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Doctoral Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Two And Three-Dimensional Models For Material And Cells Interaction, Nam H. Nguyen May 2019

Two And Three-Dimensional Models For Material And Cells Interaction, Nam H. Nguyen

Doctoral Dissertations

Three-dimensional (3D) cell spheroid model has been long considered a better model to mimic in vivo physiology compared to two-dimensional (2D) cell culture model. Traditional 2D cell models provide a simple, convenient and quick technique for drug screening but fail to simulate the complexity and heterogeneity of cells in the in vivo environment. The last few decades have remarked substantial progress toward the advancement of three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures as systems which better mimic cellcell and cell-matrix interaction in the in vivo physiology. Nowadays, 3D cell models have been emerging, not only as an important approach in drug discovery and ...


Development Of An Astrocyte/Glioma Co-Culture System For Measuring Cellular Dynamics, Urna Kansakar Feb 2019

Development Of An Astrocyte/Glioma Co-Culture System For Measuring Cellular Dynamics, Urna Kansakar

Doctoral Dissertations

Gliomas are brain tumors that primarily arise from glial cells. Gliomas account for 70% of the brain tumors and they are more prevalent in older adults. About 60% of the people with gliomas experience at least one seizure. Brain tumors can grow and metastasize to neighboring areas, thereby destroying normal brain cells. In a brain tumor microenvironment, both malignant cancer cells and healthy brain cells are present. Studies have shown that astrocytes may have a role in tumor growth in the brain. Monocultures cannot evaluate interactions between two cell types and does not accurately represent in vivo conditions. Thus, a ...


Development Of A Counter-Flow Thermal Gradient Microfluidic Device, Shayan Davani Feb 2019

Development Of A Counter-Flow Thermal Gradient Microfluidic Device, Shayan Davani

Doctoral Dissertations

This work presents a novel counter-flow design for thermal stabilization of microfluidic thermal reactors. In these reactors, precise control of temperature of the liquid sample is achieved by moving the liquid sample through the thermal zones established ideally through the conduction in the solid material of the device. The goal here is to establish a linear thermal distribution when there is no flow and to minimize the temperature change at flow condition. External convection as well as internal flowinduced effects influence the prescribed thermal distribution. The counter-flow thermal gradient device developed in this study is capable of both stabilizing the ...


Walking For Object Transport: An Examination Of The Coordinative Adaptations To Locomotor, Perceptual, And Manual Task Constraints, Avelino Amado Jan 2019

Walking For Object Transport: An Examination Of The Coordinative Adaptations To Locomotor, Perceptual, And Manual Task Constraints, Avelino Amado

Doctoral Dissertations

The goal of this dissertation was to understand how the intrinsic dynamics of gait adapt to support the performance of an ecologically relevant object transport task. A common object transport task is walking with a cup of water. Because the water can move relatively independent of the cup, the cup and water system is classified as a complex object. To model this task participants carried a cup with a wooden lid placed on top. On the lid there was a circular region with the same circumference as the cup and a ball. The object of the task was to keep ...


Spatiotemporal Modeling And Model Restructuration Approaches In Studies Of Intracellular Signalling Pathways, Md Shahinuzzaman Jan 2019

Spatiotemporal Modeling And Model Restructuration Approaches In Studies Of Intracellular Signalling Pathways, Md Shahinuzzaman

Doctoral Dissertations

"The main focus of the research is to understand the complex phenomena of cell transduction pathways and cell biology in a single cell. Mathematical modeling and experimental evaluation are widely used approaches for this kind of research. Firstly, A multiscale framework for protein-protein interaction has been established using Brownian dynamics algorithm. Sit specific feature, steric collision, diffusion, co-localization and complex formation with time and space has been included in this spatial modeling framework. By implementation of the time adaptive feature in this framework, the computation time reduces in an order of magnitude compared with traditional modeling framework. This multiscale Brownian ...


Design And Development Of A Compact X-Ray Tube For Stationary Ct Architecture, Ashish Vighnahar Avachat Jan 2018

Design And Development Of A Compact X-Ray Tube For Stationary Ct Architecture, Ashish Vighnahar Avachat

Doctoral Dissertations

"Multisource architectures enable sweeping one or more x-ray beams across the imaging field-of-view faster than physically moving a single x-ray source and/or a detector. Hence, these architectures are attractive for the applications in which temporal resolution plays an important role, for example, cardiac computed tomography (CT) or real-time CT. One of the recent developments in multisource architectures for CT imaging is stationary CT architecture, whereby two separate stationary arrays -- one for x-ray sources and one for detectors -- are utilized to sweep one or more x-ray beams along the gantry and acquire 360 degree projections. To have a stationary CT ...


Supporting Engineering Design Of Additively Manufactured Medical Devices With Knowledge Management Through Ontologies, Thomas Hagedorn Jan 2018

Supporting Engineering Design Of Additively Manufactured Medical Devices With Knowledge Management Through Ontologies, Thomas Hagedorn

Doctoral Dissertations

Medical environments pose a substantial challenge for engineering designers. They combine significant knowledge demands with large investment for new product development and severe consequences in the case of design failure. Engineering designers must contend with an often-chaotic environment to which they have limited access and familiarity, a user base that is difficult to engage and highly diverse in many attributes, and a market structure that often pits stakeholders against one another. As medical care in general moves towards personalized models and surgical tools towards less invasive options emerging manufacturing technologies in additive manufacturing offer significant potential for the design of ...


Biophysical Features Of The Extracellular Matrix Direct Breast Cancer Metastasis, Alyssa Schwartz Jan 2018

Biophysical Features Of The Extracellular Matrix Direct Breast Cancer Metastasis, Alyssa Schwartz

Doctoral Dissertations

Breast cancer is plagued by two key clinical challenges; drug resistance and metastasis. Most work to date probes these events on an extremely rigid plastic surface, which recapitulates few aspects of these processes in humans. A malignant cell first resides in breast tissue, then likely travels to the bone, brain, liver, or lung, each of which has a distinct mechanical and biochemical profile. Cells transmit mechanical forces into intracellular tension and biochemical signaling events, and here we hypothesize that this mechanotransduction influences drug response, growth, and migration.

To probe the impact of extracellular matrix on drug resistance, we defined a ...


Polymeric Peptide Mimics For Protein Delivery, Coralie Backlund Jan 2018

Polymeric Peptide Mimics For Protein Delivery, Coralie Backlund

Doctoral Dissertations

The plasma membrane is a major obstacle in the development and use of biomacromolecules for intracellular applications. Consequently, proteins with intracellular targets represent an enormous, yet under studied avenue for therapeutics. Extended research has aimed at facilitating intracellular delivery of exogenous proteins using protein transduction domains (PTDs), which allow transport of bioactive molecules into cells. Synthetic polymers, inspired by PTDs, provide a well-controlled platform to vary molecular architecture for structure activity relationship studies. Specifically, this thesis focuses on the use of ring-opening metathesis, a facile and efficient polymerization technique, through which we can vary structural parameters to optimize delivery of ...


Design And Synthesis Of Analogs Of Myo-Inositol, Serine, And Cysteine To Enable Chemical Biology Studies, Tanei J. Ricks Dec 2017

Design And Synthesis Of Analogs Of Myo-Inositol, Serine, And Cysteine To Enable Chemical Biology Studies, Tanei J. Ricks

Doctoral Dissertations

Phosphorylated myo-inositol compounds including inositol phosphates (InsPs) as well as the phosphatidylinositol polyphosphate lipids (PIPns) are critical biomolecules that regulate many of the most important biological processes and pathways. They are aberrant in many disease states due to their regulatory function. The same is true of the phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) which can serve as a marker to begin apoptosis. However, the full scope of activities of these structures is not clear, particularly since techniques that enable global detection and analysis of the production of these compounds spatially and temporally are lacking. With all of these obstacles in ...


Managing Exoelectrogenic Microbial Community Development Through Bioprocess Control For Conversion Of Biomass-Derived Streams, Alex James Lewis Aug 2017

Managing Exoelectrogenic Microbial Community Development Through Bioprocess Control For Conversion Of Biomass-Derived Streams, Alex James Lewis

Doctoral Dissertations

Bioelectrochemical systems are an emerging technology capable of utilizing aqueous waste streams generated during biomass conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to produce valuable co-products and thus, have potential to be integrated into biorefineries. In a microbial electrolysis cell, organic compounds are converted to electrons, protons, and CO2 by fermentative and exoelectrogenic bacteria in the anode compartment. By having the ability to extract electrons from waste streams, these systems can treat water while also producing hydrogen, and thus can improve the efficiency of biomass to fuel production by minimizing external hydrogen requirement and enabling water recycle. The overall goal of this ...


Development And Implementation Of A Forward Solution Hip Mathematical Model To Determine In Vivo Mechanics And Predict Hip Separation, Michael Thomas Lacour Aug 2017

Development And Implementation Of A Forward Solution Hip Mathematical Model To Determine In Vivo Mechanics And Predict Hip Separation, Michael Thomas Lacour

Doctoral Dissertations

Osteoarthritis, signified by excessive wear of joint cartilage, is most common in hip, knee, and spinal joints [1]. Current treatment for extreme osteoarthritis is total joint arthroplasty, where the damaged bone and cartilage are removed and replaced by artificial bone representations separated by artificial cartilage representations. While this treatment does generally improve patient quality of life, current joint replacement systems unfortunately still yield atypically high forces, premature component wear, and abnormal kinematics compared to native joints [2] [3] [4] [5].

For total hip arthroplasty, one common complication is in vivo separation and dislocation of the femoral head within the acetabular ...


Crafting Nanostructured Neural Interfaces With Hydrogel Particles, Emily Ann Morin Aug 2017

Crafting Nanostructured Neural Interfaces With Hydrogel Particles, Emily Ann Morin

Doctoral Dissertations

Central nervous system neural device functionality hinges on effective communication with surrounding neurons. This depends on both the permissiveness of the device material to promote neuron integration and the ability of the device to avoid a chronic inflammatory response. Here, a facile approach has been developed exploring the multiple functionalities of hydrogel particles to provide cues to impart neural integration for such materials. Three distinct, yet interconnected tasks were undertaken: investigating hydrogel particle-modified substrate neuron integration and central nervous system inflammatory response, investigating guided hydrogel particle adsorption, and investigating hydrogel particles as local reservoirs for counteracting adverse effects from oxidative ...


Understanding The Surface Fouling Mechanism Of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Microelectrodes Using Microfluidics For Neurochemical Detection, An-Yi Chang Jul 2017

Understanding The Surface Fouling Mechanism Of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Microelectrodes Using Microfluidics For Neurochemical Detection, An-Yi Chang

Doctoral Dissertations

Electrochemical methods are widely used for chronic neurochemical sensing, but thus far, the organic solution redox reactions fouled the electrodes' surface. It caused the reduction of sensitivity and the electrodes' lifetime.

Here, we present the boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond microelectrodes (BDUNCD) as the next generation electrode material for neurochemical sensor development. To aid in long-term chronic monitoring of neurochemicals, they have a wide window of electrochemical potential, extremely low background current, and excellent chemical inertness. The main research goal is to reduce the rate of electrode fouling due to the reaction by-products, and significantly extend their useful lifetime.

We systematically characterize ...


Dynamic Simulation And Analysis Of Gait Modification For Treating Knee Osteoarthritis, Taylor Elyse Schlotman May 2017

Dynamic Simulation And Analysis Of Gait Modification For Treating Knee Osteoarthritis, Taylor Elyse Schlotman

Doctoral Dissertations

Roughly 47.5 million people in the US have a disability, with 8.6 million reporting arthritis as their main cause of disability, making arthritis the leading cause of physical disability. With decreased mortality rates and a large, aging baby boomer generation, there will be more adults living with chronic musculoskeletal conditions causing disabilities that limit walking. Since walking ability is directly related to an individual’s independence at home and in the community, losing this ability is a major setback for patients with arthritis. Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent form of arthritis affecting approximately 27 million adults ...


Characterization And Manipulation Of Lipid Self-Assembly To Construct Stable, Portable Synthetic Lipid Bilayers, Guru Anand Venkatesan May 2017

Characterization And Manipulation Of Lipid Self-Assembly To Construct Stable, Portable Synthetic Lipid Bilayers, Guru Anand Venkatesan

Doctoral Dissertations

The overarching goal of this research work is to further our understanding of lipid self-assembly and its organization at an oil-water interface to support the development of synthetic lipid bilayer systems that can be used in biologically relevant fields such as membrane biophysics, protein electrophysiology, development of synthetic biomolecules, drugs, nanoparticles and other applications. Self-assembly kinetics and interfacial properties of lipid monolayers formed at a liquid-air and liquid-liquid interface are characterized using Langmuir-Blodgett trough and pendant drop tensiometer. Insights gained from these studies not only allow us to answer questions related to droplet interface bilayer (DIB; a promising technique to ...


High-Throughput Functional System For Encapsulated Networks Of Model Cell Membranes, Mary-Anne Kim Anh Nguyen May 2017

High-Throughput Functional System For Encapsulated Networks Of Model Cell Membranes, Mary-Anne Kim Anh Nguyen

Doctoral Dissertations

Synthetic lipid bilayers provide models of cell membranes to study biomolecular interactions and signal transduction. The droplet interface bilayer (DIB) is a highly versatile technique for assembling planar lipid membranes between water droplets in oil. The DIB method thus provides a unique capability for developing digital, droplet-based membrane platforms for rapid membrane characterization, drug screening and ion channel recordings. In this work, a new microfluidic system is presented that automates droplet generation, sorting, and sequential trapping in designated locations to enable rapid assembly of arrays of DIBs along with in situ electrical measurements. This platform provides repeatable processes for forming ...


Musculoskeletal Loads During Stationary Cycling And The Effects Of Pedal Modifications For Knee Osteoarthritis, Rachel Lynn Thompson May 2017

Musculoskeletal Loads During Stationary Cycling And The Effects Of Pedal Modifications For Knee Osteoarthritis, Rachel Lynn Thompson

Doctoral Dissertations

Knee OA is a deteriorating joint disease affecting 27 million people in the US and current exercise prescriptions may be improved with new knowledge of their effects on muscle forces and joint contact loads. Cycling rather than other exercise modalities is generally considered an alternative for people with knee OA. If these research objectives were achieved, clinicians would have additional tools related to joint contact loads for treating people with OA with an cycling exercise while controlling progression of OA. The long-term goal of this research is to provide a scientific basis for planning, evaluation and improvement of subject-specific rehabilitation ...


Modeling, Analysis, Force Sensing And Control Of Continuum Robots For Minimally Invasive Surgery, Caroline Bryson Black May 2017

Modeling, Analysis, Force Sensing And Control Of Continuum Robots For Minimally Invasive Surgery, Caroline Bryson Black

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation describes design, modeling and application of continuum robotics for surgical applications, specifically parallel continuum robots (PCRs) and concentric tube manipulators (CTMs). The introduction of robotics into surgical applications has allowed for a greater degree of precision, less invasive access to more remote surgical sites, and user-intuitive interfaces with enhanced vision systems. The most recent developments have been in the space of continuum robots, whose exible structure create an inherent safety factor when in contact with fragile tissues. The design challenges that exist involve balancing size and strength of the manipulators, controlling the manipulators over long transmission pathways, and ...


Improvement Of Fluorescence-Based Microfluidic Dna Analyzers, Collin Tranter Apr 2017

Improvement Of Fluorescence-Based Microfluidic Dna Analyzers, Collin Tranter

Doctoral Dissertations

A tremendous effort continues in the development of micro-total-analysis-systems; in support of this, many chemical passivation methods have been developed to enhance the biocompatibility of such microfluidic systems. However, the suitability of these passivation techniques to many fluorescence-based assays still remains inconsistent. This part of this work is focused on the performance of a third generation intercalating DNA dye when used within microfluidic devices treated with a select variety of passivating coatings. The results of these tests indicate that passivation coatings which are intended to shed DNA based on electrostatic repulsion will in fact imbibe the fluorescent DNA intercalating dye ...


Development Of A Nonlinear Model For The Prediction Of Response Times Of Glucose Affinity Sensors Using Concanavalin A And Dextran And The Development Of A Differential Osmotic Glucose Affinity Sensor, Louis G. Reis Jan 2017

Development Of A Nonlinear Model For The Prediction Of Response Times Of Glucose Affinity Sensors Using Concanavalin A And Dextran And The Development Of A Differential Osmotic Glucose Affinity Sensor, Louis G. Reis

Doctoral Dissertations

With the increasing prevalence of diabetes in the United States and worldwide, blood glucose monitoring must be accurate and reliable. Current enzymatic sensors have numerous disadvantages that make them unreliable and unfavorable among patients. Recent research in glucose affinity sensors correct some of the problems that enzymatic sensors experience. Dextran and concanavalin A are two of the more common components used in glucose affinity sensors. When these sensors were first explored, a model was derived to predict the response time of a glucose affinity sensor using concanavalin A and dextran. However, the model assumed the system was linear and fell ...


Expanding The Applications Of Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) In Biomicrofluidics, Sawyer D. Stone Jan 2017

Expanding The Applications Of Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) In Biomicrofluidics, Sawyer D. Stone

Doctoral Dissertations

This work aims to create novel applications for poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) in the field of biomicrofluidics through oxidative stress detection, doping of the polymer for intentional leaching into microdevices, and the development of low-cost implements for fabricating PDMS microfluidic devices. PDMS has become the polymer of choice for research in microfluidics due to its optical clarity, ease of fabrication, flexibility in design, good mechanical properties, and the ability to chemically modify the surface.

Biomicrofluidics enables the rapid throughput and analysis of small biological samples requiring less time investment and reagent use than traditional macroscale laboratory techniques. Polymer devices are inexpensive ...


Protein-Nanoparticle Co-Engineering: Self-Assembly, Intracellular Protein Delivery, And Crispr/Cas9-Based Gene Editing, Rubul Mout Jan 2017

Protein-Nanoparticle Co-Engineering: Self-Assembly, Intracellular Protein Delivery, And Crispr/Cas9-Based Gene Editing, Rubul Mout

Doctoral Dissertations

Direct cytoplasmic delivery of gene editing nucleases such CRISPR/Cas9 systems and therapeutic proteins provides enormous opportunities in curing human genetic diseases, and assist research in basic cell biology. One approach to attain such a goal is through engineering nanotechnological tools to mimic naturally existing intra- and extracellular protein delivery/transport systems. Nature builds transport systems for proteins and other biomolecules through evolution-derived sophisticated molecular engineering. Inspired by such natural assemblies, I employed molecular engineering approaches to fabricate self-assembled nanostructures to use as intracellular protein delivery tools. Briefly, proteins and gold nanoparticles were co-engineered to carry complementary electrostatic recognition elements ...


Analyses Of Densely Crosslinked Phenolic Systems Using Low Field Nmr, Jigneshkumar Patel Jan 2017

Analyses Of Densely Crosslinked Phenolic Systems Using Low Field Nmr, Jigneshkumar Patel

Doctoral Dissertations

A uniform dispersion of reactants is necessary to achieve a complete reaction involving multi-components, especially for the crosslinking of rigid high-performance materials. In these reactions, miscibility is crucial for curing efficiency. This miscibility is typically enhanced by adding a third component, a plasticizer. For the reaction of the highly crystalline crosslinking agent hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) with a strongly hydrogen-bonded phenol formaldehyde resin, furfural has been traditionally used as the plasticizer. However, the reason for its effectiveness is not clear. In this doctoral thesis work, miscibility and crosslinking efficiency of plasticizers in phenolic curing reactions are studied by thermal analysis and spectroscopic ...


Lab-On-A-Chip Nucleic-Acid Analysis Towards Point-Of-Care Applications, Varun Lingaiah Kopparthy Oct 2016

Lab-On-A-Chip Nucleic-Acid Analysis Towards Point-Of-Care Applications, Varun Lingaiah Kopparthy

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent infectious disease outbreaks, such as Ebola in 2013, highlight the need for fast and accurate diagnostic tools to combat the global spread of the disease. Detection and identification of the disease-causing viruses and bacteria at the genetic level is required for accurate diagnosis of the disease. Nucleic acid analysis systems have shown promise in identifying diseases such as HIV, anthrax, and Ebola in the past. Conventional nucleic acid analysis systems are still time consuming, and are not suitable for point-ofcare applications. Miniaturized nucleic acid systems has shown great promise for rapid analysis, but they have not been commercialized due ...


Generalized Partial Directed Coherence And Centrality Measures In Brain Networks For Epileptogenic Focus Localization, Joshua Aaron Adkinson Oct 2016

Generalized Partial Directed Coherence And Centrality Measures In Brain Networks For Epileptogenic Focus Localization, Joshua Aaron Adkinson

Doctoral Dissertations

Accurate epileptogenic focus localization is required prior to surgical resection of brain tissue for treatment of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy, a clinical need that is partially fulfilled to date through a subjective, and at times inconclusive, evaluation of the recorded electroencephalogram (EEG). Using brain connectivity analysis, patterns of causal interactions between brain regions were derived from multichannel EEG of 127 seizures in nine patients with focal, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The statistically significant directed interactions in the reconstructed brain networks were estimated from three second intracranial multi-electrode EEG segments using the Generalized Partial Directed Coherence (GPDC) and validated ...


Anxiolytic Effects Of Propranolol And Diphenoxylate On Mice And Automated Stretch-Attend Posture Analysis, Kevin Scott Holly Oct 2016

Anxiolytic Effects Of Propranolol And Diphenoxylate On Mice And Automated Stretch-Attend Posture Analysis, Kevin Scott Holly

Doctoral Dissertations

The prevention of social anxiety, performance anxiety, and social phobia via the combination of two generic drugs, diphenoxylate HC1 (opioid) plus atropine sulfate (anticholinergic) and propranolol HCl (beta blocker) was evaluated in mice through behavioral studies. A patent published on a September 8, 2011 by Benjamin D. Holly, US 2011/0218215 Al, prompted the research. The drug combination of diphenoxylate and atropine plus propranolol could be an immediate treatment for patients suffering from acute phobic and social anxiety disorders. Demonstrating the anxiolytic effects of the treatment on mice would validate a mouse model for neuroscientist to be used to detect ...


Potential Applications For Halloysite Nanotubes Based Drug Delivery Systems, Lin Sun Oct 2016

Potential Applications For Halloysite Nanotubes Based Drug Delivery Systems, Lin Sun

Doctoral Dissertations

Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a drug in the body. The purpose is to enhance the drug efficacy and to reduce side reactions, which can significantly improve treatment outcomes. Halloysite is a naturally occurred alumino-silicate clay with a tubular structure. It is a biocompatible material with a big surface area which can be used for attachment of targeted molecules. Besides, loaded molecules can present a sustained release manner in solution. These properties make halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) a good option for drug delivery.

In this study, a drug delivery system was built based on halloysite ...


Next Generation In-Vivo Forward Solution Physiological Model Of The Human Lower Limb To Predict Implanted Knee Mechanics, Bradley Allen Meccia Aug 2016

Next Generation In-Vivo Forward Solution Physiological Model Of The Human Lower Limb To Predict Implanted Knee Mechanics, Bradley Allen Meccia

Doctoral Dissertations

Current total knee arthroplasty (TKA) evaluation methods are both time consuming and expensive. They require fabrication of the TKA and then utilize a wear or cadaveric simulator which does not necessarily replicate in-vivo conditions. Other analysis methods involve following the long-term success of TKA in subjects for five or more years. Mathematical modeling of TKA provide an efficient method at a greatly reduced cost for evaluating TKA. Obviously, the accuracy of a mathematical model is extremely important to the validity of the results.

Mathematical modeling of the knee faces many difficulties. The number of muscles actuating the knee is much ...


Nano Clay-Enhanced Calcium Phosphate Cements And Hydrogels For Biomedical Applications, Udayabhanu Jammalamadaka Jul 2016

Nano Clay-Enhanced Calcium Phosphate Cements And Hydrogels For Biomedical Applications, Udayabhanu Jammalamadaka

Doctoral Dissertations

Biomaterials are used as templates for drug delivery, scaffolds in tissue engineering, grafts in surgeries, and support for tissue regeneration. Novel biomaterial composites are needed to meet multifaceted requirements of compatibility, ease of fabrication and controlled drug delivery. Currently used biomaterials in orthopedics surgeries suffer limitations in toxicity and preventing infections. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) used as bone cement suffers from limitations of thermal necrosis and monomer toxicity calls for development of better cementing biomaterials. A biodegradable/bioresorbable cement with good mechanical properties is needed to address this short coming. Metal implants used in fixing fractures or total joint replacement needs ...