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Graduate Theses and Dissertations

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Active Deep Learning Method To Automate Unbiased Stereology Cell Counting, Saeed Alahmari Jun 2020

Active Deep Learning Method To Automate Unbiased Stereology Cell Counting, Saeed Alahmari

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cell quantification in histopathology images plays a significant role in understanding and diagnosing diseases such as cancer and Alzheimers. The gold-standard for quantifying cells in tissue sections is the unbiased stereology approach. Unfortunately, in unbiased stereology current practices rely on a well-trained human to manually count hundreds of cells in microscopy images. However, this human-based manual approach is time-consuming, labor-intensive, subject to human errors, recognition bias, fatigue, variable training, poor reproducibility, and inter-observer error. Thus, the lack of high-throughput technology for automating unbiased stereology analyses remains a major obstacle to further progress in a wide range of neuroscience and cancer ...


Cancer Biomarker Detection In Human Plasma By Integrating Surface Acoustic Wave And Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence, Yuqi Huang Jun 2020

Cancer Biomarker Detection In Human Plasma By Integrating Surface Acoustic Wave And Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence, Yuqi Huang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis includes data and discussion about the technique of metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) to lower the detection limit of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The detection limit goes down to 100pg/mL level when using MEF substrate made by rapid thermally annealed silver film covered by silica, which has great promise in diagnosing certain types of cancer that uses CEA as detection biomarker, such as pancreatic cancer and colon cancer. To further address the issue of background noises from non-specifically bound proteins (NSB) in complex media, such as plasma, serum, urine and blood, MEF is integrated with surface acoustic wave (SAW) streaming ...


Laser Micropatterning Effects On Corrosion Resistance Of Pure Magnesium Surfaces, Yahya Efe Yayoglu Apr 2020

Laser Micropatterning Effects On Corrosion Resistance Of Pure Magnesium Surfaces, Yahya Efe Yayoglu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Magnesium and its alloys are good candidates to manufacture medical implants. They have excellent biocompatibility and because they biodegrade secondary surgical operation to remove the implant could be eliminated. However, in aqueous environments, magnesium alloys rapidly corrode, resulting in premature degradation of the implant along with biologically intolerable hydrogen gas generation. In literature, there are multiple studies focused on creating water repelling hydrophobic magnesium surfaces in order to decrease corrosion rates. Hydrophobic properties can be achieved by creation of a roughness profile on an initially smooth surface combined with a treatment that reduces the free surface energy. In theory, hydrophobic ...


Manipulation And Patterning Of Mammalian Cells Using Vibrations And Acoustic Forces, Joel Cooper Apr 2020

Manipulation And Patterning Of Mammalian Cells Using Vibrations And Acoustic Forces, Joel Cooper

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Recently, there has been a surge in researchers and scientists investigating different methods which move, manipulate, and pattern biological cells. Multiple different mechanisms can be used for cellular manipulation, microfluidics, biochemical queues, and even optics, just to name a few. However, all techniques have their downsides. A majority of these methods require expensive equipment or reagents and can only manipulate a small number of cells at a time.

Some of the most common cell manipulation devices utilize acoustic pressure waves to move the cells to desired locations. Currently, it is unknown what level of force from these types of devices ...


Lung Nodule Malignancy Prediction From Computed Tomography Images Using Deep Learning, Rahul Paul Feb 2020

Lung Nodule Malignancy Prediction From Computed Tomography Images Using Deep Learning, Rahul Paul

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lung cancer has a high incidence and mortality rate. The five-year relative survival rate for all lung cancers is 18%. Due to the high mortality and incidence rate of lung cancer worldwide, early detection is essential. Low dose Computed Tomography (CT) is a commonly used technique for screening, diagnosis, and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) compared low-dose helical computed tomography (LDCT) and standard chest radiography (CXR) for three annual screens and reported a 20% relative reduction in lung cancer mortality for LDCT compared to CXR. As such, LDCT screening for lung cancer ...


Morphometry And Density Analysis Of The Fifth Metacarpal, Amrita Unnikumaran Oct 2019

Morphometry And Density Analysis Of The Fifth Metacarpal, Amrita Unnikumaran

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The fifth metacarpal bone fracture is a common type of fracture among the young male population. With the increasing demand for early recovery from such fractures with surgical reduction, the medical manufacturers and clinicians are interested in designing a better intramedullary device for fixation. This study is an attempt to investigate the dimensional parameters of the fifth metacarpal bone and its intramedullary canal, using 3D CT scan images of cadaveric hands. The algorithm used for measurement applies principal component analysis on the subject bone, to control the information loss and normalize the spatial position of the subject. This analysis provides ...


Hybrid Fusion Protein For Inhibition Of Multiple Proteases For Chronic Wound Healing, Graham L. Strauss Jul 2019

Hybrid Fusion Protein For Inhibition Of Multiple Proteases For Chronic Wound Healing, Graham L. Strauss

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many diseases display a multitude of relevant factors that contribute to the persistence of the disease and difficulty treating it. The multifactorial characteristics of some diseases lead to the requirement of combination of treatments in order to restore health. The latter may necessitate the mixing of treatments, medications, and therapeutics to first halt the disease, then assist the human body in returning itself to a state of normality. For example, chronic wounds exhibit this multifactor characteristic in which there exist many factors that lead to the body’s inability to properly heal in a timely manner. This presents a further ...


Statistical Learning Of Biomedical Non-Stationary Signals And Quality Of Life Modeling, Mahdi Goudarzi Jul 2019

Statistical Learning Of Biomedical Non-Stationary Signals And Quality Of Life Modeling, Mahdi Goudarzi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Statistical learning is a set of tools for modeling and understanding complex datasets. It is a recently developed area in statistics and blends with parallel developments in computer science and, in particular, machine learning.

The classification of biomedical non-stationary signals such as Electroencephalogram (EEG) is always a challenging problem due to their complexity. The low spatial resolution on the scalp, curse of dimensionality, poor signal-to-noise ratio are disadvantages of working with biomedical signals. EEG signals are unstructured data which needs preprocessing steps to extract informative features which are measurable and predictive. In the first two chapters of this dissertation, EEG ...


Mhealth Elisa System For Point-Of-Care, Arsenii Zhdanov Jul 2019

Mhealth Elisa System For Point-Of-Care, Arsenii Zhdanov

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the most important technologies for biochemical analysis critical for diagnosis and monitoring of many diseases. Traditional systems for ELISA incubation and reading are expensive and bulky, thus cannot be used at pointof- care or in the field. Here, we design and demonstrate a new miniature mobile phone based system for ELISA. This mHealth system can be used to complete all steps of the assay, including incubation and reading. It can be fabricated at low cost, portable, and can transfer test results via mobile phone. We have designed the sample dispensing system, incubation chamber ...


Design And Development Of A Wireless Eeg System Integrated Into A Football Helmet, Akshay V. Dunakhe Mar 2019

Design And Development Of A Wireless Eeg System Integrated Into A Football Helmet, Akshay V. Dunakhe

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the United States, approximately 2.8 million Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) occur annually. Out of these 2.8 million occurrences, 280,000 injuries are caused by sports and recreational activities. The actual number can be significantly higher since mild TBI are often unrecorded. These injuries not only cause physical damage to players, but they are also one of the leading causes of a player’s retirement from a sports career. While working with TBIs, it is vital to detect the concussion at its first occurrence, termed as a “primary concussion.” If the primary concussion goes undetected, the player may ...


Aqueous Humor Dynamics And The Constant-Pressure Perfusion Model Of Experimental Glaucoma In Brown-Norway Rats, Kayla R. Ficarrotta Nov 2018

Aqueous Humor Dynamics And The Constant-Pressure Perfusion Model Of Experimental Glaucoma In Brown-Norway Rats, Kayla R. Ficarrotta

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Glaucoma affects tens of millions of people and is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Virtually all current glaucoma therapies target elevated intraocular pressure (IOP); however, the contribution of intracranial pressure (ICP) to glaucoma has recently garnered interest. Strain at the optic nerve head is now known to depend on the translaminar pressure difference (TLPD), which is the difference between IOP and ICP, rather than IOP alone. A better understanding of how IOP and ICP relate to glaucoma development and progression is essential for developing improved therapies and diagnostic tests. Glaucoma is commonly modeled in rats, yet aqueous humor ...


Demonstration Of Monolithic-Silicon Carbide (Sic) Neural Devices, Evans K. Bernardin Nov 2018

Demonstration Of Monolithic-Silicon Carbide (Sic) Neural Devices, Evans K. Bernardin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Brain Machine Interfaces (BMI) provide a communication pathway between the electrical conducting units of the brain (neurons) and external devices. BMI technology may provide improved neurological and physiological functions to patients suffering from disabilities due to damaged nervous systems. Unfortunately, microelectrodes used in Intracortical Neural Interfaces (INI), a subset of the BMI device family, have yet to demonstrate long-term in vivo performance due to material, mechanical and electrical failures. Many state-of-the-art INI devices are constructed using stacks of multiple materials, such as silicon (Si), titanium (Ti), platinum (Pt), parylene C, and polyimide. Not only must each material tolerate the biological ...


Heart Rate Variability Analysis As A Means Of Real-Time Hypercapnia Detection, Joseph Dituri Nov 2018

Heart Rate Variability Analysis As A Means Of Real-Time Hypercapnia Detection, Joseph Dituri

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The motivation for this research is the high prevalence experienced by divers of carbon dioxide (CO2) issues and concerns throughout their lives. Additionally, CO2 is naturally occurring, the product of oxidative metabolism, and is undetectable to human senses. Current CO2 sensor or detection technology is limited to high-cost machines such as arterial blood gas monitors and end tidal CO2 monitors, or more modern technology relying upon bright lights which measure blood flow. The light technology is notoriously unreliable and does not produce a very effective heart beat allowing a user to detect minimal changes. Heart Rate ...


Effects Of Body Temperature And General Anesthetics On Intraocular Pressure In Rats, Aditi Pillai Jun 2018

Effects Of Body Temperature And General Anesthetics On Intraocular Pressure In Rats, Aditi Pillai

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ocular hypertension has been identified as the fundamental risk factor in glaucoma which is the leading cause for irreversible blindness in the world. Understanding the different factors that affect IOP is of utmost importance in clinical management as IOP is considered as the fundamental factor in assessing the efficiency of glaucoma medications. Several studies have attempted to assess factors that could affect IOP including age, body position, blood pressure, anesthetics commonly used during eye operations, etc. However, in most of these studies IOP is measured under anesthesia using rodent models and these anesthetics could affect the IOP measurements directly or ...


Design And Testing Of A Passive Prosthetic Ankle Foot Optimized To Mimic An Able-Bodied Gait, Millicent Schlafly Jun 2018

Design And Testing Of A Passive Prosthetic Ankle Foot Optimized To Mimic An Able-Bodied Gait, Millicent Schlafly

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Currently there are nearly 2 million people living with limb loss in the United States [1]. Many of these individuals are either transtibial (below knee) or transfemoral (above knee) amputees and require an ankle-foot prosthesis for basic mobility. While there are an abundance of options available for individuals who require an ankle-foot prosthesis, these options fail to mimic an intact ankle when it comes to key evaluation criteria such as range of motion, push-off force, and roll over shape. The roll over shape is created by plotting the center of pressure during a step in a shank-based coordinate system. To ...


Integration And Cross-Coupling Of A Notched-Turbine Symbiotic Power Source For Implantable Medical Devices, Samuel Perez Apr 2018

Integration And Cross-Coupling Of A Notched-Turbine Symbiotic Power Source For Implantable Medical Devices, Samuel Perez

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to design and integrate a symbiotic notched-turbine energy generator for implantation as a cross-coupled system capable of continuously and perpetually powering an electronic implantable medical device (IMD), which is a device designed to operate inside the body of a higher mammal to enhance, correct or provide the body with a function that has deviated from the norm or has stopped altogether. The list of IMDs available for implantation keeps growing every year, one of the newest being the VBLOC, produced by EnteroMedics®, and approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on January 15th ...


Characterization Of Computed Tomography Radiomic Features Using Texture Phantoms, Muhammad Shafiq Ul Hassan Apr 2018

Characterization Of Computed Tomography Radiomic Features Using Texture Phantoms, Muhammad Shafiq Ul Hassan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Radiomics treats images as quantitative data and promises to improve cancer prediction in radiology and therapy response assessment in radiation oncology. However, there are a number of fundamental problems that need to be solved in order to potentially apply radiomic features in clinic. The first basic step in computed tomography (CT) radiomic analysis is the acquisition of images using selectable image acquisition and reconstruction parameters. Radiomic features have shown large variability due to variation of these parameters. Therefore, it is important to develop methods to address these variability issues in radiomic features due to each CT parameter. To this end ...


Elastin-Like Polypeptide Fusion Tag As A Protein-Dependent Solubility Enhancer Of Cysteine-Knot Growth Factors, Tamina L. Johnson Apr 2018

Elastin-Like Polypeptide Fusion Tag As A Protein-Dependent Solubility Enhancer Of Cysteine-Knot Growth Factors, Tamina L. Johnson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Elastin-like peptide (ELP) fusions promote therapeutic delivery and efficacy. Recombinant proteins, like neurotrophins, lack bioavailability, have short in vivo half-lives, and require high manufacturing costs. Fusing recombinant proteins with genetically encodable ELPs will increase bioavailability, enhance in vivo solubilization, as well as provide a cost-effective method for purification without the need for chromatography. During expression of neurotrophin-ELP (N-ELP) fusions, dense water-insoluble aggregates known as inclusion bodies (IBs) are formed. Inclusion bodies are partially and misfolded proteins that usually require denaturants like Urea for solubilization. Strong denaturants arrest ELPs stimuli-responsive property and increase unwanted aggregation, making purification difficult, yet possible. The ...


Neural Mechanisms Of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation In The Treatment Of Tinnitus, Andrea S. Lowe Apr 2018

Neural Mechanisms Of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation In The Treatment Of Tinnitus, Andrea S. Lowe

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Millions of people suffer from tinnitus, a disorder for which there is currently no effective treatment or cure. My dissertation work provides insight into the neural correlates of this pervasive hearing disorder and examines how a newly emerging therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), affects the central auditory system in the generation of the tinnitus percept. This work has a multifold focus of: i) developing and modeling the function of a miniature magnetic coil that can be used for TMS in rodents, ii) establishing a reliable mouse model of tinnitus that can be used for assessing TMS treatment-induced changes, iii) measuring ...


Comparison Of Thermal Glove Wrist-Hand Orthoses In Their Effectiveness On Rheumatoid Arthritis, Brittany E. Mott Mar 2018

Comparison Of Thermal Glove Wrist-Hand Orthoses In Their Effectiveness On Rheumatoid Arthritis, Brittany E. Mott

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease affecting nearly 1% of the world’s population with symptoms such as inflammation, pain, and reduced strength [1]. Physicians and scientists work to develop pharmaceuticals and medical devices aimed at decreasing the symptoms associated with RA to better the lives of those affected. One of the most recent developments is the addition of thermal therapy gloves to the array of upper limb orthoses available to patients with RA. It was hypothesized that this study will show that orthoses in the form of thermal therapy gloves are beneficial to the patients by reducing symptoms ...


Embedded System Design Of Low-Power Wearable Bioelectronic Devices, Matthew S. Hopper Mar 2018

Embedded System Design Of Low-Power Wearable Bioelectronic Devices, Matthew S. Hopper

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The miniaturization of electronics in modern times has enabled the possibility of creating a “continuity of care” using small wearable bioelectronic devices. Using wearable devices, such as the Fitbit or Garmin fitness trackers, allows for the exchange of data between devices which can be used to improve the accuracy of data analysis and thus patient health.

In this thesis work, three wearable bioelectronic devices are proposed: an EOG-based eye-gaze tracking assistive technology device for the physically disabled to control a computer cursor, a battery-operated miniaturized polysomnograph that can store and transmit data wirelessly to sleep technicians and a trauma-detecting personal ...


Combining Thermo-Plasmonics With Microfluidics For Biological Applications, Sharad Ambardar Mar 2018

Combining Thermo-Plasmonics With Microfluidics For Biological Applications, Sharad Ambardar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this project we, for the first time, integrated microfluidics with thermo-plasmonics. While microfluidics is a popular platform allowing experiments with small volumes of fluid, thermo-plasmonics can be used for powerful particle manipulation including capturing, mixing, filtering and projection. Combined, these two techniques give us an opportunity to work with numerous complex fluids containing particles, cells, and micro-beads. Here we designed, developed and tested several devices demonstrating various aspects of this exciting hybrid technology. This required use of soft lithography, metal deposition, 3D printing, oxygen plasma treatment and several other surface modification techniques. Additional challenges were in the fabrication of ...


A High Accuracy Microwave Radiometric Thermometer To Measure Internal Body Temperature, Michael D. Grady Nov 2017

A High Accuracy Microwave Radiometric Thermometer To Measure Internal Body Temperature, Michael D. Grady

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released heat illness data which highlighted that ~29 heat stress hospitalizations and ~3 heat-related deaths occurred every day during the summer months within the US from years 2000 to 2014. Heatstroke- the most severe form of heat illness which oftentimes lead to death- has been cited to be entirely preventable if a timely intervention is introduced. This dissertation uses microwave radiometric thermometry to perform wireless non-invasive internal body temperature monitoring which can enable intervention methods that help to prevent deaths associated with heat-illness.

Overall, this dissertation develops a comprehensive closed-form analytical radiometric ...


18f-Fdg Pet/Ctct-Based Radiomics For The Prediction Of Radiochemotherapy Treatment Outcomes Of Cervical Cancer, Badereldeen Abdulmajeed Altazi Nov 2017

18f-Fdg Pet/Ctct-Based Radiomics For The Prediction Of Radiochemotherapy Treatment Outcomes Of Cervical Cancer, Badereldeen Abdulmajeed Altazi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cervical cancer remains the third most commonly diagnosed gynecological malignancy in the United States and throughout the world despite being potentially preventable. Patients diagnosed with cervical cancer may develop local recurrence in the cervix and surrounding structures (vaginal apex, parametrial, or paracervical), regional recurrence in pelvic lymph nodes, distant metastasis, or a combination of all. The management of such treatment outcomes has not been subject to rigorous investigation. Therefore, there is a need for studies and clinical trials that focus on decision making to support the choice of the best treatment modality that leads to the minimal number of adverse ...


Rf Sensing System For Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring, Fabiola Araujo Cespedes Nov 2017

Rf Sensing System For Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring, Fabiola Araujo Cespedes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to design a blood glucose sensing system based on the induced shift in the resonant frequency of an antenna patch operating in the ISM band (5.725 – 5.875 GHz). The underlying concept is the fact that when a person has variations in their blood glucose levels, the permittivity of their blood varies accordingly. This research analyzed the feasibility of using an antenna patch as a blood glucose sensing device in three configurations: 1) as an implantable active sensor, 2) as an implantable passive antenna sensor, and 3) as a non-invasive sensor. In the ...


Rehabilitating Asymmetric Gait Using Asymmetry, Tyagi Ramakrishnan Nov 2017

Rehabilitating Asymmetric Gait Using Asymmetry, Tyagi Ramakrishnan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Human gait is a complex process that involves the coordination of the central nervous and muscular systems. A disruption to the either system results in the impairment of a person’s ability to walk. Impairments can be caused by neurological disorders such as stroke and physical conditions like amputation. There is not a standardized method to quantitatively assess the gait asymmetry of affected subjects. The purpose of this research is to understand the fundamental aspects of asymmetrical effects on the human body and improve rehabilitation techniques and devices. This research takes an interdisciplinary approach to address the limitations with current ...


Microfluidic Biopsy Trapping Device For The Real-Time Monitoring Of The Tumor Microenvironment, Angela Holton Oct 2017

Microfluidic Biopsy Trapping Device For The Real-Time Monitoring Of The Tumor Microenvironment, Angela Holton

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The tumor microenvironment is composed of cellular and stromal components such as tumor cells, mesenchymal cells, immune cells, cancer associated fibroblasts and the supporting extracellular matrix. The tumor microenvironment provides crucial support for growth and progression of tumor cells and affects tumor response to therapeutic interventions. To better understand tumor biology and to develop effective cancer therapeutic agents it is important to develop preclinical platforms that can faithfully recapitulate the tumor microenvironment and the complex interaction between the tumor and its surrounding stromal elements. Drug studies performed in vitro with conventional two-dimensional cancer cell line models do not optimally represent ...


Bisphosphonate Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles For The Study And Treatment Of Osteoporotic Disease, Christopher Conners Jul 2017

Bisphosphonate Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles For The Study And Treatment Of Osteoporotic Disease, Christopher Conners

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The use of nanoparticles for disease treatment is an increasingly popular area of research. The potential for multi-functionality allows nanoparticles to be used as transport and delivery vehicles for drugs and as diagnostic aides, among other applications, to address the unmet needs of many disease treatments. One such class of disease is osteoporosis including severe disorders, like Paget’s disease, Osteogenesis Imperfecta and Legg Calve Perthes disease. In this dissertation, we discuss a nanoparticle system consisting of gold nanoparticles surface functionalized with primary amine bisphosphonates, which is a classification of pharmaceuticals that is common in the treatment of osteoporosis. Functionalized ...


Morphometric Analysis Of The Talus On The Cohort Of Healthy And Arthritic Patient Population:, Tia Arvaneh Jun 2017

Morphometric Analysis Of The Talus On The Cohort Of Healthy And Arthritic Patient Population:, Tia Arvaneh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) is less common in the ankle compared to other joints; however, deformation brought on by degeneration causes pain, loss of function, and overall decreased quality of life. Current surgical interventions for end-stage ankle OA are not as reliable as surgical treatments for other joints. Ankle arthroplasty currently has high failure rates, and there are lack of substantial data from long-term outcome studies. By understanding the morphometric changes that occur during the different stages of OA, we are able to identify early signs of the disease with the intention to apply treatment earlier in order to preclude ...


Characterization Of Surface Charges And Compensating Charges For Gene Delivery To Tissue, Ravi Shanmugha Preethi Vangapattu Jun 2017

Characterization Of Surface Charges And Compensating Charges For Gene Delivery To Tissue, Ravi Shanmugha Preethi Vangapattu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ever since the discovery of DNA, there has been many pathologies identified effecting mankind. With the development in technology, there are many methods to alleviate these pathologies. One such is gene therapy or gene delivery. It is a process of introducing some foreign material into the body to correct the effected cells. In principle, it is a modern method to cure cells or a method to transfer nucleic acid into a cell to treat specific cells in the body. The process of delivering a genetic material is carried out using vectors, namely, viral vectors and non-viral vectors. In viral vectors ...