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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Regeneration Of The Ventricular Endocardium Within Acellular Whole Rabbit Hearts Using A Layer-By-Layer Seeding Method, Clayton Lewis Compton May 2018

Regeneration Of The Ventricular Endocardium Within Acellular Whole Rabbit Hearts Using A Layer-By-Layer Seeding Method, Clayton Lewis Compton

All Theses

In the United States, 1 out of every 9 death certificates in 2013 referenced heart failure.1 Despite the outstanding need of treatment options for heart failure, heart transplantation remains the optimal treatment method. However, there is a severe shortage of donor hearts available for transplantation.2 Other available treatment options are not ideal because they do not fully restore function and are associated with creating other complications.3 Thus, there is a need for developing a living tissue engineered whole heart for transplantation to provide an alternative option for patients on the waitlist to receive a donor heart.

Our ...


Autologous Protein Solution Exhibits Potential To Mitigate Osteoarthritis (Oa) Progression In A Human Explant Co-Culture Model, Kathleen Emily Steckbeck Aug 2016

Autologous Protein Solution Exhibits Potential To Mitigate Osteoarthritis (Oa) Progression In A Human Explant Co-Culture Model, Kathleen Emily Steckbeck

All Theses

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating and painful disease that affects upwards of one in every eight adults1,2. OA influences the entire joint, but is traditionally characterized by cartilage degradation3. OA is a multifactorial disease with genetic, biological, and biochemical consideration, but there has been a recent shift in scientific opinion that the pathological progression of OA stems from an inflammatory milieu produced by the feed-forward progressive pathway as evidenced by simultaneous cartilage and synovium co-culture4–7. Autologous protein solution (APS) poses as an intriguing potential OA therapy by possessing a high anti-inflammatory and anabolic mediator concentration profile that could ...


Decellularized Bovine Nucleus Pulposus As A Biomimetic Scaffold For Intervertebral Disc Regeneration, Christopher Fernandez Dec 2015

Decellularized Bovine Nucleus Pulposus As A Biomimetic Scaffold For Intervertebral Disc Regeneration, Christopher Fernandez

All Theses

Low back pain (LBP) is a significant burden with a lifetime prevalence of 84% and estimated expenditures of $85.9 billion.[1,2] Although LBP is multifactorial; it has been shown that LBP can originate from degenerating intervertebral discs (IVDs); a process which initiates in the nucleus pulposus (NP); a hydrated tissue primarily composed of type 2 collagen and proteoglycan. Current therapies for IVD degeneration (IDD) are palliative and merely delay surgical management. While these procedures may relieve pain temporarily, they fail to address the underlying cause of degeneration and make no attempt to regenerate the effected tissue. Additional concerns ...


Analysis Of Citrate Content In Bone Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Matthew Konstantin Pysh Dec 2015

Analysis Of Citrate Content In Bone Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Matthew Konstantin Pysh

All Theses

Approximately 1.5 wt. % of bone is comprised of citrate molecules bound to the surface of apatite crystals. Furthermore, 80 to 90% of physiological citrate is contained within bone. Recently, interest in citrate has increased due to the potential of a citrate based method for estimation of postmortem intervals, time since death, of skeletal remains. The broad objective of this research was to develop and validate a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method for quantitative and qualitative analysis of citrate in bone. An appropriate HPLC column and operating conditions for the detection of citrate were selected and subsequently used to analyze ...


Endothelialization Using Protein Substrates And Hydrogels For Aortic Valve Applications, Elizabeth A. Fontaine May 2015

Endothelialization Using Protein Substrates And Hydrogels For Aortic Valve Applications, Elizabeth A. Fontaine

All Theses

Aortic valve disease is currently the leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity in the United States.1 In 2003, approximately 290,000 patients required heart valve replacement and that number is estimated to continue to rise as the average age of the population continues to increase.2 However, the current valve replacement options have multiple limitations. Tissue engineering hopes to address these shortcomings by providing a viable valve that more closely mimics the native valve, structurally and functionally.3 An ideal valve replacement should contain endothelial and interstitial cells, with the ability to remodel the extra-cellular matrix. While tissue-engineered heart valves ...


Assessment Of Bore-Cone Taper Junctions In Explanted Modular Total Hip Replacements, Christine Margaret Stamer May 2015

Assessment Of Bore-Cone Taper Junctions In Explanted Modular Total Hip Replacements, Christine Margaret Stamer

All Theses

For people with chronic hip pain due to arthritis or other conditions, a total hip replacement (THR) is a common procedure used to eliminate the pain. Due to the natural variation in patient anatomy, THR prostheses are becoming increasingly more modular to allow for a more customized initial replacement and for an easier revision if needed in the future. Currently, THR prostheses routinely have modular femoral heads to provide surgeons with intraoperative flexibility. This modularity allows the surgeons to maintain the proper leg length and restore hip biomechanics for the patient and insert the components more easily and precisely. Modular ...


Development Of Poly(Lactic Acid)-Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Nanoparticles For The Delivery Of Non- Toxic Drug In Combination Therapy For The Treatment Of Glioblastoma And Neuroblastoma, Olivia Grace Decroes Aug 2014

Development Of Poly(Lactic Acid)-Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Nanoparticles For The Delivery Of Non- Toxic Drug In Combination Therapy For The Treatment Of Glioblastoma And Neuroblastoma, Olivia Grace Decroes

All Theses

Glioblastoma and neuroblastoma are both solid-form tumors. Glioblastomas primarily reside in the brain, while neuroblastomas are found in the sympathetic nervous system. Both glioblastoma and neuroblastoma re classified as orphan diseases, which affect less than 200,000 individuals a year. Over the course of 5 years, 40% of patients diagnosed with neuroblastomas and only 6% of patients diagnosed will glioblastomas will be living.73,74. Glioblastoma and neuroblastoma tumors possess a gene known as MGMT. MGMT is used by tumors as a DNA repair mechanism, which increases the likelihood these tumors will become resistant to traditional drug therapies.28,37 ...


Functional Stroke Recovery Through Tissue Engineered Niche Neural Constructs, Natasha Topoluk Dec 2013

Functional Stroke Recovery Through Tissue Engineered Niche Neural Constructs, Natasha Topoluk

All Theses

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, stroke is statistically responsible for 1 in every 19 deaths of American citizens.5 Stroke is the leading cause of permanent disability due to the fact that it compromises both cellular and tissue components of the brain, leading to the formation of a physical void within the tissue. Current research approaches address the cellular component by injecting stem cells into this void; however, extremely low cell engraftment, high injected cell death, and overall no matrix regeneration are observed. Additionally, these stem cells do not remain committed to a neural lineage. We ...


The Effects Of Different Size Gold Nanoparticles On Mechanical Properties Of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Under Mechanical Stretching, Tri Kieu Dec 2013

The Effects Of Different Size Gold Nanoparticles On Mechanical Properties Of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Under Mechanical Stretching, Tri Kieu

All Theses

The field of nanotechnology research has seen a large growth in the past few decades due to the great potential of novel nano-size material for useful applications such as drug delivery and medical imaging. Also, they are a promising platform for the detection of terrible diseases such as cancer and atherosclerosis. Although these materials hold great promise, there is very limited understanding about the biological effects of these nanoparticles on normal healthy cells, such as vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The VSMCs are unique cells due to the two distinct phenotype characteristics it can express: a contractile and a synthetic ...


Development And Verification Of A Test System To Quantify Strain Of An Optical Displacement Indicator And The Design Of A Strain Indicating Prototype, Josh Lake Dec 2013

Development And Verification Of A Test System To Quantify Strain Of An Optical Displacement Indicator And The Design Of A Strain Indicating Prototype, Josh Lake

All Theses

The organic-rich Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale of the Appalachian basin is a rapidly developing natural gas play. Stratigraphic boundaries of the Marcellus Shale in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania were identified using geophysical logs from 10 vertical gas-producing wells in a 23 sq. km area. Gamma-ray, bulk density, and resistivity well logs were examined to assess hydrocarbon potential. Values of porosity, total organic carbon (TOC), and water saturation (SW) were derived and mapped by incorporating well-log data into Marcellus-specific formulas. Gamma-ray, penetration (minutes per foot drilled), and mud-logging gas (total gas) from 12 horizontal wells from within the study area were also ...


Scratch Damage Evolution On Metals In Total Joint Replacements, Caleb Eljach Dec 2013

Scratch Damage Evolution On Metals In Total Joint Replacements, Caleb Eljach

All Theses

The goal of total joint replacement (TJR) is to replace nonfunctioning joint components and relieve pain, improve quality of life, and to improve joint function. Although TJR is a successful procedure, more than 54,000 knee revisions occur each year due to factors, such as wear, loosening, infection, fracture, instability, and patient related factors (Ranawat, 2010). TJRs consist of components typically composed of polyethylene and a metallic counterface (Navarro, 2008). The sliding contact that occurs between the metal and polyethylene components has been well studied and is shown to produce both surface damage and wear of the implant components (Barbour ...


Interstitial Cell Seeding And Dynamic Conditioning Of Aortic Heart Valve Scaffolds, Allison Kennamer Dec 2013

Interstitial Cell Seeding And Dynamic Conditioning Of Aortic Heart Valve Scaffolds, Allison Kennamer

All Theses

In 2011, U.S. Markets for Heart Valve Repair and Replacement Products estimated that roughly four million people in the United States are diagnosed with a heart valve disorder annually. And in the following year, the American Heart Association reported that approximately 35,000 deaths in the US were either directly or indirectly attributed to heart valve disease. Diseases of the heart valve are degenerative in nature and therefore progressively worsen unbeknownst to the patient until symptoms become clinically relevant. By this time, the valve is in such poor condition that complete replacement is often the only effective treatment. Current ...


Extraction Of Antioxidants From Animal Blood And Its Potential Application As A Pet Food Preservative, Chengyi Tu Aug 2013

Extraction Of Antioxidants From Animal Blood And Its Potential Application As A Pet Food Preservative, Chengyi Tu

All Theses

Nowadays, more and more people are having pets as members of their family. To the year of 2012, there are 78.2 million dogs and 86.4 million cats owned in the U.S according to the report of the Humane Society of the U.S. The pet food industry as a result has been prosperous, with an estimated market size of $21 billion in the year of 2013. However, there is a common problem for the industry - fat rancidification. Pet foods usually contain relatively high levels of fat, which, if not well protected, are prone to oxidation and generate ...


Experimental Development And Analysis Of A Novel Setup For Insulated Dielectrophoresis, Johnie Hodge Aug 2013

Experimental Development And Analysis Of A Novel Setup For Insulated Dielectrophoresis, Johnie Hodge

All Theses

Dielectrophoresis has long been studied and utilized for the manipulation of microscale particles in solution. This phenomenon is due to the induced polarization of dielectric particles subjected to an electric field. When the field is also inhomogeneous in terms of the distribution of its strength through space, the polarized particles move and come to rest in certain areas due to the relationship between their and the solvent's relative permittivities. If the electric field is homogenous, such as within a parallel plate capacitor, the particles are polarized according to their permittivity and the field's frequency, but they will not ...


Problems In The Study And Use Of Ac Dielectrophoresis And Their Consequences: A Study Based On Comsol Multiphysics Modeling, Vandana Devi Pandian Babu Aug 2013

Problems In The Study And Use Of Ac Dielectrophoresis And Their Consequences: A Study Based On Comsol Multiphysics Modeling, Vandana Devi Pandian Babu

All Theses

Dielectrophoresis (or DEP) is an important phenomenon which is induced when a dielectric particle is placed in a non-uniform electric field. The force generated by DEP has been exploited for various micro and nano fluidics applications like positioning, sorting and separation of particles involved in medical diagnostics, drug discovery, cell therapeutics, biosensors, microfluidics, nanoassembly, particle filtration etc. The integration of DEP systems into the microfluidics enables inexpensive, fast, highly sensitive, highly selective, label-free detection and also the analysis of target bioparticles.

This work aims to provide a complete compilation of the factors affecting the DEP force. It elucidates the underlying ...


The Development Of A Rapid Fiber-Based Immunoassay As A Point-Of-Care Or In-Home Diagnostic Test, Christopher Waddell Aug 2013

The Development Of A Rapid Fiber-Based Immunoassay As A Point-Of-Care Or In-Home Diagnostic Test, Christopher Waddell

All Theses

Early diagnosis of conditions allows for physicians to treat patients earlier, and ultimately improve patient outcomes. Two conditions of particular interest for earlier and cheaper diagnosis are the influenza virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antiviral treatment administered within the first 48 hours of influenza infection decreases symptom severity, risk of complications, and reduced healthcare costs. Early diagnosis of HIV can decrease the risk of transmission of the virus to HIV negative individuals and allow for earlier administration of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), improving patient quality of life and patient outcomes.
Currently, the 'gold standard' for detection of both ...


Characterization Of Potential Wear Sources In Knee Arthroplasty Prostheses After In Vivo Function, Nicole Durig May 2013

Characterization Of Potential Wear Sources In Knee Arthroplasty Prostheses After In Vivo Function, Nicole Durig

All Theses

Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is a common procedure generally performed in patients with osteoarthritis. While TJA continues to be a successful treatment for degenerative joint disease, there are many studies that demonstrate wear and its sequelae as the major limitation of joint replacement longevity. Previous studies have shown that wear debris originates from four main locations: articulating surfaces, modular component surfaces, surfaces of fixation, and adjuvant fixation devices. Each of these possible wear sources can initiate the cascade of failure associated with wear-induced osteolysis and lead to subsequent revision surgery. The objective of this thesis is to characterize the in ...


Post-Market Surveillance Of Total Knee Replacement Combining Clinical Outcomes And Quantitative Image Processing Techniques, Leah Nunez May 2013

Post-Market Surveillance Of Total Knee Replacement Combining Clinical Outcomes And Quantitative Image Processing Techniques, Leah Nunez

All Theses

Total knee replacement (TKR) is a successful procedure for the relief of pain, correction of deformity, and restoration of function in patients with knee arthritis.1-3 In the United States, the number of primary TKR surgeries performed in 2030 is projected to be between 2,938,000 to 4,136,000 and revision surgeries between 193,000 to 381,000.4 Osteolysis, pain, and aseptic loosening are the most common causes of revision TKR surgery.5 The purpose of this thesis is to complete assessments for post-market surveillance of total knee replacement (TKR) targeting areas for improving polymer bearings through ...


Evaluation Of Angular Velocity Data From Inertial Measurement Units For Use In Clinical Settings, Chelsea Ex-Lubeskie May 2013

Evaluation Of Angular Velocity Data From Inertial Measurement Units For Use In Clinical Settings, Chelsea Ex-Lubeskie

All Theses

Evaluating the human gait cycle with inertial measurement units (IMU) may prove beneficial for applications such as diagnoses of musculoskeletal diseases and assessment of rehabilitation regimes. An IMU system is potentially applicable for diagnosing and assessing rehabilitation outcomes for a variety of neuromuscular diseases since it is small, portable, and less expensive than a camera system. IMUs directly measure angular velocity, whereas position data from a camera system must be processed twice to obtain this information. The purpose of this research is to determine repeatability of IMU angular velocity data, and agreement between angular velocity data from an IMU system ...


A Regenerative Medicine Approach To Improved Tendon Healing And Repair, Grace Margaret Dion May 2013

A Regenerative Medicine Approach To Improved Tendon Healing And Repair, Grace Margaret Dion

All Theses

Surgical repair of torn tendons is a common orthopaedic procedure in the United States, with nearly 400,000 repairs occurring annually. Despite improvements in surgical techniques used to re-attach the tendon to its boney insertion, clinically successful outcomes amongst patients are variable and re-tear rates can be exceedingly high. The use of stem cells as an adjunct to surgical repair to aid in improving tendon healing and repair strength has gained much interest amongst the clinical community. Accordingly, many investigators have begun examining the ability of stem cells to differentiate into tenocytes using various methodologies including the application of growth ...


Dynamic Transcriptional Response Of Escherichia Coli To Inclusion Body Formation, Faraz Baig May 2013

Dynamic Transcriptional Response Of Escherichia Coli To Inclusion Body Formation, Faraz Baig

All Theses

Escherichia coli is used intensively for recombinant protein production due to its many unique advantages, but one key challenge with the use of E. coli is the tendency of recombinant proteins to misfold and aggregate into insoluble inclusion bodies (IBs). The presence of IBs stresses cells and can hinder overall growth. Additionally, IBs contain high concentrations of recombinant protein in an inactive form and thus require recovery steps to salvage functional recombinant protein. Currently, no universally effective method exists to prevent IB formation in recombinant E. coli. Further research into the gene expression response to insoluble recombinant protein may provide ...


Evaluating Mechanical Performance Of Hydrogel-Based Adhesives For Soft Tissue Applications, Nitin Balakrishnan May 2013

Evaluating Mechanical Performance Of Hydrogel-Based Adhesives For Soft Tissue Applications, Nitin Balakrishnan

All Theses

According to the National Center for Health Statistics, an estimated 22 million women have undergone a hysterectomy procedure in the United States. The most common complication during hysterectomies is accidental laceration of the urinary bladder during the surgery with incidence between 0.2-8.3% with the current gold standard wound repair method being sutures. Yet, sutures come with their own limitations in that they necessitate use of a catheter and collection bag during healing due to preventing proper distention of the bladder tissue at normal pressures. The long-term goal of our study is to eliminate the need for suturing by ...


Development Of An Ex Vivo Tissue Testing System For Three Dimensional Biomechanical Analysis Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, Bradley Johns May 2013

Development Of An Ex Vivo Tissue Testing System For Three Dimensional Biomechanical Analysis Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, Bradley Johns

All Theses

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are localized, progressive dilations of the aortic wall and are the 13th most common cause of death in the United States (~15,000 per year) and surgery is usually recommended when the aneurysm is 5 cm or larger in diameter. Because of this clinical parameter, previous studies of AAA biomechanics have utilized a one-dimensional analysis that focuses solely on changes in wall diameter and have attempted to model geometric changes with mathematical formulas, generally based on the LaPlace equation. This is not sufficient however, as the mechanical behavior of the tissue at sites of aneurysm have ...


The Effects Of Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Exposure On The Metabolic And Mechanical Properties Of Articular Cartilage, Carl Lindburg Dec 2012

The Effects Of Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Exposure On The Metabolic And Mechanical Properties Of Articular Cartilage, Carl Lindburg

All Theses

Radiation therapy is necessary treatment for many cancer patients due to its non-surgical, yet aggressive and efficacious properties. In fact, over 50% of patients with cancer will undergo some form of radiotherapy during the course of their treatment. While the biological response to ionizing radiation has been examined over the years and many adverse effects have been identified, the effects of radiation on mature cartilage and musculoskeletal tissues are not well understood. Bone, once thought to be a tissue relatively resistant to radiation, has recently been shown to have osteoporosis-like bone atrophy after exposure to low doses (2 Gy) of ...


Bioswellable Amphiphilic Copolymers, David Ingram Dec 2012

Bioswellable Amphiphilic Copolymers, David Ingram

All Theses

The suture is one of the most commonly used medical devices, consisting of a fiber, a surgical needle and the packaging in which it is stored. The fiber itself remains after implantation for a defined time and is responsible for the approximation of the wound during the healing process. The needle merely serves to aid in insertion, and preferably has a diameter larger than the diameter of the fiber .
The 1970's marked the birth of a new family of fibrous materials for the approximation of wounds: synthetic absorbable sutures. This family has the ability to provide wound support during ...


Stabilization Of Extracellular Matrix Components In Bioprosthetic Heart Valves Using Neomycin And Pentagalloyl Glucose Enhanced Crosslinking, Daniel Tripi Aug 2012

Stabilization Of Extracellular Matrix Components In Bioprosthetic Heart Valves Using Neomycin And Pentagalloyl Glucose Enhanced Crosslinking, Daniel Tripi

All Theses

Bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs) fail within 12-15 years of implantation due to limited durability. This limits their application to elderly population. Younger patients with contraindications for long-term anticoagulant therapy necessary for mechanical heart valves may also receive BHVs. Investigation into improving valve durability can lead to longer implant life, increased quality of life for patients receiving BHVs, and a broadened patient demographic.
Current BHVs are chemically treated with glutaraldehyde (GLUT) to stabilize collagen via chemical crosslinking and to reduce tissue antigenicity. GLUT fails to adequately stabilize elastin and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), essential extracellular matrix components for valve function and durability. Degradation ...


Oral Delivery Of Peptide Drugs For Mitigation Of Crohn's Disease, Paul Blichmann Aug 2012

Oral Delivery Of Peptide Drugs For Mitigation Of Crohn's Disease, Paul Blichmann

All Theses

Protein drugs are typically administered intravenously, but this practice has clear disadvantages such as widespread circulation and swift clearance from the body. Orally delivered protein drugs are not yet available but potentially offer improved distribution, retention, and activity by use of protective matrices and cell-specific targeting. Much work has been done on delayed release formulations for the upper intestine, but there has not been overwhelming evidence of protection of peptides from gastric conditions. In many instances the large intestine may be a better release target due to lower proteolytic activity. Afflictions of the colon such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease and ...


Effects Of Physiological Dynamic Compression Loading On Gold Nanoparticle Permeation Of Articular Cartilage, Britton Mccaskill Aug 2012

Effects Of Physiological Dynamic Compression Loading On Gold Nanoparticle Permeation Of Articular Cartilage, Britton Mccaskill

All Theses

Articular cartilage is essential part of the human body that aids in support and locomotion. It has unique biochemical and biomechanical properties that allow it to act as a shock absorber to disperse and distribute loading of the joints. However, it has a limited capacity to repair itself because it is not vascularized and must receive its nutrients from the surrounding synovial fluid. Articular cartilage damage can lead to many pathological conditions, including osteoarthritis. Currently, there are many surgical treatment methods that repair some of the damage if it is localized, but for widespread degradation seen in osteoarthritis, there are ...


The Formulation Of A Bone Targeted Drug Delivery System Of Poly(Glycolic Acid)-Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Coated Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles For The Delivery Of Statins, Erika Jelen Aug 2012

The Formulation Of A Bone Targeted Drug Delivery System Of Poly(Glycolic Acid)-Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Coated Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles For The Delivery Of Statins, Erika Jelen

All Theses

Bone is a form of mineralized connective tissue that provides strength and rigidity to the skeleton. The two primary components within bone tissue are an organic extracellular matrix, containing type I collagen, and an inorganic mineral component composed mainly of calcium phosphate hydroxyapatite crystals. Over time the microarchitecture of bone can break down due to a variety of different factors, mainly the onset of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women, Paget's disease, and the experience of a loss of gravity during space flight. Currently there are about ten million people in the United States alone suffering from osteoporosis.
The prevention of ...


Development Of A Lower Extremity Mobility Assessment Methodology For Motor Vehicle Operation And Initial Validation, Justin Arnosky May 2012

Development Of A Lower Extremity Mobility Assessment Methodology For Motor Vehicle Operation And Initial Validation, Justin Arnosky

All Theses

Limited quantifiable data exists on lower extremity mobility and function during driving. To date, the most appropriate existing measures of successful driving function are assessed by a driving rehabilitation specialist during an on-road evaluation. Establishing the kinematic chain- or the order and magnitude in which joints are moved- during driving may prove to be a useful tool in lower extremity function assessment in drivers. To this end, a study was conducted instrumenting both the left and right legs of healthy licensed male drivers (18-26 years old) with a system of angle measuring goniometers (Biometrics, Ltd.) in a driving simulator (DriveSafety ...