupts the open reading frame and prematurely truncates the protein. From a non-functional dystrophin protein, DMD results in serious muscle weakening and muscle wasting ultimately leading to death around the age of 26. In some cases of muscular dystrophy, a mutation can occur in areas of the gene that are less essential. In Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), these mutations cause less significant consequences in phenotype as the dystrophin protein is still semi-functional. With gene editing techniques, it may be possible ...


Differential Patterns Of Theta Activation Underlying Various Cognitive Control Strategies, Jarrod Eisma May 2020

Differential Patterns Of Theta Activation Underlying Various Cognitive Control Strategies, Jarrod Eisma

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this study, EEG was recorded from 157 participants at the University of Arkansas as they performed three computer tasks that tested inhibitory control (Go/Nogo Task), proactive and reactive control (AX-Continuous Performance Task), and resolving response conflict (Global/Local Task- modified Flanker Task). Time-frequency analysis (ERSP) was the primary focus of this study, in order to take advantage of the temporal and frequential characteristics of EEG recordings. The ERSPs and following statistical analysis showed significantly higher midfrontal theta band (4-8 Hz) power values for target trials (those that required more cognitive control) than control trials, which indicated that the ...


Gait Characterization Using Computer Vision Video Analysis, Martha T. Gizaw May 2020

Gait Characterization Using Computer Vision Video Analysis, Martha T. Gizaw

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The World Health Organization reports that falls are the second-leading cause of accidental death among senior adults around the world. Currently, a research team at William & Mary’s Department of Kinesiology & Health Sciences attempts to recognize and correct aging-related factors that can result in falling. To meet this goal, the members of that team videotape walking tests to examine individual gait parameters of older subjects. However, they undergo a slow, laborious process of analyzing video frame by video frame to obtain such parameters. This project uses computer vision software to reconstruct walking models from residents of an independent living retirement ...


Determination Of Gas Emission Characteristics From Animal Wastes Using A Multiplexed Portable Ftir-Surface Chamber System, Pakorn Sutitarnnontr May 2020

Determination Of Gas Emission Characteristics From Animal Wastes Using A Multiplexed Portable Ftir-Surface Chamber System, Pakorn Sutitarnnontr

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Livestock production is a growing source of air pollution at regional, national, and global scales. Improved livestock manure management has the potential to reduce environmental impacts; however, there is an urgent need for cost-efficient, reliable, and easy to maintain measurement and monitoring capabilities to precisely quantify emissions from livestock manure. This research describes and evaluates a novel measurement method based on the multiplexed portable Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyzer - surface chamber techniques for continuous measurements and monitoring gas emissions from manure sources. The multiplexing system was designed and developed to automate the chamber network, controlling the movement of chambers ...


Observation Of Struvite In The Mixed Microalgae Biofilm Matrix Of A Rotating Algal Biofilm Reactor During Nutrient Removal From Municipal Anaerobic Digester Filtrate, Kyle M. Hillman May 2020

Observation Of Struvite In The Mixed Microalgae Biofilm Matrix Of A Rotating Algal Biofilm Reactor During Nutrient Removal From Municipal Anaerobic Digester Filtrate, Kyle M. Hillman

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Central Valley Water Reclamation Facility (CVWRF) in Salt Lake City is the largest municipal wastewater treatment plant in Utah and must meet new and rigorous nutrient effluent standards–over 95% reduction in phosphorus output by 2025. Filtrate from CVWRF anaerobic digesters contains high levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and magnesium. Supersaturation of these constituents leads to nuisance struvite precipitation that clogs belts, pumps, and pipes downstream of anaerobic digesters. Struvite is a mineral precipitate composed of equimolar magnesium, ammonium, and phosphate. Controlled precipitation of struvite helps prevent clogging and scaling, removes phosphate from wastewater, and generates a marketable fertilizer product.

Struvite ...


A High Frequency Photoacoustic System For Colorectal Cancer Imaging, Kexin Huang May 2020

A High Frequency Photoacoustic System For Colorectal Cancer Imaging, Kexin Huang

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

While colorectal cancer is the second largest cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, early detection is a key factor in its survival rate. Compared to conventional imaging modalities, photoacoustic imaging offers benefits in providing angiographic images which are valuable for early-stage tumor detection. This thesis presents the design of a 32-channel 80 MHz photoacoustic image system, whose relatively high frequency offers particular advantages.

The system comprises several modules, including a laser system, ultrasound probe, AD convertor, microcontroller (FPGA), and a computer. The system requires programs for the FPGA and the data receiver on the computer. The data transportation ...


Design And Validation Of A Dynamic Pressure-Based Loading Device And 3d Strain Tracking Protocol For Ventral Hernia Modeling, Griffin Kivitz May 2020

Design And Validation Of A Dynamic Pressure-Based Loading Device And 3d Strain Tracking Protocol For Ventral Hernia Modeling, Griffin Kivitz

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

It is estimated that 350,000-500,000 ventral hernia repair surgeries are performed each year in the United States. While the long-term recurrence rate of ventral hernia repairs is not yet known, when tissues are exposed to the trauma of surgery, there is always the chance of recurrence. Commonly used ex vivo testing methods for determining the mechanical properties of the abdominal wall and biomaterials for hernia repair consist primarily of uniaxial and biaxial testing, which are not physiologically relevant loading environments. The need for a testing device that can exert physiologically relevant loads ex vivo to an abdominal wall ...


Transcriptomic Analysis Of Cytokine-Treated Tissue-Engineered Cartilage As An In Vitro Model Of Osteoarthritis, Jiehan Li May 2020

Transcriptomic Analysis Of Cytokine-Treated Tissue-Engineered Cartilage As An In Vitro Model Of Osteoarthritis, Jiehan Li

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Osteoarthritis (OA), as the most common form of arthritis and a leading cause of disability worldwide, currently has no disease-modifying drugs. Inflammation plays an important role in cartilage degeneration in OA, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, have been shown to induce degradative changes along with aberrant gene expression in chondrocytes, the only resident cells in cartilage. The goal of this study was to further understand the transcriptomic regulation of tissue-engineered cartilage in response to inflammatory cytokines using an in vitro miPSC model system. We performed RNA sequencing for the IL-1β or TNF-α treated tissue-engineered cartilage derived from murine iPSCs ...


Biomimetic Modeling Of Preeclamptic Conditions, Noha Algahimi Apr 2020

Biomimetic Modeling Of Preeclamptic Conditions, Noha Algahimi

UCARE Research Products

Background: •Preeclampsia is a condition often diagnosed around 20 weeks of pregnancy •Preeclampsia results in 18% of US maternal deaths and 15% of premature US births •Results in high blood pressure, headaches, nausea, and breathing difficulties Hypothesis: Placental stiffness shares a direct correlation with the adverse progression of preeclampsia. Aims/Objectives: •Characterize the relationship between stiffness and alterations to placental cell morphology, metabolism, and function

Morphology: Once the plates have been seeded they are monitored for several days, when they reach adequate confluence they are imaged for changes in morphology. The images show cell elongation with increasing stiffness.