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Virginia Commonwealth University

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Articles 1 - 30 of 234

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

The Impact Of Aging And Mechanical Injury On Alveolar Epithelial And Macrophage Responses In Acute Lung Injury And Inflammation, Michael S. Valentine Jan 2020

The Impact Of Aging And Mechanical Injury On Alveolar Epithelial And Macrophage Responses In Acute Lung Injury And Inflammation, Michael S. Valentine

Theses and Dissertations

Patients with severe lung pathologies, such as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), often require mechanical ventilation as a clinical intervention; however, this procedure frequently exacerbates the original pulmonary issue and produces an exaggerated inflammatory response that potentially leads to sepsis, multisystem organ failure, and mortality. This acute lung injury (ALI) condition has been termed Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI). Alveolar overdistension, cyclic atelectasis, and biotrauma are the primary injury mechanisms in VILI that lead to the loss of alveolar barrier integrity and pulmonary inflammation. Stress and strains during mechanical ventilation are believed to initiate alveolar epithelial mechanotransduction signaling mechanisms that contribute ...


Quantification And Modeling Of Bladder Biomechanics Mechanisms Linking Spontaneous Rhythmic Contractions And Dynamic Elasticity To Detrusor Overactivity, Zachary E. Cullingsworth Jan 2020

Quantification And Modeling Of Bladder Biomechanics Mechanisms Linking Spontaneous Rhythmic Contractions And Dynamic Elasticity To Detrusor Overactivity, Zachary E. Cullingsworth

Theses and Dissertations

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a chronic condition affecting approximately 20% of adults in the United States. Detrusor overactivity (DO) is the presence of non-voiding contractions in the detrusor (bladder) muscle during filling and is present in some individuals with OAB. DO is currently identified visually during a urodynamics (UD) study involving pressure catheters and filling and voiding of the bladder to evaluate function. UD provides limited subtyping of DO, and an incomplete understanding of mechanisms contributing to OAB.

Aim 1 of this study was to develop objective tools to quantify, subgroup and better understand rhythmic DO. The results indicate that ...


Extracellular Matrix Nanoparticles Effects On The Lung In Vivo, Brittaney E. Ritchie Jan 2020

Extracellular Matrix Nanoparticles Effects On The Lung In Vivo, Brittaney E. Ritchie

Theses and Dissertations

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition that causes diffuse alveolar damage and a loss of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This leads to pulmonary edema and lung function deterioration. Our lab has created decellularized porcine lung, electrosprayed ECM nanoparticles that have been previously shown to have pro-regenerative capabilities in vitro.

In this study, the ECM nanoparticle effects on young murine lungs were tested in vivo. An ECM nanoparticle suspension, previously used for the in vitro studies, was aerosolized intratracheally into the lungs using a microsprayer. 24 hours later, the lung mechanics, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and histology were ...


Predicting Tgf-Β-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Using Data Assimilation, Mario J. Mendez, Matthew J. Hoffman, Elizabeth M. Cherry, Dr. Christopher Lemmon, Seth Weinberg May 2019

Predicting Tgf-Β-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Using Data Assimilation, Mario J. Mendez, Matthew J. Hoffman, Elizabeth M. Cherry, Dr. Christopher Lemmon, Seth Weinberg

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Age Dependent Regulation Of Cardiac Sodium Channel Gain Of Function, Madison Nowak, David Ryan King, Steven Poelzing, Seth Weinberg May 2019

Age Dependent Regulation Of Cardiac Sodium Channel Gain Of Function, Madison Nowak, David Ryan King, Steven Poelzing, Seth Weinberg

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Immunofluorescence Image Feature Analysis And Clustering Pipeline For Distinguishing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Shreyas Hirway, Nadiah Hassan, Dr. Christopher Lemmon, Dr. Seth Weinberg May 2019

Immunofluorescence Image Feature Analysis And Clustering Pipeline For Distinguishing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Shreyas Hirway, Nadiah Hassan, Dr. Christopher Lemmon, Dr. Seth Weinberg

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Coupled Influence Of Heart Rate Variability And Subcellular Calcium Heterogeneity On Cardiac Electromechanical Dynamics, Vrishti M. Phadumdeo, Seth H. Weinberg Ph.D May 2019

Coupled Influence Of Heart Rate Variability And Subcellular Calcium Heterogeneity On Cardiac Electromechanical Dynamics, Vrishti M. Phadumdeo, Seth H. Weinberg Ph.D

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Design And Testing Of An Agonist-Antagonist Position-Impedance Controlled Myoelectric Prosthesis, Christopher Aymonin Jan 2019

Design And Testing Of An Agonist-Antagonist Position-Impedance Controlled Myoelectric Prosthesis, Christopher Aymonin

Theses and Dissertations

Intuitive prosthetic control is limited by the inability to easily convey intention and perceive physical requirements of the task. Rather than providing haptic feedback and allowing users to consciously control every component of manipulation, relegating some aspects of control to the device may simplify operation. This study focuses on the development and testing of a control scheme able to identify object stiffness and regulate impedance. The system includes an algorithm to detect the apparent stiffness of an object, a proportional nonlinear EMG control algorithm for interpreting a user’s desired grasp aperture, and an antagonistically acting impedance controller. Performance of ...


The Role Of Kras In Mechanosensing In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Krista M. Powell Jan 2019

The Role Of Kras In Mechanosensing In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Krista M. Powell

Theses and Dissertations

Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer related death worldwide, with more than 1.6 million fatalities each year. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80-85% of all lung cancers, with KRAS being one of the most prevalent oncogenic driver mutations. Therapeutic approaches for KRAS-mutated NSCLC have been extensively explored due to the US National Cancer Institute RAS Initiative, but methods of directly targeting KRAS or downstream effectors, such as MEK, still have poor results. Previous reports have shown that KRAS-mutated NSCLC activate distinct receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) depending on the epithelial or mesenchymal state. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition ...


The Role Of The Mechanical Environment On Cd117+ Endothelial Cell Angiogenesis, Patrick Link Jan 2019

The Role Of The Mechanical Environment On Cd117+ Endothelial Cell Angiogenesis, Patrick Link

Theses and Dissertations

Angiogenesis is a complex process coordinating cell migration, proliferation, and lumen formation. Changes to the microenvironment regulate angiogenesis through mechanotransduction and cytokine signals. In pulmonary hypertension, something in the process becomes abnormal, resulting in changes to the microenvironment and the formation of a glomerulus of dysfunctional capillaries, called a plexiform lesion. Endothelial cells, expressing CD117 (CD117+ EC clones) increase in the plexiform lesions of pulmonary hypertension, independent of pro-angiogenic VEGF signaling. We hypothesize that the mechanical environment and the macromolecular composition of the extracellular matrix, both, contribute to the aberrant angiogenesis. When we changed the mechanical environment, we changed the ...


Cell Type And Substrate Dependence Of Fibronectin Properties And Mechanotransduction, Navpreet S. Saini Jan 2019

Cell Type And Substrate Dependence Of Fibronectin Properties And Mechanotransduction, Navpreet S. Saini

Theses and Dissertations

Fibronectin is an important protein that is able to bind to other fibronectin molecules and to cell surface receptors. In doing so, the interactions fibronectin can perform is important for the processes of cell migration and tissue formation. Understanding the properties of fibronectin and fibril assembly is useful for areas such as wound healing, where fibronectin molecules are assembled to protect the tissue and to perform other tasks. Because of these reasons, it is important to understand how fibronectin is assembled and how its properties affect the fibril assembly, which in return affects the way the cell matrix operates. Previously ...


Designing Biomimetic Implant Surfaces To Promote Osseointegration Under Osteoporotic Conditions By Revitalizing Mechanisms Coupling Bone Resorption To Formation, Ethan M. Lotz Jan 2019

Designing Biomimetic Implant Surfaces To Promote Osseointegration Under Osteoporotic Conditions By Revitalizing Mechanisms Coupling Bone Resorption To Formation, Ethan M. Lotz

Theses and Dissertations

In cases of compromised bone remodeling like osteoporosis, insufficient osseointegration occurs and results in implant failure. Implant retention relies on proper secondary fixation, which is developed during bone remodeling. This process is disrupted in metastatic bone diseases like osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is characterized low bone mass and bone strength resulting from either accelerated osteoclast-mediated bone resorption or impaired osteoblast-mediated bone formation. These two processes are not independent phenomena. In fact, osteoporosis can be viewed as a breakdown of the cellular communication connecting bone resorption to bone formation. Because bone remodeling occurs at temporally generated specific anatomical sites and at different times ...


Engineering The Alveolar Gas Exchange Barrier With Extracellular Matrix Coatings For Bioengineered Lungs, Bethany M. Young Jan 2019

Engineering The Alveolar Gas Exchange Barrier With Extracellular Matrix Coatings For Bioengineered Lungs, Bethany M. Young

Theses and Dissertations

Lower respiratory diseases are currently the third leading cause of death worldwide. For many end-stage patients with these diseases, there is no cure and a shortage of donor organs available for transplant. A promising solution is to design regenerative scaffolds or complete bioengineered lungs, using decellularized lung tissues as a template for regeneration. Recent advances in the field have made significant strides towards developing a transplantable lung. However, the current technology has not produced a functional lung for in vivo transplant due to immature gas exchange barriers. The mechanisms driving alveolar barrier maturation and role that extracellular matrix (ECM) plays ...


A Computational Assessment Of Lisfranc Injuries And Their Surgical Repairs, Michael Perez Jan 2019

A Computational Assessment Of Lisfranc Injuries And Their Surgical Repairs, Michael Perez

Theses and Dissertations

While Lisfranc injuries in the mid foot are less common than other ankle and mid foot injuries, they pose challenges in both properly identifying them and treating them. When Lisfranc injuries are ligamentous and do not include obvious fractures, they are very challenging for clinicians to identify unless weight bearing radiographs are used. The result is that 20%-40% of Lisfranc injuries are missed in the initial evaluation. Even when injuries are correctly identified the outcomes of surgical procedures remain poor. Existing literature has compared the different surgical procedures but has not had a standard approach or procedures across studies ...


Mechanochemical Regulation Of Epithelial Tissue Remodeling: A Multiscale Computational Model Of The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Program, Lewis Scott Jan 2019

Mechanochemical Regulation Of Epithelial Tissue Remodeling: A Multiscale Computational Model Of The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Program, Lewis Scott

Theses and Dissertations

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulates the cellular processes of migration, growth, and proliferation - as well as the collective cellular process of tissue remodeling - in response to mechanical and chemical stimuli in the cellular microenvironment. Cells of the epithelium form cell-cell junctions with adjacent cells to function as a barrier between the body and its environment. By distributing localized stress throughout the tissue, this mechanical coupling between cells maintains tensional homeostasis in epithelial tissue structures and provides positional information for regulating cellular processes. Whereas in vitro and in vivo models fail to capture the complex interconnectedness of EMT-associated signaling networks, previous computational ...


Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma Jan 2019

Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma

Theses and Dissertations

Over 200,000 cases of breast cancer are diagnosed every year. Nearly 20% of these patients supplement their diets with some form of vitamin D. This high frequency of vitamin D supplement use may be due in part to research suggesting that cancer patients with higher serum vitamin D3 levels have better prognoses than patients with low serum vitamin D3. However, double-blind clinical trials on the efficacy of vitamin D3 supplementation in breast cancer have been inconclusive. A recent meta-analysis showed evidence of reduced cancer recurrence in patients taking vitamin D3 supplements who had ‘estrogen receptor ...


Assessment Of Access Methods For Mobile Maps For Individuals Who Are Blind Or Visually Impaired, David Parker Jan 2019

Assessment Of Access Methods For Mobile Maps For Individuals Who Are Blind Or Visually Impaired, David Parker

Theses and Dissertations

When people go to a mall, museums, or other such locations they tend to rely on maps to find their way around. However, for people who are blind or visually impaired (BVI) maps are not easily accessible and they depend on other means, such as a guide, to get around. Research has only just begun to investigate providing maps for people who are BVI on touch screen devices. Many different types of feedback have been used: audio (sound), tactile (touch), audio-tactile, and multitouch. Some research has been conducted on the benefit of using multiple fingers (multitouch) and has found conflicting ...


Regulation Of Cellular Patterning Through The Extracellular Matrix, Lewis Scott, Lauren Griggs, Vani Narayanan, Daniel Conway Phd, Seth H. Weinberg Phd, Christopher Lemmon Phd Jun 2018

Regulation Of Cellular Patterning Through The Extracellular Matrix, Lewis Scott, Lauren Griggs, Vani Narayanan, Daniel Conway Phd, Seth H. Weinberg Phd, Christopher Lemmon Phd

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Intercellular Sodium Nanodomain Signaling Regulates Repolarization In Cardiac Tissue, Madison Nowak, Seth Weinberg Ph.D. May 2018

Intercellular Sodium Nanodomain Signaling Regulates Repolarization In Cardiac Tissue, Madison Nowak, Seth Weinberg Ph.D.

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Chemotherapeutic Drug Cytotoxicity Measurement With A 3d Biomimetic Microfluidic Device And Computational Fluid Dynamics Model, Maryam Moarefian, Caroline Jones, Luke Achenie, Danesh Tafti May 2018

Chemotherapeutic Drug Cytotoxicity Measurement With A 3d Biomimetic Microfluidic Device And Computational Fluid Dynamics Model, Maryam Moarefian, Caroline Jones, Luke Achenie, Danesh Tafti

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Investigating Smoke Exposure And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) With A Calibrated Agent Based Model (Abm) Of In Vitro Fibroblast Wound Healing., J Alex Ratti, Angela Reynolds, Rebecca L. Heise May 2018

Investigating Smoke Exposure And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) With A Calibrated Agent Based Model (Abm) Of In Vitro Fibroblast Wound Healing., J Alex Ratti, Angela Reynolds, Rebecca L. Heise

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Quantifying Effects Of Neutrophil Memory On Migration Patterns Using Microfluidic Platforms And Ode Modeling Of The Mechanistic Molecular Pathways, Brittany P. Boribong, Mark J. Lenzi, Mirjam Sarah Kadelka, Stanca Ciupe, Liwu Li, Caroline N. Jonea May 2018

Quantifying Effects Of Neutrophil Memory On Migration Patterns Using Microfluidic Platforms And Ode Modeling Of The Mechanistic Molecular Pathways, Brittany P. Boribong, Mark J. Lenzi, Mirjam Sarah Kadelka, Stanca Ciupe, Liwu Li, Caroline N. Jonea

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Modeling Pharmaceutical Inhibition Of Glucose-Stimulated Renin-Angiotensin System In Kidneys, Ashlee N. Ford Versypt, Minu R. Pilvankar, Hui Ling Yong May 2018

Modeling Pharmaceutical Inhibition Of Glucose-Stimulated Renin-Angiotensin System In Kidneys, Ashlee N. Ford Versypt, Minu R. Pilvankar, Hui Ling Yong

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Decellularized Matrices Effect On The Adaptive Immune Response, Kegan Sowers Jan 2018

Decellularized Matrices Effect On The Adaptive Immune Response, Kegan Sowers

Theses and Dissertations

Decellularized extracellular matrices have been a growing area of interest in the biomedical engineering fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.As these materials move toward clinical applications, the immune response to these materials will be a driving force toward their success in clinical approaches. Fully digested decellularized matrix constructs derived from porcine liver, muscle and lung were created to test the adaptive immune response. Hydrogel characterization ensured that the materials had relatively similar stiffness levels to reduce variability, and in vitro studies were conducted. Each individual construct as well as a gelatin control were plated with a co-culture of ...


Automatic Image Processing And Conversion To Tactile Graphics, Tyler Ferro Jan 2018

Automatic Image Processing And Conversion To Tactile Graphics, Tyler Ferro

Theses and Dissertations

Graphical information has become a critical method for portraying information for education, work and personal tasks and decisions. Unfortunately there are currently limited means of providing this information to individuals who are blind or visually impaired: alternate text is frequently missing, and accessible tactile diagrams tend to be time consuming to make and require expertise in order for them to be interpretable (which may be costly to the user and/or impossible to get). The aim of this project is to provide an accessible system to automatically generate tactile graphics for those who need to interpret information contained in visual ...


Nuclear Rupture In Progeria Expressing Cells, Kranthidhar Bathula Jan 2018

Nuclear Rupture In Progeria Expressing Cells, Kranthidhar Bathula

Theses and Dissertations

Cells regularly take on various types of force in the body. They have structures that are able to mediate, transfer and respond to the forces. A mutation in force regulating proteins such as lamin in the nucleus or the KASH domain which connects the nucleus to the cytoskeleton of the cell can cause catastrophic events to occur. The aims of this study were to better understand the response of the nucleus when structural proteins are mutated or are not present while under force. Progeria, a rare disease where an additional farnesyl group is attached to lamin was used in this ...


Exogenous Fniii 12-14 Regulates Tgf-Β1-Induced Markers, Hilmi M. Humeid Jan 2018

Exogenous Fniii 12-14 Regulates Tgf-Β1-Induced Markers, Hilmi M. Humeid

Theses and Dissertations

The extracellular matrix protein Fibronectin (FN) plays an important role in cell contractility, differentiation, growth, adhesion, and migration. The 12th -14th Type III repeats of FN (FNIII 12-14), also referred to as the Heparin-II domain, comprise a highly promiscuous growth factor (GF) binding region. This binding domain aids in cellular signaling initiated from the ECM. Additionally, FN has the ability to assemble into fibrils under certain conditions, mostly observed during cell contractile processes such as those that initiate due to upregulation of Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-β1) [1], [2]. Previous work from our lab has shown that self-assembly of ...


Development Of Novel Models To Study Deep Brain Effects Of Cortical Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Farheen Syeda Jan 2018

Development Of Novel Models To Study Deep Brain Effects Of Cortical Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Farheen Syeda

Theses and Dissertations

Neurological disorders require varying types and degrees of treatments depending on the symptoms and underlying causes of the disease. Patients suffering from medication-refractory symptoms often undergo further treatment in the form of brain stimulation, e.g. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). These treatments are popular and have been shown to relieve various symptoms for patients with neurological conditions. However, the underlying effects of the stimulation, and subsequently the causes of symptom-relief, are not very well understood. In particular, TMS is a non-invasive brain stimulation therapy which uses time-varying ...


Fibronectin Mechanics And Signaling In Tgf-Β1-Induced Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition, Lauren Griggs Jan 2018

Fibronectin Mechanics And Signaling In Tgf-Β1-Induced Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition, Lauren Griggs

Theses and Dissertations

Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a dynamic process by which a distinct change in the phenotype and function of epithelial cells render them as mesenchymal cells. Characteristics of mesenchymal cells include the ability to invade, increased migratory kinetics and heightened resistance to apoptosis. Therefore, there is a strong need to fully understand the mechanism for the induction of EMT in pathological conditions such as carcinoma progression. Recent advances highlight two pivotal contributors, soluble growth factor (gf) signals, and mechanical signals, in the process. However, to date, no clear mechanism exists linking the two in epithelial transdifferentiation. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 ...


Using Crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid (Ha) And Collagen Scaffolds With Sustained Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (Bdnf) Release For Post-Sci Nerve Regeneration, Panth Doshi Jan 2018

Using Crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid (Ha) And Collagen Scaffolds With Sustained Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (Bdnf) Release For Post-Sci Nerve Regeneration, Panth Doshi

Undergraduate Research Posters

Traumatic events resulting in spinal cord injuries (SCIs) often leave people paralyzed or with partial loss of motor function. The physical disabilities arising from traumatic events prevent people from functioning at the same level as pre-injury. My work aims to identify a plausible method to overcome the inhibitory post-SCI environment and to regenerate nervous tissue in order to restore neural function and, subsequently, motor function. I identified components of a new, hypothetical nerve scaffold based on the immune response after SCIs and the efficacy of currently used scaffolds for nerve regeneration. Hyaluronic acid (HA) polymer scaffolds and collagen-based scaffolds are ...