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Articles 1 - 30 of 8063

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Characterization Of Oxone Mediated Tempo-Oxidized Nano Cellulose Mixed-Matrix Membranes During Ultrafiltration And Hemodialysis, Kristyn Robling May 2020

Characterization Of Oxone Mediated Tempo-Oxidized Nano Cellulose Mixed-Matrix Membranes During Ultrafiltration And Hemodialysis, Kristyn Robling

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The ninth leading cause of death in the United States is kidney disease, and hemodialysis is the process most commonly prescribed for treatment. It utilizes a selectively permeable membrane filter to remove toxins such as urea from the blood and retain necessary protein levels. However, traditional filters, such as cellulose triacetate, used during dialysis can be inefficient in terms of separation performance and reduction of fouling. Recent exploration of nanoparticles has resulted in the creation of Oxone Mediated TEMPO-Oxidized Nano Cellulose which has properties that are believed to increase hydrophilicity, increase tensile capacity, decrease membrane resistance and lower fouling, making ...


Multidisciplinary Education And Research In Biomathematics For Solving Global Challenges, Padmanabhan Seshaiyer Oct 2019

Multidisciplinary Education And Research In Biomathematics For Solving Global Challenges, Padmanabhan Seshaiyer

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Viscoelastic Properties Of Shock Wave Exposed Brain Tissue Subjected To Unconfined Compression Experiments, Annastacia K. Mccarty, Ling Zhang, Sarah Hansen, William J. Jackson, Sarah A. Bentil Aug 2019

Viscoelastic Properties Of Shock Wave Exposed Brain Tissue Subjected To Unconfined Compression Experiments, Annastacia K. Mccarty, Ling Zhang, Sarah Hansen, William J. Jackson, Sarah A. Bentil

Sarah A. Bentil

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) affect millions of people each year. While research has been dedicated to determining the mechanical properties of the uninjured brain, there has been a lack of investigation on the mechanical properties of the brain after experiencing a primary blast-induced TBI. In this paper, whole porcine brains were exposed to a shock wave to simulate blast-induced TBI. First, ten (10) brains were subjected to unconfined compression experiments immediately following shock wave exposure. In addition, 22 brains exposed to a shock wave were placed in saline solution and refrigerated between 30 minutes and 6.0 hours before undergoing ...


Identifying Extracellular Matrix Protein Turnover Rates For Tissue Engineers, Alita F. Miller Aug 2019

Identifying Extracellular Matrix Protein Turnover Rates For Tissue Engineers, Alita F. Miller

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Viscoelastic Properties Of Shock Wave Exposed Brain Tissue Subjected To Unconfined Compression Experiments, Annastacia K. Mccarty, Ling Zhang, Sarah Hansen, William J. Jackson, Sarah A. Bentil Aug 2019

Viscoelastic Properties Of Shock Wave Exposed Brain Tissue Subjected To Unconfined Compression Experiments, Annastacia K. Mccarty, Ling Zhang, Sarah Hansen, William J. Jackson, Sarah A. Bentil

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) affect millions of people each year. While research has been dedicated to determining the mechanical properties of the uninjured brain, there has been a lack of investigation on the mechanical properties of the brain after experiencing a primary blast-induced TBI. In this paper, whole porcine brains were exposed to a shock wave to simulate blast-induced TBI. First, ten (10) brains were subjected to unconfined compression experiments immediately following shock wave exposure. In addition, 22 brains exposed to a shock wave were placed in saline solution and refrigerated between 30 minutes and 6.0 hours before undergoing ...


Workshop On Convergence In Biological Engineering, Keith Roper Aug 2019

Workshop On Convergence In Biological Engineering, Keith Roper

Funded Research Records

No abstract provided.


Genome-Edited Animals Are Not Transgenic Animals: Moving Toward Responsible Research And Innovation With New Biotechnologies, Yvie Yao Aug 2019

Genome-Edited Animals Are Not Transgenic Animals: Moving Toward Responsible Research And Innovation With New Biotechnologies, Yvie Yao

Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology

No abstract provided.


Generation Of A Ccl2 Knockout Using Crispr/Cas9 And Lipid Mediated Transfection In Ct-26 Murine Colon Carcinoma Cells, Emma Sullivan Aug 2019

Generation Of A Ccl2 Knockout Using Crispr/Cas9 And Lipid Mediated Transfection In Ct-26 Murine Colon Carcinoma Cells, Emma Sullivan

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

CCL2 is an inflammatory mediator that is released by tumor cells to activate and direct immune cell species, especially macrophages, to inflammatory sites within the body. The goal of this project was to successfully generate knockout the CCL2 ligand gene using a CRISPR/Cas9 complex delivered via lipid mediated transfection. The sgRNA and Cas9 mRNA were introduced into the cells via lipid-mediated transfection. The cells were incubated for 4 days, before being analyzed using PCR and gel electrophoresis. We expected to see one band on the first gel and two bands on the second gel. Two bands appeared on the ...


Characterization Of Biofilms In A Synthetic Rhizosphere Using Hollow Fiber Root-Mimetic Systems, Michelle Bonebrake Aug 2019

Characterization Of Biofilms In A Synthetic Rhizosphere Using Hollow Fiber Root-Mimetic Systems, Michelle Bonebrake

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The area around a plant’s roots hosts a complex and diverse microbial community. This environment can include a large number of bacteria that live on the surface of the root and benefit from the nutrients that the roots exude into the soil. These microbes can in turn be beneficial to the plant by protecting the roots from harmful fungi or stressful environmental conditions such as drought. In this thesis, several root-mimetic systems (RMSs) were developed for the study and growth of plant-beneficial bacteria in the laboratory environment. The RMS uses a porous hollow fiber used in hemodialysis as a ...


Investigation Of The Biosynthetic Process Of Indigoidine, Yi Chen Aug 2019

Investigation Of The Biosynthetic Process Of Indigoidine, Yi Chen

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Indigoidine is a natural blue dye with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. It has also been used as an indicator for gene expression based on its distinctive blue color. Similar to the industry blue dye indigo, indigoidine has a promising potential to be applied in industry as a blue dye. However, the indigoidine production level in the original microorganisms was very low. Heterologous expression of the responsible synthetase gene in Escherichia coli can facilitate the fast and large-scale production of indigoidine. Also, a good understating of the working mechanism of the synthetase is favorable for the industrial application.

In our previous ...


Optimization Of Biogas Production By Use Of A Microbially Enhanced Inoculum, Anna Doloman Aug 2019

Optimization Of Biogas Production By Use Of A Microbially Enhanced Inoculum, Anna Doloman

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A renewable energy source, biogas, comprises of methane (80%) and carbon dioxide (15%), and is a great alternative to the conventional fossil-based fuels, such as coal, gas and oil. Biogas is created during anaerobic biological digestion of waste materials, such as landfill material, animal manure, wastewater, algal biomass, industrial organic waste etc. A biogas potential from organic waste in the United States is estimated at about 9 million tons per year and technology allows capture of greenhouse gases, such as methane and carbon dioxide, into a form of a fuel. In the light of global climate change and efforts to ...


Exploring The Capacity Of Bacteria For Natural Product Biosynthesis, Ozkan Fidan Aug 2019

Exploring The Capacity Of Bacteria For Natural Product Biosynthesis, Ozkan Fidan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is focused on exploring the potential of bacteria for the biosynthesis of natural products with the purposes of generating novel natural product derivatives and of improving the titer of pharmaceutically important natural products.

A wide variety of compounds from various sources have been historically used in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Natural products as a major source of new drugs are extensively explored due to their huge structural diversity and promising biological activities such as antimicrobial, anticancer, antifungal, antiviral and antioxidant properties. For instance, penicillin as an early-discovered antimicrobial agent has saved millions of lives, indicating the ...


Spiderworms: Using Silkworms As Hosts To Produce A Hybrid Silkworm-Spider Silk Fiber, Ana Laura Licon Aug 2019

Spiderworms: Using Silkworms As Hosts To Produce A Hybrid Silkworm-Spider Silk Fiber, Ana Laura Licon

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Spider silk has received significant attention due to its fascinating mechanical properties. Given the solitary and cannibalistic behavior of spiders, spider silk farming is impractical. Unlike spiders, silkworms are capable of producing large quantities of a fibrous product in a manner mimetic to spiders, and there already exists an industry to process cocoons into threads and textiles for many applications. The combination of silk farming (sericulture), a millennia old practice, and modern advancements in genetic engineering has given rise to an innovative biomaterial inspired by nature; transgenic silkworm silk.

This project focuses on the creation of chimeric silkworm-spider silk fibers ...


Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts Aug 2019

Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss overwhelms skeletal muscle’s ordinarily capable regenerative machinery, resulting in fibrosis and severe functional deficits which have defied clinical repair strategies. My work spans the design and preclinical evaluation of implants intended to drive the cell community of injured muscle toward a regenerative state, as well as the development of an understanding of the molecular responses of this cell community to biomaterial interventions. I demonstrate a new class of biomaterial by leveraging the productive capacity of sacrificial hollow fiber membrane cell culture; I show specifically that unique threads of whole extracellular matrix can be isolated by solvent ...


Investigation Of The Effect Of Age On Regenerative Outcomes Following Treatment Of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injuries, John Taehwan Kim Aug 2019

Investigation Of The Effect Of Age On Regenerative Outcomes Following Treatment Of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injuries, John Taehwan Kim

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is a traumatic injury in skeletal muscle resulting in the bulk loss of more than 20% of the muscle’s volume. Included in the bulk loss of muscle is the skeletal muscle niche comprised of nerve bundles, vasculature, local progenitor cells, basal lamina, and muscle fibers, overwhelming innate repair mechanisms. The hallmark of VML injury is the excessive accumulation of non-contractile, fibrotic tissue and permanent functional deficits. Though predominant in the younger demographic, the elderly population is also captured within VML injuries. There are many factors that change with aging in skeletal muscle that may further ...


False-Match Symmetry: Data Files And Simulation Code, Cherlyn J. Ng, Bart Farell Jul 2019

False-Match Symmetry: Data Files And Simulation Code, Cherlyn J. Ng, Bart Farell

Biomedical and Chemical Engineering

This record provides data from random-dot stereograms to use in solving the binocular correspondence problem through false-match symmetry. It also provides an implementation of the algorithm used in the article ‘Solving the stereo correspondence problem with false matches’ [Ng CJ, Farell B (2019) Solving the stereo correspondence problem with false matches. PLoSONE 14(7): e0219052. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0219052].

The record consists of two parts, Data and Algorithm Demo. The Data component consists of pre-computed Keplerian arrays of all possible matches between filtered random-dot image pairs containing stereoscopically defined surfaces. The Algorithm Demo allows data files ...


Design, Development, And Field Testing A Visnir Integrated Multi-Sensing Soil Penetrometer, Nuwan K. Wijewardane Jul 2019

Design, Development, And Field Testing A Visnir Integrated Multi-Sensing Soil Penetrometer, Nuwan K. Wijewardane

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The research community in soil science and agriculture lacks a cost-effective and rapid technology for in situ, high resolution vertical soil sensing. Visible and near infra-red (VisNIR) technology has the potential to be used for such sensor development due to its ability to derive multiple soil properties rapidly using a single spectrum. Such efforts must, however, overcome a few challenges: (i) a dry ground soil spectral library that can be used to predict the target soil properties accurately, (ii) a robust design which can acquire high quality VisNIR spectra of soil, (iii) an effective method that can link field intact ...


System Integration Of C-Arm Robotic Prototype Using Motion Capture Guidance For Accurate Repositioning, Alireza Yazdanshenas Jul 2019

System Integration Of C-Arm Robotic Prototype Using Motion Capture Guidance For Accurate Repositioning, Alireza Yazdanshenas

Mechanical Engineering Theses

One of the important surgical tools in spinal surgery is the C-Arm X-ray System. The C-Arm is a large “C” shaped and manually maneuvered arm that provides surgeons and X-ray technicians the ability to take quick quality X-rays during surgery. Because of its five degrees of freedom, the C-Arm can be manually maneuvered around the patient to provide many angles and perspectives, ensuring surgical success.

This system works fine for most surgical procedures but falls short when the C-Arm must be moved out of the way for complicated surgical procedures.

The aim of this thesis is to develop an accurate ...


Biophysical Characterization Approaches To Aid The Selection Of Protein Formulations By Predicting Their Physical Stability During Long-Term Storage, Hristo Svilenov, Gerhard Winter Jul 2019

Biophysical Characterization Approaches To Aid The Selection Of Protein Formulations By Predicting Their Physical Stability During Long-Term Storage, Hristo Svilenov, Gerhard Winter

Biological and Pharmaceutical Complex Fluids III: Protein Self-Assembly, Rheology and Interfacial Properties

The formulation of therapeutic proteins is a critical process which aims at finding the most suitable conditions that impede protein degradation during long-term storage. One degradation path of high interest is the non-native aggregation1. The latter can be greatly suppressed by the selection of suitable solution conditions2. Over the years, various biophysical techniques have been explored as tools to quickly select the most promising formulations for long-term storage.

In this talk, we share the experience in our lab how some of these techniques can be integrated into protein formulation studies. We discuss the application of differential scanning calorimetry ...


A Novel Technique To Characterize The Surface Hydrophobicity Of Proteins Using Inverse Liquid Chromatography, Dilip Sethi, Sarah Hedberg, Daryl Williams Jul 2019

A Novel Technique To Characterize The Surface Hydrophobicity Of Proteins Using Inverse Liquid Chromatography, Dilip Sethi, Sarah Hedberg, Daryl Williams

Biological and Pharmaceutical Complex Fluids III: Protein Self-Assembly, Rheology and Interfacial Properties

This work presents a novel technique to characterize the surface hydrophobicity and other surface properties of proteins. The surface properties of industrial and therapeutic proteins are key to understanding their behavior in-situ, in the laboratory and in processes. Protein surface hydrophobicity is a marker for three dimensional structure, stability and function. Inverse Liquid Chromatography of Proteins (ILCP) with small molecule hydrophobic probes can be used to obtain direct measurements of the surface hydrophobicity of column resin-bound proteins using changes in probe retention behavior. The dimensionless hydrophobicity factor (Hf) for Lysozyme and BSA was obtained with changing pH and temperature ...


Aggregation Challenges In The Formulation Development Of Multi-Dose Peptide Products, Jingtao Zhang, Katelyn Smith, Wei Xu, Yongchao Su, Suzanne D’Addio, Yogita Krishnamachari, Jameson Bothe, Daniel Yin, Xinpei Mao Jul 2019

Aggregation Challenges In The Formulation Development Of Multi-Dose Peptide Products, Jingtao Zhang, Katelyn Smith, Wei Xu, Yongchao Su, Suzanne D’Addio, Yogita Krishnamachari, Jameson Bothe, Daniel Yin, Xinpei Mao

Biological and Pharmaceutical Complex Fluids III: Protein Self-Assembly, Rheology and Interfacial Properties

The formulation development of parenteral peptide therapeutics frequently encounters aggregation challenges. In-depth biophysical understanding of the molecule and formulation are required to achieve formulation robustness. Further, unique considerations need to be given for peptide products that require multi-dose as the use of preservatives can promote aggregation while preservative effectiveness can also be impacted by its interaction with the peptide. This presentation will focus on the reversible and irreversible fibril aggregates in peptide formulations. Biophysical characterization of aggregation and formulation will be discussed in detail. Formation of reversible aggregates and the impact of excipients especially preservatives will be discussed. For the ...


Conference Program, Samiul Amin, Paolo Arosio, Miguel Rodrigues Jul 2019

Conference Program, Samiul Amin, Paolo Arosio, Miguel Rodrigues

Biological and Pharmaceutical Complex Fluids III: Protein Self-Assembly, Rheology and Interfacial Properties

No abstract provided.


Resolving Intravoxel White Matter Structures In The Human Brain Using Regularized Regression And Clustering, Andrea Hart, Brianna Smith, Sean Smith, Elijah Sales, Jacqueline Hernandez-Camargo, Yarlin Mayor Garcia, Felix Zhan, Lori Griswold, Brian Dunkelberger, Michael R. Schwob, Sharang Chaudhry, Justin Zhan, Laxmi Gewali, Paul Oh Jul 2019

Resolving Intravoxel White Matter Structures In The Human Brain Using Regularized Regression And Clustering, Andrea Hart, Brianna Smith, Sean Smith, Elijah Sales, Jacqueline Hernandez-Camargo, Yarlin Mayor Garcia, Felix Zhan, Lori Griswold, Brian Dunkelberger, Michael R. Schwob, Sharang Chaudhry, Justin Zhan, Laxmi Gewali, Paul Oh

Computer Science Faculty Publications

The human brain is a complex system of neural tissue that varies significantly between individuals. Although the technology that delineates these neural pathways does not currently exist, medical imaging modalities, such as diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI), can be leveraged for mathematical identification. The purpose of this work is to develop a novel method employing machine learning techniques to determine intravoxel nerve number and direction from dMRI data. The method was tested on multiple synthetic datasets and showed promising estimation accuracy and robustness for multi-nerve systems under a variety of conditions, including highly noisy data and imprecision in parameter assumptions.


Microwave Assisted Sol-Gel Synthesis Of Silica-Spider Silk Composites, Abul Bashar Mohammad Giasuddin, David W. Britt Jul 2019

Microwave Assisted Sol-Gel Synthesis Of Silica-Spider Silk Composites, Abul Bashar Mohammad Giasuddin, David W. Britt

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

This study introduces a simple and environmentally friendly method to synthesize silica-protein nanocomposite materials using microwave energy to solubilize hydrophobic protein in an aqueous solution of pre-hydrolyzed organo- or fluoro-silane. Sol-gel functionality can be enhanced through biomacromolecule incorporation to tune mechanical properties, surface energy, and biocompatibility. Here, synthetic spider silk protein and organo- and fluoro-silane precursors were dissolved and mixed in weakly acidic aqueous solution using microwave technology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images revealed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 100 to 500 nm depending, in part, on silane fluoro- or organo-side ...


A Ph-Sensitive Delivery System For The Prevention Of Dental Caries Using Salivary Protein, Yi Zhu, Yizhi Xiao, Elizabeth Gillies, Walter L. Siqueira Jun 2019

A Ph-Sensitive Delivery System For The Prevention Of Dental Caries Using Salivary Protein, Yi Zhu, Yizhi Xiao, Elizabeth Gillies, Walter L. Siqueira

Western Research Forum

Dental caries remains one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. In previous studies, salivary proteins (e.g. histatin 3, statherin) have demonstrated biological functions including the inhibition of crystal growth, antibacterial activities, which are directly related to tooth homeostasis and prevention of dental caries. However, proteins are susceptible to the high proteolytic activities in the oral environment. Therefore, pH-sensitive chitosan nanoparticles (CNs) have been proposed as potential carriers to protect proteins against enzymatic degradation at physiological salivary pH, in addition to swell selectively at lower pH conditions to facilitate the release of the encapsulated proteins, as major oral complications ...


The Effect Of Radial Head Hemiarthroplasty Stem Fit On Radiocapitellar Contact Mechanics: Is Loose Fit Better Than Rigidly Fixed?, Jakub Szmit, Graham J.W. King, James A. Johnson, G. Daniel G. Langohr Jun 2019

The Effect Of Radial Head Hemiarthroplasty Stem Fit On Radiocapitellar Contact Mechanics: Is Loose Fit Better Than Rigidly Fixed?, Jakub Szmit, Graham J.W. King, James A. Johnson, G. Daniel G. Langohr

Western Research Forum

Background/Methods: Radial head hemiarthroplasty is commonly employed to manage comminuted displaced fractures. With regards to implant fixation, current designs vary with some prostheses aiming to achieve a tight 'fixed' fit, and others utilizing a smooth stem with an over reamed 'loose' fit. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of radial head hemiarthroplasty stem fit on radiocapitellar contact using a finite element model which simulated both fixed (size-for-size) and loose (1, 2 & 3mm over reamed) stem fits.

Hypothesis: It was hypothesized that a loose stem fit would improve radiocapitellar contact mechanics, with increased contact area ...


Multifunctional Hybrid Sol-Gel Implant Coatings On Anodized Titanium Substrates To Improve Osseointegration And Antimicrobial Effectiveness, Zach Gouveia Jun 2019

Multifunctional Hybrid Sol-Gel Implant Coatings On Anodized Titanium Substrates To Improve Osseointegration And Antimicrobial Effectiveness, Zach Gouveia

Western Research Forum

To improve patient outcomes in orthopedic and dental implantation procedures, the development of multifunctional implant coatings that can inhibit microbial cell proliferation while promoting osseointegration have been sought out by clinicians. While recent developments in material science and cell biology have seen the development of such coatings, many proposed systems lack clinical translatability. For example, to reach the clinic, modern coating systems must be highly adherent to their substrate (to avoid delamination upon implantation), have sufficient wettability (to promote the fixation of cells), and facilitate the controlled and sustained release of antimicrobial factors (falling within the therapeutic window to prevent ...


Fibrinogen, Factor Xiii And Fibronectin: A Biophysical And Kinetic Characterization Of Their Interactions, Frank Fabian Jun 2019

Fibrinogen, Factor Xiii And Fibronectin: A Biophysical And Kinetic Characterization Of Their Interactions, Frank Fabian

Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Theses, Dissertations, & Student Research

The development of recombinant-based liquid fibrin tissue sealants having enhanced hemostatic and wound healing properties will involve understanding as yet not well characterized interactions between fibrinogen, fibrin (Fbn) factor XIII, thrombin and fibronectin. We study these phenomena in the context of comparing plasma derived fibrinogen to recombinant fibrinogen (rFI) produced in the milk of transgenic cows. An abundance of purified γγ and γγ’ FI subspecies enables detailed study of γγ or γγ’ biomonomer and their respective Fbn biopolymer formation as having different substrate behaviors of activated plasma derived factor XIII (pFXIIIa2b2). High pressure size exclusion (HPSEC) and ...


Remote Navigation And Contact-Force Control Of Radiofrequency Ablation Catheters, Daniel Gelman Jun 2019

Remote Navigation And Contact-Force Control Of Radiofrequency Ablation Catheters, Daniel Gelman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common and clinically significant heart rhythm disorder, is characterized by rapid and irregular electrical activity in the upper chambers resulting in abnormal contractions. Radiofrequency (RF) cardiac catheter ablation is a minimally invasive curative treatment that aims to electrically correct signal pathways inside the atria to restore normal sinus rhythm. Successful catheter ablation requires the complete and permanent elimination of arrhythmogenic signals by delivering transmural RF ablation lesions contiguously near and around key cardiac structures. These procedures are complex and technically challenging and, even when performed by the most skilled physician, nearly half of patients undergo ...


Inverted Cone Convolutional Neural Network For Deboning Mris, Oliver John Palumbo Jun 2019

Inverted Cone Convolutional Neural Network For Deboning Mris, Oliver John Palumbo

Theses and Dissertations

Data plenitude is the power but also the bottleneck for data-driven approaches, including neural networks. In particular, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) require an abundant database of training images to achieve a desired high accuracy. Current techniques employed for boosting small datasets are data augmentation and synthetic data generation, which suffer from computational complexity and imprecision compared to original datasets. In this thesis, we intercalate prior knowledge based on the temporal relation between the images in the third dimension. Specifically, we compute the gradient of subsequent images in the dataset to remove extraneous information and highlight subtle variations between the images ...