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University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

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Articles 1 - 30 of 132

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Characterization Of Oxone Mediated Tempo-Oxidized Nano Cellulose Mixed-Matrix Membranes During Ultrafiltration And Hemodialysis, Kristyn Robling May 2020

Characterization Of Oxone Mediated Tempo-Oxidized Nano Cellulose Mixed-Matrix Membranes During Ultrafiltration And Hemodialysis, Kristyn Robling

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The ninth leading cause of death in the United States is kidney disease, and hemodialysis is the process most commonly prescribed for treatment. It utilizes a selectively permeable membrane filter to remove toxins such as urea from the blood and retain necessary protein levels. However, traditional filters, such as cellulose triacetate, used during dialysis can be inefficient in terms of separation performance and reduction of fouling. Recent exploration of nanoparticles has resulted in the creation of Oxone Mediated TEMPO-Oxidized Nano Cellulose which has properties that are believed to increase hydrophilicity, increase tensile capacity, decrease membrane resistance and lower fouling, making ...


Generation Of A Ccl2 Knockout Using Crispr/Cas9 And Lipid Mediated Transfection In Ct-26 Murine Colon Carcinoma Cells, Emma Sullivan Aug 2019

Generation Of A Ccl2 Knockout Using Crispr/Cas9 And Lipid Mediated Transfection In Ct-26 Murine Colon Carcinoma Cells, Emma Sullivan

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

CCL2 is an inflammatory mediator that is released by tumor cells to activate and direct immune cell species, especially macrophages, to inflammatory sites within the body. The goal of this project was to successfully generate knockout the CCL2 ligand gene using a CRISPR/Cas9 complex delivered via lipid mediated transfection. The sgRNA and Cas9 mRNA were introduced into the cells via lipid-mediated transfection. The cells were incubated for 4 days, before being analyzed using PCR and gel electrophoresis. We expected to see one band on the first gel and two bands on the second gel. Two bands appeared on the ...


Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts Aug 2019

Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss overwhelms skeletal muscle’s ordinarily capable regenerative machinery, resulting in fibrosis and severe functional deficits which have defied clinical repair strategies. My work spans the design and preclinical evaluation of implants intended to drive the cell community of injured muscle toward a regenerative state, as well as the development of an understanding of the molecular responses of this cell community to biomaterial interventions. I demonstrate a new class of biomaterial by leveraging the productive capacity of sacrificial hollow fiber membrane cell culture; I show specifically that unique threads of whole extracellular matrix can be isolated by solvent ...


Investigation Of The Effect Of Age On Regenerative Outcomes Following Treatment Of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injuries, John Taehwan Kim Aug 2019

Investigation Of The Effect Of Age On Regenerative Outcomes Following Treatment Of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injuries, John Taehwan Kim

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is a traumatic injury in skeletal muscle resulting in the bulk loss of more than 20% of the muscle’s volume. Included in the bulk loss of muscle is the skeletal muscle niche comprised of nerve bundles, vasculature, local progenitor cells, basal lamina, and muscle fibers, overwhelming innate repair mechanisms. The hallmark of VML injury is the excessive accumulation of non-contractile, fibrotic tissue and permanent functional deficits. Though predominant in the younger demographic, the elderly population is also captured within VML injuries. There are many factors that change with aging in skeletal muscle that may further ...


Feedforward And Feedback Signals In The Olfactory System, Srimoy Chakraborty May 2019

Feedforward And Feedback Signals In The Olfactory System, Srimoy Chakraborty

Theses and Dissertations

The conglomeration of myriad activities in neural systems often results in prominent oscillations. The primary goal of the research presented in this thesis was to study effects of sensory stimulus on the olfactory system of rats, focusing on the olfactory bulb (OB) and the anterior piriform cortex (aPC). Extracellular electrophysiological measurements revealed distinct frequency bands of oscillations in OB and aPC. However, how these oscillatory fluctuations help the animal to process sensory input is not clearly understood. Here we show high frequency oscillations in olfactory bulb carry feedforward signals to anterior piriform cortex whereas feedback from the aPC is predominantly ...


Using Peripheral Venous Pressure Waveforms To Predict Key Hemodynamic Parameters, Ali Zohair A Alalawi May 2019

Using Peripheral Venous Pressure Waveforms To Predict Key Hemodynamic Parameters, Ali Zohair A Alalawi

Theses and Dissertations

Analysis of peripheral venous pressure (PVP) waveforms is a novel method of monitoring intravascular volume. Two cohorts were used to study the hemodynamics change of the body state and its influence on the PVP using (1) dehydration setting with infants suffering from pyloric stenosis and (2) hemorrhage setting during a craniosynostosis elective surgery. The goal of this research is to develop a minimally invasive method of analyzing the PVP waveforms and find correlations with volume loss.

Twenty-three pyloric stenosis patients PVP were acquired at five stages and were divided into euvolemic, normal fluid volume, and hypovolemic, significant fluid loss. Seven ...


Investigating Virus Clearance Via Ph Inactivation During Biomanufacturing, Wenbo Xu May 2019

Investigating Virus Clearance Via Ph Inactivation During Biomanufacturing, Wenbo Xu

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the processing of biopharmaceuticals, viral clearance and viral safety are important for the development of monoclonal antibodies. Murine xenotropic leukemia virus (XMuLV) is one of the retroviruses, recommended by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a model virus for viral clearance via inactivation from therapeutics derived from Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO). A robust and effective method was investigated to clear or inactivate endogenous viruses by low pH inactivation. The effects of different conductivity and inactivated time on XMuLV clearance was determined. Acetate buffer was prepared with different conductivity, and 2% XMuLV was spiked into acetate buffer. XMuLV virus ...


A Bioinstrumentation Active Learning Educational Module: The Design Of A Working Temperature Sensor Using A Ntc Thermistor, Baylor Bush May 2019

A Bioinstrumentation Active Learning Educational Module: The Design Of A Working Temperature Sensor Using A Ntc Thermistor, Baylor Bush

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Arkansas has continued to develop over the years, with more students enrolling in the program each year. Within the first biomedical engineering course, Introduction to Biomedical Engineering, various topics are introduced to students, and the topic of bioinstrumentation has been one of the most complex and difficult topics for students to comprehend through just a few lectures. In order to aid students in grasping these intricate concepts, an active learning module was developed in which students can work in groups to build a simple thermistor circuit as a temperature sensor. The ...


Investigation Of Acute Radiation-Induced Changes In Oxygenation In A Murine Breast Tumor Model, Alaa Abdelgawad May 2019

Investigation Of Acute Radiation-Induced Changes In Oxygenation In A Murine Breast Tumor Model, Alaa Abdelgawad

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Around 50-60% of all cancer patients undergo radiation therapy. Although some patients show complete response with no recurrence, a significant proportion of the population still develop radiation resistance. It is important to identify tumor resistance at early stages of therapy in order to adjust treatment protocol and avoid extra exposure to radiation. Current methods to assess treatment response are only limited to anatomical measurements of tumor volume after therapy. Novel approaches that shed the light on any functional information during the course of radiotherapy could significantly improve our ability to identify patients who do not respond to radiation therapy. Diffuse ...


Ecological Co2 Flux Of A Green Roof Ecosystem And A Typical Grassland Ecosystem, Madeline Oxner May 2019

Ecological Co2 Flux Of A Green Roof Ecosystem And A Typical Grassland Ecosystem, Madeline Oxner

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Hillside Auditorium Green Roof is a low impact development feature on the University of Arkansas campus. It retains storm water and allows plants living on the roof to take up and transpire the water. Green roofs work to mimic natural ecosystems in urban environments. A key property is ecosystem respiration, which plays a large role in the global carbon cycle and is an important biologic activity indicator. The ecosystem respiration of Hillside Auditorium Green Roof was compared to a typical grassland ecosystem at the University of Arkansas farm to determine how closely the green roof is able to mimic ...


Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy To Quantify In Vivo Tissue Optical Properties: Applications In Human Epithelium And Subcutaneous Murine Colon Cancer, Gage Joseph Greening May 2019

Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy To Quantify In Vivo Tissue Optical Properties: Applications In Human Epithelium And Subcutaneous Murine Colon Cancer, Gage Joseph Greening

Theses and Dissertations

Colorectal cancer is the 4th most common and 2nd deadliest cancer. Problems exist with predicting which patients will respond best to certain therapy regimens. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been suggested as a candidate to optically monitor a patient’s early response to therapy and has been received favorably in experimentally managing other cancers such as breast and skin. In this dissertation, two diffuse reflectance spectroscopy probes were designed: one with a combined high-resolution microendoscopy modality, and one that was optimized for acquiring data from subcutaneous murine tumors. For both probes, percent errors for estimating tissue optical properties (reduced scattering coefficient ...


Volumetric Muscle Loss: The Role Of Physical Activity And Autologous Repair On Force Recovery And Signaling Pathways, Richard Perry May 2019

Volumetric Muscle Loss: The Role Of Physical Activity And Autologous Repair On Force Recovery And Signaling Pathways, Richard Perry

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss affects both military and civilian persons. The hallmark of this injury is incomplete muscle regeneration, excessive fibrosis, and chronic inflammatory signaling resulting in permanent functional loss. Since permanent functional loss drastically reduces quality of life, many studies have been conducted to improve force recovery. Current scientific literature considers a repair strategy of either devitalized scaffolds infused with growth factors or viable tissue plus activating factors to be the more promising interventions for optimal force recovery. PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to incorporate autologous repair and physical activity and observe the effects of muscle force recovery ...


3d Printing A Microfluidic Chip Capable Of Droplet Emulsion Using Ninjaflex Filament, Robert Andrews May 2019

3d Printing A Microfluidic Chip Capable Of Droplet Emulsion Using Ninjaflex Filament, Robert Andrews

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper details an investigation into methods and designs of 3D printing a microfluidic system capable of droplet emulsion using NinjaFlex filament. The specific field in which this paper’s experiment is rooted is dubbed “BioMEMS,” short for bio microelectromechanical systems. One prominent research area in BioMEMS is developing a “lab on a chip.” Essentially, the goal is to miniaturize common lab processes to the micro scale, rendering it possible to include these processes in a small chip. Reducing necessary sample sizes, shortening the reaction times of lab processes, and increasing mobility of lab processes can all be realized through ...


Morphological Features Of Dysplastic Progression In Epithelium: Quantification Of Cytological, Microendoscopic, And Second Harmonic Generation Images, Sandra Patricia Gordon Dec 2018

Morphological Features Of Dysplastic Progression In Epithelium: Quantification Of Cytological, Microendoscopic, And Second Harmonic Generation Images, Sandra Patricia Gordon

Theses and Dissertations

Advances in imaging technology have led to a variety of available clinical and investigational systems. In this collection of studies, we tested the relevance of morphological image feature quantification on several imaging systems and epithelial tissues. Quantification carries the benefit of creating numerical baselines and thresholds of healthy and abnormal tissues, to potentially aid clinicians in determining a diagnosis, as well as providing researchers with standardized, unbiased results for future dissemination and comparison.

Morphological image features in proflavine stained oral cells were compared qualitatively to traditional Giemsa stained cells, and then we quantified the nuclear to cytoplasm ratio. We determined ...


Assessing Biofiltration Without Ozonation For Removal Of Trihalomethane Precursors In Drinking Water At The Beaver Water District Drinking Water Treatment Plant, Sana Ajaz Dec 2018

Assessing Biofiltration Without Ozonation For Removal Of Trihalomethane Precursors In Drinking Water At The Beaver Water District Drinking Water Treatment Plant, Sana Ajaz

Theses and Dissertations

Biofiltration without pre-ozonation has the capability to remove natural organic matter (NOM) fractions that serve as precursors of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), which include the four regulated trihalomethanes (THMs) and dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN). Rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs) and Pilot Plant filters operated at empty-bed contact times (EBCTs) of 4, 8, and 16 minutes were used to evaluate the performance of nutrient-amended (free ammonia and phosphorus) biofiltration for THM and DCAN precursor removal, as measured using formation potential (FP) tests. NOM surrogates – which include dissolved organic carbon (DOC), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA254) and fluorescence-PARAFAC components – were measured weekly throughout the 30-week study ...


Determining The Effect Of Locally Delivered Bioactive Modulators On Macrophage Activation At The Implantation Site Of Different Biomaterials In Rats, Kamel Alkhatib Aug 2018

Determining The Effect Of Locally Delivered Bioactive Modulators On Macrophage Activation At The Implantation Site Of Different Biomaterials In Rats, Kamel Alkhatib

Theses and Dissertations

Altering the foreign body reaction by targeting macrophages has been of interest in the biomaterials field to improve the integration of longevity of implanted biomedical devices. The objective of this dissertation was to study the effect of locally delivered bioactive modulators on macrophage activation at the implantation site of different biomaterials in rats. Iloprost, a prostacyclin analog, was tested for its ability to direct macrophages to their pro-wound healing phenotype after the implantation of microdialysis probe in the subcutaneous space of male Sprague Dawley rats. This study showed that iloprost can shift macrophage activation states in vivo to the pro-wound ...


Evaluation Of A Solar Powered Variable Flow Tail Water Recovery System For Furrow Irrigation, Vaishali Kandpal Aug 2018

Evaluation Of A Solar Powered Variable Flow Tail Water Recovery System For Furrow Irrigation, Vaishali Kandpal

Theses and Dissertations

Furrow irrigation is a very common irrigation method for growing crops like soybean, cotton and corn in Arkansas. A major portion of this irrigation water is lost as runoff from the field significantly reducing the irrigation application efficiency. There are various methods of improving irrigation efficiency and one of the methods is using tail-water recovery. A tail-water recovery system utilizes tail-water recovery ditches or pits to collect tail-water which can be re-used for irrigation. However, this method is very labor intensive and has been found to be economically non-feasible for some farms in the past research studies. In order to ...


Computational Fluid Dynamics Model For Air Velocity Through A Poultry Transport Trailer In A Holding Shed, Christian Heymsfield May 2018

Computational Fluid Dynamics Model For Air Velocity Through A Poultry Transport Trailer In A Holding Shed, Christian Heymsfield

Theses and Dissertations

Broiler production in Arkansas was valued at over $3.6 billion in 2013 (University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service). Consequently, improvement in any phase of the production process can have significant economic impact and animal welfare implications. One area of concern for the poultry industry is thermal stress experienced by the birds after arrival at the processing plant and before they are taken in to be processed, during which time they are left to wait in holding sheds. Various cooling strategies exist to mitigate heat stress in holding sheds, but in most cases it is unlikely that ...


Novel Methodology For Emboli Analog Production And In-Vitro Simulation Of Acute Ischemic Stroke, Anne Preut May 2018

Novel Methodology For Emboli Analog Production And In-Vitro Simulation Of Acute Ischemic Stroke, Anne Preut

Theses and Dissertations

Stroke is the leading cause of disability and a primary cause of mortality, resulting in an estimated $33 billion dollars spent on healthcare, rehabilitation and lost productivity in the United States each year. The most prevalent cause of stroke incidents are acute ischemic events, manifested as blood clots in the vasculature supplying the brain. Current gold standard treatments have improved since 2006 with the introduction of mechanical stent retrievers; however, several issues with the current treatments to acute ischemic stroke remain. Thrombolysis of the clot with a tissue plasminogen activator may lead to weakening the vessel wall and consequently, hemorrhaging ...


Structure And Property Of Polymers And Biopolymers From Molecular Dynamic Simulations, Xiaoquan Sun May 2018

Structure And Property Of Polymers And Biopolymers From Molecular Dynamic Simulations, Xiaoquan Sun

Theses and Dissertations

Natural and synthetic polymers and biopolymers have been studied for a variety of applications in food emulsion, biopharmaceutical purification, tissue engineering, and biosensor. The structure and property of polymers and biopolymers are critically important to determine their functions. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have a unique advantage to explore the structure and property of polymers and biopolymers from the molecular level. In the dissertation, MD simulations were conducted to study the mechanisms of various biological and chemical processes controlled by polymers and biopolymers based on real-world experimental results.

Seven heptapeptides have been screened from a peptide library in our earlier study ...


Nutrient Limitation Of Algal Growth In Fishery Lakes, Madeline Ludwig May 2018

Nutrient Limitation Of Algal Growth In Fishery Lakes, Madeline Ludwig

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study investigated the effect of nutrient addition on algal growth in three United States Forest Service lakes for fishery management in Arkansas. In fishery managed lakes, fertilization works by manipulating algae growth, a basal food resource in lakes, to promote the growth of the fish population. For the nutrient addition experiments, water was collected from each lake in cubitainers and spiked with nutrients; the treatments included the control, nitrogen (+N), phosphorus (+P), and nitrogen and phosphorus (+N +P). When algal growth was visually observed, a water sample was collected from each cubitainer and analyzed for chlorophyll-α. The results showed ...


Extraction And Analysis Of Vector Flow Imaging Data In A Pediatric Population, Bailey Stinnett May 2018

Extraction And Analysis Of Vector Flow Imaging Data In A Pediatric Population, Bailey Stinnett

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Vector flow imaging (VFI) is a new ultrasound technology that provides real time, angle-independent visualization of flow velocities in the heart and great vessels. Thus far, VFI has been used for superficial applications due to the limited penetration depth of available transducer probes; however, this depth in smaller pediatric patients enables adequate aortic views. In this project, VFI was used to study pediatric aortic stenosis (PAS)—a congenital heart defect that results in the narrowing of the aorta and/or aortic valve. The decision to refer PAS patients for surgical or catheter-based intervention is initially based on Doppler ultrasound. VFI ...


Antibacterial Properties Of A Cationic Imidazolium-Containing Poly(Ionic Liquid), Kaitlyn P. Brickey May 2018

Antibacterial Properties Of A Cationic Imidazolium-Containing Poly(Ionic Liquid), Kaitlyn P. Brickey

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Poly(ionic liquids), or PILs, have been shown to have a number of biological applications as ligands, drug delivery vehicles, and nonviral DNA delivery mechanisms. Additionally, PILs have been proven to be efficient antibacterials. Imidazolium-containing PILs have promising results in antibacterial studies, but relating to their chain and charge density, only the effects of mono- & bis-imidazolium PILs have been sufficiently described in literature. The work detailed in this thesis aimed to further existing research on the effect of chain density by controlling the UV-initiator immobilization time. The effects of chain density were investigated by grafting poly(vinylimidazolium chloride) onto SiO ...


The Effect Of Elastin Degradation On The Biomechanical Properties Of Porcine Aortic Tissue, Caleb Nissen May 2018

The Effect Of Elastin Degradation On The Biomechanical Properties Of Porcine Aortic Tissue, Caleb Nissen

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is currently the 13th leading cause of death in the United States [1]. AAA is characterized, in part, by an increase in presence of proteolytic enzymes which degrade the structural proteins collagen and elastin [6]. The goal of this study was to examine the effect that elastin degradation has on the biomechanical properties of aortic tissue. For this experiment, porcine aortic tissue was cut in the circumferential and longitudinal directions. These specimens were exposed to an elastase solution for varying time-intervals and then underwent uniaxial tensile testing. Elastase-treated tissue tested in the ...


Effects Of Gsk101 Exposure On Astrocyte Mechanical Properties, Collagen Production, And Viability, Ethan Echols May 2018

Effects Of Gsk101 Exposure On Astrocyte Mechanical Properties, Collagen Production, And Viability, Ethan Echols

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a cation channel protein which is thought to facilitate extracellular matrix (ECM) modification and glial scar formation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Activation of TRPV4 has been shown to correlate with an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. TRPV4 is subject to both chemical and mechanical activation. This study involved chemical activation of TRPV4 in cultured mouse astrocytes using GSK101, the primary agonist of TRPV4, and subsequent evaluation of mechanical and chemical changes to the ECM. Prior to GSK101 exposure, the cells were seeded into Matrigel Matrix, a gelatinous protein mixture intended to ...


Pressure Acquisition System For In Vitro Mitral Valve Analysis, Laura Peck May 2018

Pressure Acquisition System For In Vitro Mitral Valve Analysis, Laura Peck

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

In vitro testing of the mitral valve chordae tendineae is utilized to aid in the understanding of the stresses that occur in vivo and improve upon surgical solutions that exist for mitral valve repair. This project aimed to design the water control system for a left heart simulation chamber, as well as the pressure acquisition inside the chamber. A solenoid valve was utilized to control the water supply to the tank and was powered utilizing National Instruments software. National Instruments hardware and software was also used with the pressure transducer in order to obtain pressure readings from the chamber. The ...


In-Vitro Simulation Of Acute Ischemic Stroke, Paolo Garcia May 2018

In-Vitro Simulation Of Acute Ischemic Stroke, Paolo Garcia

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a condition that involves the occlusion of a blood vessel within the brain, effectively preventing the passage of oxygen and nutrients. AIS is highly prevalent in the United States, where nearly 795,000 strokes happen per year and 87% of those are ischemic. From a medical standpoint, the obstructing clot can be removed with the use of a stroke retrieval device. However, a need arises for testing the aforementioned devices on a patient’s specific vascular geometries in order to increase the likelihood of a successful procedure. Outlined is a process for developing a physical ...


Comparison Of Varying Tissue Freezing Methods On Murine Colonic Tissue, James Hughes May 2018

Comparison Of Varying Tissue Freezing Methods On Murine Colonic Tissue, James Hughes

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Histology often requires a tissue specimen to be embedded so that it may be sectioned, stained, and mounted on a microscope slide for viewing. One common method of tissue embedding for rapid histology is freezing, since freezing allows tissue to be stored without the need for fixing. Frozen tissue is often embedded in a medium such as Optimal Cutting Temperature (OCT) compound so that it can be sectioned using a cryostat. However, factors such as ice-crystal formation during the freezing process can cause damage to the tissue. As such, the protocol used to freeze the tissue can affect the quality ...


3d Printed Force Transducers For In-Vitro Mitral Valve Chordae Tendineae Force Measurements, Hayley Chandler May 2018

3d Printed Force Transducers For In-Vitro Mitral Valve Chordae Tendineae Force Measurements, Hayley Chandler

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Mitral valve surgery is incredibly prevalent in the United States with more than 40,000 mitral valve surgical procedures annually. Improving the imaging techniques used to diagnose these cases requires validation of 3D models through experimental data such as mechanical properties of the tissue. An essential part of this process for the mitral valve is measuring the force experienced by chordae tendineae. This has been achieved with brass force transducers but using a 3D printed design can have many benefits. In this study, 3D printed miniature c-shaped force transducers comparable to previous metal models were designed and created using Solidworks ...


In-Cage Surface Wetting System For Cooling Poultry In Transport, Ryan Clark May 2018

In-Cage Surface Wetting System For Cooling Poultry In Transport, Ryan Clark

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Poultry health and mortality rates are important considerations in poultry production, as companies can minimize product loss and appeal to a consumer base whose concern for animal welfare continues to grow. Although animal welfare is a consideration for the entire poultry production process, this project focuses on the live-haul phase of the process, specifically during transport from grow houses to processing facilities. During the summer months, broiler chickens being transported can suffer from heat stress that can lead to death. This project consists of the designing and testing of an in-cage surface wetting system to minimize heat stress incidents ...