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Graduate Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Aqueous Humor Dynamics And The Constant-Pressure Perfusion Model Of Experimental Glaucoma In Brown-Norway Rats, Kayla R. Ficarrotta Nov 2018

Aqueous Humor Dynamics And The Constant-Pressure Perfusion Model Of Experimental Glaucoma In Brown-Norway Rats, Kayla R. Ficarrotta

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Glaucoma affects tens of millions of people and is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Virtually all current glaucoma therapies target elevated intraocular pressure (IOP); however, the contribution of intracranial pressure (ICP) to glaucoma has recently garnered interest. Strain at the optic nerve head is now known to depend on the translaminar pressure difference (TLPD), which is the difference between IOP and ICP, rather than IOP alone. A better understanding of how IOP and ICP relate to glaucoma development and progression is essential for developing improved therapies and diagnostic tests. Glaucoma is commonly modeled in rats, yet aqueous humor ...


Demonstration Of Monolithic-Silicon Carbide (Sic) Neural Devices, Evans K. Bernardin Nov 2018

Demonstration Of Monolithic-Silicon Carbide (Sic) Neural Devices, Evans K. Bernardin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Brain Machine Interfaces (BMI) provide a communication pathway between the electrical conducting units of the brain (neurons) and external devices. BMI technology may provide improved neurological and physiological functions to patients suffering from disabilities due to damaged nervous systems. Unfortunately, microelectrodes used in Intracortical Neural Interfaces (INI), a subset of the BMI device family, have yet to demonstrate long-term in vivo performance due to material, mechanical and electrical failures. Many state-of-the-art INI devices are constructed using stacks of multiple materials, such as silicon (Si), titanium (Ti), platinum (Pt), parylene C, and polyimide. Not only must each material tolerate the biological ...


Effects Of Body Temperature And General Anesthetics On Intraocular Pressure In Rats, Aditi Pillai Jun 2018

Effects Of Body Temperature And General Anesthetics On Intraocular Pressure In Rats, Aditi Pillai

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ocular hypertension has been identified as the fundamental risk factor in glaucoma which is the leading cause for irreversible blindness in the world. Understanding the different factors that affect IOP is of utmost importance in clinical management as IOP is considered as the fundamental factor in assessing the efficiency of glaucoma medications. Several studies have attempted to assess factors that could affect IOP including age, body position, blood pressure, anesthetics commonly used during eye operations, etc. However, in most of these studies IOP is measured under anesthesia using rodent models and these anesthetics could affect the IOP measurements directly or ...


Integration And Cross-Coupling Of A Notched-Turbine Symbiotic Power Source For Implantable Medical Devices, Samuel Perez Apr 2018

Integration And Cross-Coupling Of A Notched-Turbine Symbiotic Power Source For Implantable Medical Devices, Samuel Perez

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to design and integrate a symbiotic notched-turbine energy generator for implantation as a cross-coupled system capable of continuously and perpetually powering an electronic implantable medical device (IMD), which is a device designed to operate inside the body of a higher mammal to enhance, correct or provide the body with a function that has deviated from the norm or has stopped altogether. The list of IMDs available for implantation keeps growing every year, one of the newest being the VBLOC, produced by EnteroMedics®, and approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on January 15th ...


Characterization Of Computed Tomography Radiomic Features Using Texture Phantoms, Muhammad Shafiq Ul Hassan Apr 2018

Characterization Of Computed Tomography Radiomic Features Using Texture Phantoms, Muhammad Shafiq Ul Hassan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Radiomics treats images as quantitative data and promises to improve cancer prediction in radiology and therapy response assessment in radiation oncology. However, there are a number of fundamental problems that need to be solved in order to potentially apply radiomic features in clinic. The first basic step in computed tomography (CT) radiomic analysis is the acquisition of images using selectable image acquisition and reconstruction parameters. Radiomic features have shown large variability due to variation of these parameters. Therefore, it is important to develop methods to address these variability issues in radiomic features due to each CT parameter. To this end ...


Elastin-Like Polypeptide Fusion Tag As A Protein-Dependent Solubility Enhancer Of Cysteine-Knot Growth Factors, Tamina L. Johnson Apr 2018

Elastin-Like Polypeptide Fusion Tag As A Protein-Dependent Solubility Enhancer Of Cysteine-Knot Growth Factors, Tamina L. Johnson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Elastin-like peptide (ELP) fusions promote therapeutic delivery and efficacy. Recombinant proteins, like neurotrophins, lack bioavailability, have short in vivo half-lives, and require high manufacturing costs. Fusing recombinant proteins with genetically encodable ELPs will increase bioavailability, enhance in vivo solubilization, as well as provide a cost-effective method for purification without the need for chromatography. During expression of neurotrophin-ELP (N-ELP) fusions, dense water-insoluble aggregates known as inclusion bodies (IBs) are formed. Inclusion bodies are partially and misfolded proteins that usually require denaturants like Urea for solubilization. Strong denaturants arrest ELPs stimuli-responsive property and increase unwanted aggregation, making purification difficult, yet possible. The ...


Neural Mechanisms Of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation In The Treatment Of Tinnitus, Andrea S. Lowe Apr 2018

Neural Mechanisms Of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation In The Treatment Of Tinnitus, Andrea S. Lowe

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Millions of people suffer from tinnitus, a disorder for which there is currently no effective treatment or cure. My dissertation work provides insight into the neural correlates of this pervasive hearing disorder and examines how a newly emerging therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), affects the central auditory system in the generation of the tinnitus percept. This work has a multifold focus of: i) developing and modeling the function of a miniature magnetic coil that can be used for TMS in rodents, ii) establishing a reliable mouse model of tinnitus that can be used for assessing TMS treatment-induced changes, iii) measuring ...


Comparison Of Thermal Glove Wrist-Hand Orthoses In Their Effectiveness On Rheumatoid Arthritis, Brittany E. Mott Mar 2018

Comparison Of Thermal Glove Wrist-Hand Orthoses In Their Effectiveness On Rheumatoid Arthritis, Brittany E. Mott

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease affecting nearly 1% of the world’s population with symptoms such as inflammation, pain, and reduced strength [1]. Physicians and scientists work to develop pharmaceuticals and medical devices aimed at decreasing the symptoms associated with RA to better the lives of those affected. One of the most recent developments is the addition of thermal therapy gloves to the array of upper limb orthoses available to patients with RA. It was hypothesized that this study will show that orthoses in the form of thermal therapy gloves are beneficial to the patients by reducing symptoms ...


Embedded System Design Of Low-Power Wearable Bioelectronic Devices, Matthew S. Hopper Mar 2018

Embedded System Design Of Low-Power Wearable Bioelectronic Devices, Matthew S. Hopper

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The miniaturization of electronics in modern times has enabled the possibility of creating a “continuity of care” using small wearable bioelectronic devices. Using wearable devices, such as the Fitbit or Garmin fitness trackers, allows for the exchange of data between devices which can be used to improve the accuracy of data analysis and thus patient health.

In this thesis work, three wearable bioelectronic devices are proposed: an EOG-based eye-gaze tracking assistive technology device for the physically disabled to control a computer cursor, a battery-operated miniaturized polysomnograph that can store and transmit data wirelessly to sleep technicians and a trauma-detecting personal ...


Combining Thermo-Plasmonics With Microfluidics For Biological Applications, Sharad Ambardar Mar 2018

Combining Thermo-Plasmonics With Microfluidics For Biological Applications, Sharad Ambardar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this project we, for the first time, integrated microfluidics with thermo-plasmonics. While microfluidics is a popular platform allowing experiments with small volumes of fluid, thermo-plasmonics can be used for powerful particle manipulation including capturing, mixing, filtering and projection. Combined, these two techniques give us an opportunity to work with numerous complex fluids containing particles, cells, and micro-beads. Here we designed, developed and tested several devices demonstrating various aspects of this exciting hybrid technology. This required use of soft lithography, metal deposition, 3D printing, oxygen plasma treatment and several other surface modification techniques. Additional challenges were in the fabrication of ...


A High Accuracy Microwave Radiometric Thermometer To Measure Internal Body Temperature, Michael D. Grady Nov 2017

A High Accuracy Microwave Radiometric Thermometer To Measure Internal Body Temperature, Michael D. Grady

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released heat illness data which highlighted that ~29 heat stress hospitalizations and ~3 heat-related deaths occurred every day during the summer months within the US from years 2000 to 2014. Heatstroke- the most severe form of heat illness which oftentimes lead to death- has been cited to be entirely preventable if a timely intervention is introduced. This dissertation uses microwave radiometric thermometry to perform wireless non-invasive internal body temperature monitoring which can enable intervention methods that help to prevent deaths associated with heat-illness.

Overall, this dissertation develops a comprehensive closed-form analytical radiometric ...


18f-Fdg Pet/Ctct-Based Radiomics For The Prediction Of Radiochemotherapy Treatment Outcomes Of Cervical Cancer, Badereldeen Abdulmajeed Altazi Nov 2017

18f-Fdg Pet/Ctct-Based Radiomics For The Prediction Of Radiochemotherapy Treatment Outcomes Of Cervical Cancer, Badereldeen Abdulmajeed Altazi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cervical cancer remains the third most commonly diagnosed gynecological malignancy in the United States and throughout the world despite being potentially preventable. Patients diagnosed with cervical cancer may develop local recurrence in the cervix and surrounding structures (vaginal apex, parametrial, or paracervical), regional recurrence in pelvic lymph nodes, distant metastasis, or a combination of all. The management of such treatment outcomes has not been subject to rigorous investigation. Therefore, there is a need for studies and clinical trials that focus on decision making to support the choice of the best treatment modality that leads to the minimal number of adverse ...


Rf Sensing System For Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring, Fabiola Araujo Cespedes Nov 2017

Rf Sensing System For Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring, Fabiola Araujo Cespedes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to design a blood glucose sensing system based on the induced shift in the resonant frequency of an antenna patch operating in the ISM band (5.725 – 5.875 GHz). The underlying concept is the fact that when a person has variations in their blood glucose levels, the permittivity of their blood varies accordingly. This research analyzed the feasibility of using an antenna patch as a blood glucose sensing device in three configurations: 1) as an implantable active sensor, 2) as an implantable passive antenna sensor, and 3) as a non-invasive sensor. In the ...


Rehabilitating Asymmetric Gait Using Asymmetry, Tyagi Ramakrishnan Nov 2017

Rehabilitating Asymmetric Gait Using Asymmetry, Tyagi Ramakrishnan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Human gait is a complex process that involves the coordination of the central nervous and muscular systems. A disruption to the either system results in the impairment of a person’s ability to walk. Impairments can be caused by neurological disorders such as stroke and physical conditions like amputation. There is not a standardized method to quantitatively assess the gait asymmetry of affected subjects. The purpose of this research is to understand the fundamental aspects of asymmetrical effects on the human body and improve rehabilitation techniques and devices. This research takes an interdisciplinary approach to address the limitations with current ...


Microfluidic Biopsy Trapping Device For The Real-Time Monitoring Of The Tumor Microenvironment, Angela Holton Oct 2017

Microfluidic Biopsy Trapping Device For The Real-Time Monitoring Of The Tumor Microenvironment, Angela Holton

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The tumor microenvironment is composed of cellular and stromal components such as tumor cells, mesenchymal cells, immune cells, cancer associated fibroblasts and the supporting extracellular matrix. The tumor microenvironment provides crucial support for growth and progression of tumor cells and affects tumor response to therapeutic interventions. To better understand tumor biology and to develop effective cancer therapeutic agents it is important to develop preclinical platforms that can faithfully recapitulate the tumor microenvironment and the complex interaction between the tumor and its surrounding stromal elements. Drug studies performed in vitro with conventional two-dimensional cancer cell line models do not optimally represent ...


Bisphosphonate Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles For The Study And Treatment Of Osteoporotic Disease, Christopher Conners Jul 2017

Bisphosphonate Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles For The Study And Treatment Of Osteoporotic Disease, Christopher Conners

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The use of nanoparticles for disease treatment is an increasingly popular area of research. The potential for multi-functionality allows nanoparticles to be used as transport and delivery vehicles for drugs and as diagnostic aides, among other applications, to address the unmet needs of many disease treatments. One such class of disease is osteoporosis including severe disorders, like Paget’s disease, Osteogenesis Imperfecta and Legg Calve Perthes disease. In this dissertation, we discuss a nanoparticle system consisting of gold nanoparticles surface functionalized with primary amine bisphosphonates, which is a classification of pharmaceuticals that is common in the treatment of osteoporosis. Functionalized ...


Morphometric Analysis Of The Talus On The Cohort Of Healthy And Arthritic Patient Population:, Tia Arvaneh Jun 2017

Morphometric Analysis Of The Talus On The Cohort Of Healthy And Arthritic Patient Population:, Tia Arvaneh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) is less common in the ankle compared to other joints; however, deformation brought on by degeneration causes pain, loss of function, and overall decreased quality of life. Current surgical interventions for end-stage ankle OA are not as reliable as surgical treatments for other joints. Ankle arthroplasty currently has high failure rates, and there are lack of substantial data from long-term outcome studies. By understanding the morphometric changes that occur during the different stages of OA, we are able to identify early signs of the disease with the intention to apply treatment earlier in order to preclude ...


Characterization Of Surface Charges And Compensating Charges For Gene Delivery To Tissue, Ravi Shanmugha Preethi Vangapattu Jun 2017

Characterization Of Surface Charges And Compensating Charges For Gene Delivery To Tissue, Ravi Shanmugha Preethi Vangapattu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ever since the discovery of DNA, there has been many pathologies identified effecting mankind. With the development in technology, there are many methods to alleviate these pathologies. One such is gene therapy or gene delivery. It is a process of introducing some foreign material into the body to correct the effected cells. In principle, it is a modern method to cure cells or a method to transfer nucleic acid into a cell to treat specific cells in the body. The process of delivering a genetic material is carried out using vectors, namely, viral vectors and non-viral vectors. In viral vectors ...


The Effect Of Antigen Polymorphisms On Serological Antibody Detection Assays Based Upon The, Kristi M. Miley Jun 2017

The Effect Of Antigen Polymorphisms On Serological Antibody Detection Assays Based Upon The, Kristi M. Miley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Onchocerca volvulus is a filarial parasite transmitted to humans by female Simulium spp. black flies. Infection with this parasite can cause blindness and severe skin disease among humans in Africa and the Americas. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay serological testing of OV-16 antigen is a diagnostic tool for determining effective elimination of the parasite. Programs typically rely on OV–16 ELISA to evaluate the progress towards interruption and/or elimination of disease by mass drug distribution of ivermectin and vector larvicidal control efforts. As elimination grows closer, monoclonal antibody positive controls for OV-16 ELISA become important to develop for Onchocerca testing due ...


Force Compensation And Recreation Accuracy In Humans, Benjamin Rigsby Jun 2017

Force Compensation And Recreation Accuracy In Humans, Benjamin Rigsby

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As industry becomes increasingly reliant on robotic assistance and human-computer interfaces, the demand to understand the human sensorimotor system’s characteristics intensifies. Although this field of research has been going on for over a century, new technologies push the limits of the human motor system and our knowledge of it. With new technologies come new abilities, and, in the area of medical care and rehabilitation, the need to expand our knowledge of the sensorimotor system comes from both the patient and physician.

Two studies relating to human force interaction are presented in this thesis. The first study

focuses on humans ...


The Development Of A Platform Interface With The Use Of Virtual Reality To Enhance Upper-Extremity Prosthetic Training And Rehabilitation, Ashley D. Knight Jun 2017

The Development Of A Platform Interface With The Use Of Virtual Reality To Enhance Upper-Extremity Prosthetic Training And Rehabilitation, Ashley D. Knight

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the investigation and development of an effective prosthetic training and rehabilitation platform with the use of virtual reality to facilitate an effective process to return amputees to the highest level of independence and functioning possible.

It has been reported that approximately 10 million people live with a limb loss worldwide, with around 30% being an upper-extremity amputee. The sudden loss of a hand or arm causes the loss of fine, coordinated movements, reduced joint range of motion (ROM), proprioceptive feedback and aesthetic appearance, all which can be improved with the use of a prosthesis and proper ...


Neuropeptide Modulation Of The Large Conductance Potassium (Bk) Channel In The Auditory System: Therapeutic Implications For Age-Related Hearing Loss, Ellliott James Brecht Apr 2017

Neuropeptide Modulation Of The Large Conductance Potassium (Bk) Channel In The Auditory System: Therapeutic Implications For Age-Related Hearing Loss, Ellliott James Brecht

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The auditory temporal processing deficits associated with age-dependent hearing decline have been increasingly attributed to issues beyond peripheral hearing loss. Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), also known as presbycusis, is linked with changes in the expression of both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central auditory system. There are also age-related changes in the expression and function of the ion channels which mediate action potential firing. The slow, Ca2+ activated, K+ channels of the BK-type are essential in controlling both neurotransmitter release and neural communication via alteration of action potential durations, firing frequency, and neural adaptation. There are many subsets ...


Plasmonic Stimulation Of Electrically Excitable Cells, Fnu Parveen Mar 2017

Plasmonic Stimulation Of Electrically Excitable Cells, Fnu Parveen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There is a compelling need for the development of new sensory and neural prosthetic devices which are capable of more precise point stimulation. Current prosthetic devices suffer from the limitation of low spatial resolution due to the non-specific stimulation characteristics of electrical stimulation, i.e., the spread of electric fields generated. We present a visible light stimulation method for modulating the firing patterns of electrically-excitable cells using surface plasmon resonance phenomena. In in-vitro studies using gold (Au) nanoparticle-coated nanoelectrodes, we show that this method (substrate coated with nanoparticles) has potential for incorporating the technology into neural stimulation prosthetics, such as ...


Simulation Studies On Ecg Vector Dipole Extraction In Liquid Medium, Pratheek Michael Mar 2017

Simulation Studies On Ecg Vector Dipole Extraction In Liquid Medium, Pratheek Michael

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

To circumvent some inherent problems in the conventional ECG, this research reinvestigates an ‘unassisted’ approach which enables ECG measurement without the placement of leads on the body. Employed in this research is a widely accepted assumption that the electrical activity of the heart may be represented, largely, by a 3-D time-varying current dipole (3D-CD). From the PhysioBank database, mECG and fECG data were obtained, and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) was performed to estimate the time-varying Vector ECG dipole. To determine the sensing matrix responsible for transforming the activity of the 3D-CD into the potential distribution on the surface of the ...


Impedance Optimized Electric Pulses For Enhancing Cutaneous Gene Electrotransfer, Reginald Morley Atkins Feb 2017

Impedance Optimized Electric Pulses For Enhancing Cutaneous Gene Electrotransfer, Reginald Morley Atkins

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Electric field mediated gene delivery modalities have preferable safety profiles with the ability to rapidly transfect cells in vitro and in vivo with high efficiency. However, the current state of the art has relied on trial and error studies that target the average cell within a population present in treated tissue to derive electric pulse parameters. This results in fixed gene electrotransfer (GET) parameters that are not universally optimum. Slow progress towards the validation of a mechanism that explains this phenomena has also hindered its advancement in the clinic. To date, GET methods utilizing feedback control as a means to ...


Intraocular Pressure Sensing And Control For Glaucoma Research, Simon Antonio Bello Nov 2016

Intraocular Pressure Sensing And Control For Glaucoma Research, Simon Antonio Bello

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Animal models of ocular hypertension are important for glaucoma research but come with experimental costs. Available methods of intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation are not always successful, the amplitude and time course of IOP changes are unpredictable and irreversible, and IOP measurement by tonometry is laborious. This dissertation focuses on the development and implementation of two novel systems for monitoring and controlling IOP without these limitations. The first device consists of a cannula implanted in the anterior chamber of the eye, a pressure sensor that continually measures IOP, and a bidirectional pump driven by control circuitry that can infuse or withdraw ...


Corrosion Characteristics Of Magnesium Under Varying Surface Roughness Conditions, Yahya Efe Yayoglu Nov 2016

Corrosion Characteristics Of Magnesium Under Varying Surface Roughness Conditions, Yahya Efe Yayoglu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The biggest challenge with magnesium alloy biodegradable implants is the rapid corrosion at the earlier stages of the healing process after implantation. In this research, the impact of surface roughness generated by different means on the corrosion rate of AZ31 magnesium alloy in a simulated biologic environment is investigated. In order to perform accurate experimentation, an in vitro setup is assembled that simulates the human body environment accurately has been prepared using Schinhammer’s in vitro immersion testing setup and Kokubo’s Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). For the immersion test of Mg in SBF, several surface texture groups of Mg ...


Biomarker Detection At Risk Forecasting Level Using Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence Combined With Surface Acoustic Wave, Jun Liu Nov 2016

Biomarker Detection At Risk Forecasting Level Using Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence Combined With Surface Acoustic Wave, Jun Liu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this paper, metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) technique is used to lower the detection limit of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) which is able to be utilized in forecasting the risk of having certain kinds of cancers, especially colon and rectal cancer. By incubating silver nanocubes (Ag NCs) on the surface of the chips, the detection limit goes down to below 1ng/mL of CEA. Also, when combining MEF with surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, the incubation time between antigen and antibody will decrease significantly with the fluorescence signal keeping similar or higher level.


Mechanotransduction Of Matrix Stiffness Regulates Cell Adhesion Strength: An Analysis Using Biomaterial Surfaces With Tunable Mechanical And Chemical Properties, Asma Sharfeddin Sharfeddin Jul 2016

Mechanotransduction Of Matrix Stiffness Regulates Cell Adhesion Strength: An Analysis Using Biomaterial Surfaces With Tunable Mechanical And Chemical Properties, Asma Sharfeddin Sharfeddin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cells have the ability to sense the rigidity of the extracellular matrix which directly affects the control of cellular functions in development, wound healing and malignant transformation. Polydimethylsiloxane elastomers are useful model biomaterials for mechanotransduction studies because they possess several advantages including ease of fabrication, tunable elasticity and modifiable surface chemistry. In this work, we are investigating the influence of matrix stiffness on adhesion strength and the mechanosensory structures that regulate these processes. In addition, the effect of surface modifications to this elastic substrate system on other physical properties such as local stiffness and topography will be analyzed. Based on ...


Differential Association Of Vitronectin And Fibronectin With Glass And Electrospun Fibers Of A Poly (D-Lysine) /Poly (Acrylic Acid), Syed Muhammad Sohaib Zafar Zafar Jul 2016

Differential Association Of Vitronectin And Fibronectin With Glass And Electrospun Fibers Of A Poly (D-Lysine) /Poly (Acrylic Acid), Syed Muhammad Sohaib Zafar Zafar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Proteins represent major constituent of the extracellular matrix which plays an important role in the formation, maintenance and remodeling of tissues, this project focuses on adsorption of two specific serum proteins fibronectin (FN) and vitronectin (VTN) responsible for mediating cell matrix interaction through integrin binding, tripeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence found in these protein features are recognized by αβV3 integrin which ultimately helps in clot formation.