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Wayne State University

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Articles 1 - 30 of 102

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Titanium Nitride Nanotube Electrode, Gui Chen, Marcella Gatti Jan 2019

Titanium Nitride Nanotube Electrode, Gui Chen, Marcella Gatti

ROEU 2018-19

This project presents a corrosion-resistant and high capacity implantable TiN nanotube electrode to work as a neural probe. Smaller electrode size allows for reduced tissue damage while the nanopore morphology of the TiN gives a larger surface area and stability to the electrode. The electrode offers improved biocompatibility, reduced tissue damage, reduced cost, and increased usability over time.


Communication Of Deaf People Based On Myoware Muscle Sensor, Mohamad Ataya Jan 2019

Communication Of Deaf People Based On Myoware Muscle Sensor, Mohamad Ataya

ROEU 2018-19

The current project aims to create a product that enhances communication of deaf people. The developed product has the following features:

• a muscle sensor that transcribes sign language into actual letters

• a voice detector that translates speech into actual words

• the ability to receive and send emergency alerts.


Optical Coherence Tomography Application To Alopecia In The Scalp, Elizabeth Melcher Jan 2018

Optical Coherence Tomography Application To Alopecia In The Scalp, Elizabeth Melcher

ROEU 2017-18

Alopecia is the loss of hair, whether it be from the scalp or other regions of the body. Current techniques used to best diagnose and track alopecia are often invasive, requiring a biopsy for results. The use of the OCT, or optical coherence tomography, could drastically improve a patient’s experience in undergoing a diagnosis while proving accurate results. The objective of this study is to develop diagnostic algorithms for the rapid, non-invasive diagnosis of alopecia with OCT. The first step is collecting OCT images of a healthy scalp to understand the anatomical structures with the imaging technique.


Low Cost Waist Line Circumference Health Management Belt, Raghav Talreja Jan 2018

Low Cost Waist Line Circumference Health Management Belt, Raghav Talreja

ROEU 2017-18

One third of the American population is obese or near obese, and $150 billion is spent in weight management. Current devices to monitor weight are expensive, and niche products are designed for health enthusiasts. This project investigates user needs, development and commercialization steps for a low cost health management belt.


Characterization Of Electroactive Nanofibers For Nerve Regeneration, Jean-Yves Azar Jan 2018

Characterization Of Electroactive Nanofibers For Nerve Regeneration, Jean-Yves Azar

ROEU 2017-18

In the event of peripheral nerve injury, loss of function may occur as the result of a severed nerve. Hollow nerve gap conduits are used to provide a protected environment for nerves to reconnect and regain function, although therapies for nerve gaps larger than 3 cm lack a stable environment for nerves to reconnect. Development of a nerve guide conduit filler has been proposed to mimic the cell’s microenvironment. This would lead to increased functional regeneration. We are aiming to create a biomaterial to act as a filler for the hollow nerve gap conduits to promote functional regeneration of ...


Developing Vascular Graft From Adipose-Derived Stem Cells, Ashley C. Apil Jan 2018

Developing Vascular Graft From Adipose-Derived Stem Cells, Ashley C. Apil

ROEU 2017-18

This project aims to differentiate adipose-derived stem cells into fibroblasts through the addition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) into the culture media. Differentiation protocol will be optimized, then successful differentiation will be verified through PCR analysis. The ASC-fibroblasts will then be seeded into a ring construct as outlined by the protocol by Lam et al. The ring constructs will be tensile tested and analyzed through histology to characterize their strength and cellularity.


The Effects Of Exercise And An Enhanced Nerve Conduit On Peripheral Nerve Injury, Anthony R. Mora Jan 2017

The Effects Of Exercise And An Enhanced Nerve Conduit On Peripheral Nerve Injury, Anthony R. Mora

ROEU 2016-17

The primary objective of this effort is to quantify peripheral nerve recovery as a result of exposure to a multimodal conduit in addition to exercise. Quantification was based on behavioral data collected from a rat sciatic nerve model.


Utility Of Ultrasound/Photoacoustic Imaging For Accurate Catheter Tracking And Temperature Monitoring During Endovenous Laser Ablation, Ayushi Jharia, Keerthana Palani, Yan Yan Jan 2017

Utility Of Ultrasound/Photoacoustic Imaging For Accurate Catheter Tracking And Temperature Monitoring During Endovenous Laser Ablation, Ayushi Jharia, Keerthana Palani, Yan Yan

ROEU 2016-17

Laser ablation is a treatment method that uses light energy through a catheter inserted into a vein to induce localized heat to close the diseased blood vessels. Ultrasound (US) imaging has been used for catheter visualization and tracking. US has limitations for tracking the accurate location of the fiber tip inside small perforating veins such as angular dependency and comet tail artifacts. We propose a robust and accurate method for fiber tip tracking using combined US and Photoacoustic (PA) imaging to overcome the existing limitations.


The Effect Of Tgfβ-1 On Adipose-Derived Stem Cell (Asc) Ring Constructs, Ashley C. Apil Jan 2017

The Effect Of Tgfβ-1 On Adipose-Derived Stem Cell (Asc) Ring Constructs, Ashley C. Apil

ROEU 2016-17

Adipose-derived Stem Cells (ASC’s) provide an optimal source for potentially graft replacing, tissue-engineered vessel constructs due to their ease of extraction and ability to be patient-specific. In order to make ASC ring constructs a more viable replacement for grafts, they need to have mechanical properties similar to native arteries, which is largely influenced by the extracellular matrix protein collagen. TGFβ-1 is known to stimulate collagen production in ASC’s, so this study explores the effect that TGFβ-1 has on the resulting thickness and tensile strength of ASC ring constructs.


Mechanical Interventions In Soft Tissue Repair, Elizabeth Marie Meier Jan 2017

Mechanical Interventions In Soft Tissue Repair, Elizabeth Marie Meier

Wayne State University Dissertations

This body of work sets to investigate some of these mechanical interventions that are designed to promote wound healing, repair, or even replace an injured tissue. By investigating three separate tissues and three separate mechanical interventions, we can draw conclusions about the implications of including mechanical interventions in biomedical research and clinical treatments. The use of sutures to close wounds is highly common, however the effects of sutures on the tensile mechanics of human skin are largely unknown. To evaluate how sutures may affect uniaxial tensile mechanics, human skin samples were sutured and loaded in tension in multiple orientations. The ...


Biomaterials Approaches For Utilizing The Regenerative Potential Of The Peripheral Nerve Injury Microenvironment, Melissa Renee Wrobel Jan 2017

Biomaterials Approaches For Utilizing The Regenerative Potential Of The Peripheral Nerve Injury Microenvironment, Melissa Renee Wrobel

Wayne State University Dissertations

Clinically available treatments are insufficient to achieve full functional recovery in large (>3cm) peripheral nerve injuries (PNI). The objectives in this thesis were 1) to study often overlooked elements of intrinsic PNI repair including release of inhibitory CSPGs and post-injury responses of inflammatory macrophages and dedifferentiated Schwann cells; 2) to create biomaterial scaf-folds featuring topographical and adhesive cues to enhance neurite outgrowth; and 3) to test the ability of those cues to direct macrophages and Schwann cells towards a pro-regenerative phe-notype. It is hypothesized that recapitulating the positive and negative cues of the PNI microenvi-ronment can better improve regeneration. The ...


Pet Imaging Of Early Therapeutic Response In Solid Tumors, Stephanie J. Blocker Jan 2017

Pet Imaging Of Early Therapeutic Response In Solid Tumors, Stephanie J. Blocker

Wayne State University Dissertations

An important pillar of precision medicine for oncology is the ability to identify patients who respond to treatment early into their therapy. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows physicians and researchers to measure changes in tumor behavior prior to noticeable differences in morphology.

Objective: Determine the utility of multiple tracers for PET in assessing early changes in tumor activity that result from treatment.

Methods: Two tracers for PET were studied. 64Cu-labeled liposomes were used to assess changes in liposome delivery two solid colon tumors early into treatment with bevacizumab (Bev). 18F-FMAU thymidine analog (1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)thymine), was utilized to ...


Development Of A Programmed Electrospun Three Dimensional (3d) Nanofiber Collecter And It’S Application To Orthopedic Implant Coatings, Liang Chen Jan 2017

Development Of A Programmed Electrospun Three Dimensional (3d) Nanofiber Collecter And It’S Application To Orthopedic Implant Coatings, Liang Chen

Wayne State University Dissertations

Orthopedic implants might not directly unite with bones especially in compromised patients even if they have been appropriately fixed. The lack of early osseointegration would lead to the failure of the orthopedic implant. A “bone-like” implant surface is urgently needed to accelerate osseointegration. Electrospun nanofiber (NF) is a promising implant coating due to its highly porous nanoscale structure. It mimics the collagen I nanofibrous network of bone tissue; meanwhile it has been widely used as a drug delivery device. However, its compact and dense structure is not ideal for cell growth. Our strategy was to develop a functional three-dimensional (3D ...


Biomechanics Of Concussion: The Importance Of Neck Tension, Ron Jadischke Jan 2017

Biomechanics Of Concussion: The Importance Of Neck Tension, Ron Jadischke

Wayne State University Dissertations

Linear and angular velocity and acceleration of the head are typically correlated to concussion. Despite improvements in helmet performance to reduce accelerations, a corresponding reduction in the incidence of concussion has not occurred (National Football League [NFL] 1996 – present).

There is compelling research that forces on and deformation to the brain stem are related to concussion. The brain stem is the center of control for respiration, blood pressure and heart rate and is the root of most cranial nerves. Injury to the brain stem is consistent with most symptoms of concussion reported in the National Football League and the National ...


Brain Connectivity After Concussion, Armin Iraji Jan 2017

Brain Connectivity After Concussion, Armin Iraji

Wayne State University Dissertations

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for over one million emergency visits in the United States each year. While most mTBI patients have normal findings in clinical neuroimaging, alterations in brain structure and functional connectivity have frequently been reported. In this study, we investigated the large-scale brain structural and functional connectivity using diffusion MRI and resting-state fMRI data. Data from 40 mTBI patients was acquired at the acute stage (within 24 hrs after injury). 35 patients returned for data acquisition at a follow-up (4-6 weeks after injury). Data was also collected from a cohort of 58 healthy subjects, 36 of ...


Mri Methods For Imaging The Feto-Placental Vasculature And Blood, Uday Krishnamurthy Jan 2017

Mri Methods For Imaging The Feto-Placental Vasculature And Blood, Uday Krishnamurthy

Wayne State University Dissertations

Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in recent times has become a well-established adjunct to ultrasound (US) in routine clinical prenatal care and diagnostics. The majority of fetal MRI is restricted to T2-weighted scans, where the diagnosis is based on the appearance of normal and abnormal tissue. Although there have been many advancements in MRI and a plethora of sequences, that probe different anatomical and different physiological process, the adaptation of these in fetal imaging has been rather slow. Many of these can extract quantitative parameters that can throw light on the underlying tissue’s normal/patho-physiology. But the use of ...


Design Of A Modular Endothelialized Platform For Vascularized Bone Regeneration, Kevin Barrett Miles Jan 2017

Design Of A Modular Endothelialized Platform For Vascularized Bone Regeneration, Kevin Barrett Miles

Wayne State University Dissertations

The gold standard for bone regeneration requires harvesting a piece of healthy bone from the patient through a painful procedure, but this piece of autologous bone graft contains the bone and endothelial cells required to rapidly regenerate bone in a defect. We have developed a modular bone regeneration platform, composed of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) microgranules encapsulated in microcapsules, to replace autologous graft harvesting. The microcapsules are composed of a polyelectrolyte membrane formed by the ionic-complex reaction between chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) and chitosan. The specific aims of this thesis were to 1) examine the ability of C4S ...


Development Of A Finite Element Pelvis And Lower Extremity Model With Growth Plates For Pediatric Pedestrian Protection, Ming Shen Jan 2017

Development Of A Finite Element Pelvis And Lower Extremity Model With Growth Plates For Pediatric Pedestrian Protection, Ming Shen

Wayne State University Dissertations

Finite element (FE) model is a useful tool frequently used for investigating the injury mechanisms and designing protection countermeasures. At present, no 10 years old (YO) pedestrian FE model has been developed from appropriate anthropometries and validated against limitedly available impact response data. A 10 YO child FE pelvis and lower extremities (PLEX) model was established to fill the gap of lacking such models in this age group. The baseline model was validated against available pediatric postmortem human subjects (PMHS) test data and additional scaled adult data, then the PLEX model was integrated to build a whole-body FE model representing ...


Mechanical Stimulation Increases Knee Meniscus Gene Rna-Level Expression In Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells, Elizabeth M. Meier, Bin Wu, Aamir Siddiqui, Donna G. Tepper, Michael T. Longaker, Mai T. Lam Sep 2016

Mechanical Stimulation Increases Knee Meniscus Gene Rna-Level Expression In Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells, Elizabeth M. Meier, Bin Wu, Aamir Siddiqui, Donna G. Tepper, Michael T. Longaker, Mai T. Lam

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research Publications

Background: Efforts have been made to engineer knee meniscus tissue for injury repair, yet most attempts have been unsuccessful. Creating a cell source that resembles the complex, heterogeneous phenotype of the meniscus cell remains difficult. Stem cell differentiation has been investigated, mainly using bone marrow mesenchymal cells and biochemical means for differentiation, resulting in no solution. Mechanical stimulation has been investigated to an extent with no conclusion. Here, we explore the potential for and effectiveness of mechanical stimulation to induce the meniscal phenotype in adipose-derived stromal cells.

Methods: Human adipose-derived stromal cells were chosen for their fibrogenic nature and conduciveness ...


The Connectivity Domain: Analyzing Resting State Fmri Data Using Feature-Based Data-Driven And Model-Based Methods, Armin Iraji, Vince D. Calhoun, Natalie M. Wiseman, Esmaeil Davoodi-Bojd, Mohammad R. N. Avanaki, Zhifeng Kou Apr 2016

The Connectivity Domain: Analyzing Resting State Fmri Data Using Feature-Based Data-Driven And Model-Based Methods, Armin Iraji, Vince D. Calhoun, Natalie M. Wiseman, Esmaeil Davoodi-Bojd, Mohammad R. N. Avanaki, Zhifeng Kou

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research Publications

Spontaneous fluctuations of resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI) have been widely used to understand the macro-connectome of the human brain. However, these fluctuations are not synchronized among subjects, which leads to limitations and makes utilization of first-level model-based methods challenging. Considering this limitation of rsfMRI data in the time domain, we propose to transfer the spatiotemporal information of the rsfMRI data to another domain, the connectivity domain, in which each value represents the same effect across subjects. Using a set of seed networks and a connectivity index to calculate the functional connectivity for each seed network, we transform data into ...


Quantitative Assessment Of Brain Iron Content As A Function Of Age Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Kiarash Ghassaban Jan 2016

Quantitative Assessment Of Brain Iron Content As A Function Of Age Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Kiarash Ghassaban

Wayne State University Theses

As the most abundant transition metal in the brain, iron is known to play a key role in a variety of functional and cellular processes. Recent in vivo and post-mortem studies have shown that the levels of iron deposition in the brain, particularly in deep gray matter nuclei, vary as a function of age. On the other hand, elevated iron has also been associated with some neurodegenerative diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) among others.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a widely used non-invasive and non-ionizing imaging modality which is sensitive to magnetic properties of ...


Enhancement Of Cancer Vaccine Efficacy Via Nanoparticle Or Molecular-Based Adjuvants, Myunggi An Jan 2016

Enhancement Of Cancer Vaccine Efficacy Via Nanoparticle Or Molecular-Based Adjuvants, Myunggi An

Wayne State University Theses

Adjuvants are immunomodulators which enhance immune responses to vaccines. However, parenteral administration of unformulated adjuvants fails to reach lymph nodes (LNs), the anatomic organ where the primary functions of immune cells are orchestrated. The LN-targeting delivery plays the key roles in promoting immune activation and has the great potential to transform disease treatment. The main goal of this thesis is to develop efficient vaccine delivery systems to target therapeutics into draining lymph nodes (dLNs) for ensuring their immunostimulatory activity. We introduced therapeutic applications of activating TLR9 with synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) agonists in nanoparticle or molecular form to activate immune ...


Development Of Novel Radiotracers For Pet Imaging Of Hdac-Mediated Epigenetic Regulation, Robin Edwards Bonomi Jan 2016

Development Of Novel Radiotracers For Pet Imaging Of Hdac-Mediated Epigenetic Regulation, Robin Edwards Bonomi

Wayne State University Dissertations

Over the past two decades, epigenetic regulation has become a rapidly growing, highly innovative and influential field of biology and medicine. Protein acetylation and deacetylation, two key epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, are mediated by histone acetylase transferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. To date, the vast majority of studies on epigenetic regulation have been conducted in cell cultures and tissue samples using conventional methodologies of molecular and cellular biology, which contain inherent limitations for monitoring therapy and disease. Therefore, there is a growing need for novel, advanced methodologies that allow for non-invasive detection and monitoring of HDAC–mediated epigenetic regulatory ...


Europium(Ii)-Containing Complexes For Responsive Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Levi Alexander Ekanger Jan 2016

Europium(Ii)-Containing Complexes For Responsive Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Levi Alexander Ekanger

Wayne State University Dissertations

The research projects described in this dissertation are focused on studying the oxidation of EuII-containing complexes within the context of responsive MRI. Prior to this research, EuII had not been explored within the context of oxidation-responsive MRI nor had the use of this ion been reported in vivo. The results of these studies enable predictions about the oxidation-responsive behavior of EuII-containing complexes in vitro and in vivo.

The EuII-containing cryptate 1.33 was used to evaluate EuII-based positive contrast enhancement after intravenous, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous injections. The transitory behavior of the positive contrast enhancement correlated with reported levels of oxygenation ...


Dendrimer Nanoconjugates And Their Oral Inhalation Formulations For Lung Cancer Therapy, Qian Zhong Jan 2016

Dendrimer Nanoconjugates And Their Oral Inhalation Formulations For Lung Cancer Therapy, Qian Zhong

Wayne State University Dissertations

Lung cancers are leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the world. Lungs are also one of the primary organs to which almost all cancer can spread. Chemothepray plays a crucial role in the fight against both primary lung cancers and lung metastases. Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anticancer drug that has been approved for treating many cancers including lung cancers. However, only a few percent of systemically administered DOX can be found in the lungs. The issue is further complicated by dose-limiting toxicity of DOX. Another major challenge in the use of DOX is its ...


Development Of Carbon Based Neural Interface For Neural Stimulation/Recording And Neurotransmitter Detection, Wenwen Yi Jan 2016

Development Of Carbon Based Neural Interface For Neural Stimulation/Recording And Neurotransmitter Detection, Wenwen Yi

Wayne State University Dissertations

Electrical stimulation and recording of neural cells have been widely used in basic neuroscience studies, neural prostheses, and clinical therapies. Stable neural interfaces that effectively communicate with the nervous system via electrodes are of great significance. Recently, flexible neural interfaces that combine carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and soft polymer substrates have generated tremendous interests. CNT based microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have shown enhanced electrochemical properties compared to commonly used electrode materials such as tungsten, platinum or titanium nitride. On the other hand, the soft polymer substrate can overcome the mechanical mismatch between the traditional rigid electrodes (or silicon shank) and the soft ...


Sub-Picogram, Inline Detection Of Proteins Using Microfluidic Drop Generators And Shape-Based Detection, Razieh Kebriaei Jan 2016

Sub-Picogram, Inline Detection Of Proteins Using Microfluidic Drop Generators And Shape-Based Detection, Razieh Kebriaei

Wayne State University Dissertations

Proteomic workflows rely on sensitive and precise methods for purifying and detecting proteins, and one of the most popular methods is liquid chromatography (LC) followed by an inline detector. However, the most commonly used method, UV-Vis absorbance, provides relatively low sensitivity and requires long path lengths in the flow cell. In this thesis, we present a highly sensitive, label-free method to detect proteins in continuous flow, using a pressure-driven microfluidic droplet generator. The system consists of a cross junction or flow focusing structure where the flowing stream of proteins is combined with two coflowing streams of oil which break up ...


X-Ray Beam Characteristics And Radiation Dose Deposition To Soft Tissue From Fluoroscopic X-Ray Beams Incorporating Copper Filtration, Kevin Arthur Wunderle Jan 2016

X-Ray Beam Characteristics And Radiation Dose Deposition To Soft Tissue From Fluoroscopic X-Ray Beams Incorporating Copper Filtration, Kevin Arthur Wunderle

Wayne State University Dissertations

Purpose: This work investigated several topics related to dosimetry in soft tissue from fluoroscopic X-ray beams; first, it investigated the X-ray beam spectra and air kerma rates available for clinical use on state-of-the-art fluoroscopes using spectral (copper [Cu]) filtration; second, it investigated the fluoroscopic X-ray beam characteristics of first half-value layer (HVL), second HVL, homogeneity coefficients (HCs), and backscatter factors (BSFs) across the full range of available beam qualities; and third, it investigated the energy dependence of kerma-area-product (KAP)-meters measuring the radiation output of the fluoroscope. Materials and Methods: A state-of-the-art Siemens Artis Zee fluoroscope was operated in the ...


Oxygen Transport, Shear Stress, And Metabolism In Perfused Hepatocyte-Seeded Scaffolds With Radial Pore Architecture: Experimental And Computational Analyses, Chijioke Mbanu Jan 2016

Oxygen Transport, Shear Stress, And Metabolism In Perfused Hepatocyte-Seeded Scaffolds With Radial Pore Architecture: Experimental And Computational Analyses, Chijioke Mbanu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Several modalities have been proposed as treatments or temporary stop-gap for patients suffering from liver failure until a suitable organ is available. However there is still an urgent need for an off-the-shelf device that can accommodate clinically relevant cell numbers, be cultured at physiological oxygen tensions and, can be fully integrated into and heal the injured hepatic space. In this study we investigated the effects that convective and direct oxygenation had on hepatocyte functionality, morphology and viability while cultured in bulk 3D chitosan scaffolds and perfusion bioreactor systems. Cylindrical chitosan scaffolds with radial directed pore structures were fabricated by a ...


Fe3o4 Nanoparticles For Magnetic Hyperthermia And Drug Delivery: Synthesis, Characterization And Cellular Studies, Maheshika Palihawadana Arachchige Jan 2016

Fe3o4 Nanoparticles For Magnetic Hyperthermia And Drug Delivery: Synthesis, Characterization And Cellular Studies, Maheshika Palihawadana Arachchige

Wayne State University Dissertations

In recent years, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), especially superparamagnetic Fe3O4nanoparticles, have attracted a great deal of attention because of their potential applications in biomedicine. Among the other applications, Magnetic hyperthermia (MHT), where localized heating is generated by means of relaxation processes in MNPs when subjected to a radio frequency magnetic field, has a great potential as a non-invasive cancer therapy treatment. Specific absorption rate (SAR), which measures the efficiency of heat generation, depends on magnetic properties of the particles such as saturation magnetization (Ms), magnetic anisotropy (K), particle size distribution, magnetic dipolar interactions, and the rheological properties of the target medium ...